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their tyrants.

which hurries women into what dis- if it should be supposed, though it pleases the men, debars them of the cannot be proved, that some women virtues requisite to support them un- have been more flagitious than any der the ill treatment they are loaded men, that will no ways redound to with by the men, in consequence of the dishonour of our sex in general. their indiscretions: and for want of The corruption of the best is ever the those virtues they often run very un- worst: and should we grant that in justifiable lengths to be revenged on quality of vices some of our sex have

Thus does it arise, exceeded the men, it must be owned generally speaking, that both men and that their numbers would at least bawomen hoid one another in sovereign lance the account. I believe no one contempt, and therefore vie with will deny but that at least, upon the each other which shall treat the most moderate computation, there other the worst. Whereas, how hap- are a thousand bad men to one bad py might they be, would both sexes woman. But to know whether but resolve each to give the other, that either sex be naturally more vicious just esteem which is their due ! than the other, we must observe that

However, if truth may be spoken, there is nothing but the soul capable it is undeniable that the blame lies of virtue, which consists in a firm rechiefly, and originally in the men. solution of doing what we judge the Since, if they would but allow women best, according to the dictates of reathe advantages of education and litera- son and religion compared with the ture, the latter would learn to de- different occurrences 'we meet with spise those follies and trifles for in life. Now the mind is no less cawhich they are at present unjustly pable in women than in men of that despised. Our sex would be enabled firm resolution which makes up vir. to give the men a better opinion of tue, nor of knowing the occasions of our capacity of head and disposition putting it in practice. of heart : and the men, in proportion Weak as the generality reckon us to the increase of their esteem for women, we can regulate our passions us, would lessen, and by degrees re- as well as the men; and are no more form, their ill treatment of us. Wo- inclined to vice than to virtue. We men would make it their study to im- might even make the scale turn in our prove their parts, and with increase own favour in this particular, without of knowledge they must grow good. doing violence to truth or justice.Their pleasure and study would be to However, upon the whole, if there be entertain the men with sense, and to equal occasion of finding fault in both add solidity to their charms. By sexes, that which accuses the other which means both sexes would be offends against natural equity. If happy, and neither have cause to there be more evil in the men than blame the other. But while they lock in us, and they are too stupified to see up from us all the avenues to know. it, they are guilty of rashness in ledge, they cannoi without reproach finding fault with our sex. And if to themselves blame us for any mis- they do see and maliciously conceal conduct which ignorance may be mo- their own greater faults, is it not ther of: and we cannot but accnse base in them to blame us who have them of the most cruel injustice in less? If there be more good in wodis-esteeming and ill-using us for men than in men, ought not the men faults they put out of our power to to be accused of ignorance or envy in correct.

not acknowledging it? When a woIt would be needless to say any man has more virtue than vice, should more on this subject, if it was not in not the one atone for the other? This answer to some weak people, who are is especially true when our defects are vainly persuaded that'there is a real insurmountable, and when we are dedifference between us and the men prived of means to rid ourselves of with regard to virtue : whereas no- hem; which is generally the case thing can be more absurd. It is un- with most of the faulty of our sex, doubtedly true, that there have been, and ought to merit them compassion and are, many very good, and as many rather

than contempt. Lastly, when very bad people of both sexes. And our failings are only seemingly such,


or at most but trivial in themselves, it claiming or valuing it, shew ourselves is imprudent, malicious, and pitiful to worthy something from thein, as insist on them. And yet it is easy to much above their bare esteem, as prove, that such are the generality of they conceit themselves above as. In the faults we are charged with, which a word, let us shew them, by what can any way affect us all.

little we do without aid of education, Thus then does it hitherto fully ap- the much we might do if they did us pear how falsely we are deemed, by justice; that we may force a blush the men, wanting in that solidity of from them, if possible, and compel sense which they so vainly value them to confess their own baseness to themselves upon. Our right is the us, and that the worst of us deserve same with theirs to all public employ- much better treatment than the best ments; we are endowed, by nature, of us receive. with geniuses at least as capable of filling them as theirs can be : and our hearts are as susceptible of virtue as Notes to the Dialogué of Æschiour beads are of the sciences. We

Nes, called AXIOCHUS on the Fear neither want spirit, strength, por

of Death *; chiefly_taken from courage, to defend a country, nor

Le CLERC. By Dr.Toulmin. prudence to rule it. Our souls are YHARMES, one of the associates as perfect as theirs, and the organs of Clinias, when he called after they depend on are generally more Socrates, was a handsome young man, refined.' However, if the bodies be ennobled by the writings of Plato, compared to decide the right of ex- one of whose dialogues bears his cellence in either sex, we need not name. contend: the men themselves I pre- The Amazonian pillar, near which sume will give it up. They cannot Axiochus resided, derived its name deny but that we have the advantage from a nation of female warriors, in of them in the internal mechanism of the north-west part of Scythia, if cre. our frames ; since, in us, is produced dit be given to their history, who the most beautiful and wonderful of invaded Athens on the south, and had all creatures: and how much have a battle there with Theseus, one of we not the advantage of them in out, its thirty kings. side? What beauty, comeliness, and When Socrates argues with Axiograces, has not heaven attached to our chus as an Athenian, he refers to the sex above theirs ? I should blush character which the citizens of Athens with scorn to mention this, if I did bore for superior wisdom and goodnot think it an indication of our souls ness; as surpassing, in these excel

. being alsò in a state of greater deli- lencies, not only ihe barbarous nacácy ; for I cannot help thinking that tions around them, but the other the Wise Author of nature suited states of Greece. Plato, in his treaour frames to the souls he gave us.- tise on the Laws, introduces Megilus, And surely then the acuteness of our a Lacedæmonian, testifying to the minds, with what passes in the inside celebrity of their good qualities, acof our heads, ought to render us at knowledging the justness of the chaleast equals to men, since the outside racter they bore, and ascribing their seldom fails to make us their absolute goodness, which was pure and unmistresses.

feigned, not to the constraint of law, And yet I would have none of my buť to natuie and the divine provi: sex build their authority barely on so dence. slight a foundation. No: good sense It often happens, as Axiochus states will out-last a handsome face: and it with respect to himself, that, in the the dominion gained over hearts by moment of trial, those sentiments reason is lasting. I would therefore which were at first. received with exhort all my sex to throw aside idle warm approbation, when the mind ainusements, and to betake them- is not fixed in its judgment, lose selves to the inprovement of their their hold and evaporate. Cicero conminds, that we may be able to act with that becoming dignity our na- See Universal Magazine for May ture has fitted us to ; and, without last, p. 382.


fessed, “ that when he read Plato's Prodicus, from whose lectures Soreasonings concerning the immor. crates derived his sentiments, foutality of the soul, he was convinced: rished about 396 before Christ, was but, as soon as he had laid down the a native of the isle of Cos; but taught book, and began to reflect on the sub- at Athens, where he was put to death, ject, all my assent," he said, “ fails on pretence that he corrupted the

morals of the youth.* Callias, whose Draco and Clisthenes, to whom name occurs a few lines further on, Socrates refers, were two characters was his friend; a man, who, it appears of great influence and power at by the mention of him in Plato's Athens, which Draco exercised with "Apology of Socrates," highly valued peculiar rigour.

He lived one hun- the acquisition of wisdom, and exdred and eighty years before the date pended' larger sums than his contemof this dialogue : before this time poraries on the sophists of the day: Athens had no written laws; and When Socrates relates the infor. those which he published were so mation which he had received from severe, that they were said to be Gobrias, one of the eastern magi, he written in blood, and such was their appeals to fables, observes Le Clerc, indiscriminate severity, that they which he himself did not believe, punished the smallest offence as well but which he thought would have the most enormous crime with death. an effect in calnsing the mind of his Clisthenes had flourished seventy friend, He was satisfied with a beyears prior to this period : he broke lief of the immortality of the soul, the tyrannical power of the family of indifferent as to the knowledge of Pisistratus and expelled it; he was those circumstances of another life, favoured by the attachment of the which were unknown in his times, people; introduced good laws, and, Gobrias adopted the philosophy of as Plutarch says, settled a well-tein- Zoroaster, and was one in the sucpered form of government.

cession of the magi from him. He The metaphors of a prison and a is said to have predicted the violent tabernacle, 'under which Socrates death of Socrates. here describes the state of the human When Axiochus, expressing, the soul in this life, are frequently used change produced in his views of death by the Platonic writers, who con- by the reasonings of Socrates, desidered the soul as an immaterial, scribes himself as a new man," immortal principle, which had pre- the phrase may be considered, reexisted before it animated the human marks Le Clerc, as illustrating the body: which, on account of the re- apostolic language, Kaun xluose XX1V05 straint it caused, in their opinion, to arboros, “ a new creation,” “ a new the full and vigorous expansion of the man," as applied to persons converted intellectual powers, they called a from the Jewish and Pagan instituprison; on account of its transient, tions to Christianity. See 2 Cor. v. 17. temporary duration, they, denomi- Gal. vi, 15, Ephes. ii. 15. iv. 24. nated it a tabernacle; and, on the Cicero is supposed to allude to the ground of the evils and calamities of ideas of Socrates, concerning the conhuman life, they regarded this stage templative nature of a future existof the soul's existence as a punish- ence, when he says, L. v. cap. 19. de ment for its sins in a former state of finibus, that “some ancient philoits being: The sacred writers have sophers imagined that the life of the adopted, in part, the language of the wise and the isies of the blessed, Platonists. Peter, 2 Ep. i. 13, 14. 'would be exempted from all care, speaks of the present life as being requiring no provision for the supin a tabernacle," and of his death as port of existence; and would be

putting off this tabernacle :” and wholly employed in intellectual rePaul, who, it appears, was conversant searches and the study of nature : a in Grecian literature, calls this state divine kind of life, and worthy of the of being as existing in a tabernacle," highest praise." and of death as the dissolution of

our earthly house of this tabernac!e.” 2 Cor. iv. ).

• Watkins' Biographical Dictionary. UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. XIV. 2 N

Minos and Rhadamanthus, it is vens, “ is the object of my greatest well known, according to the Grecian care." Grotius in Loc. mythology, were the judges who as

General Remarks.. signed to men their respective dooms in the infernal regions. Plato speaks The Dialogue, of which we have of them in different places, as having given a translation, can scarcely be these high provinces assigned to them read by any without interest. It apon account of the strict and impartial pears, by this discourse of Socrates integrity with which they had ad- with a person in the view of death, ministered their governments on by his conversation with his friends earth. Le Clerc further supposes, before his own death, by the first that these fables should be referred book of Cicero's Tusculan Disputaback to the times when the Greeks tions on the contempt of death, and and the inhabitants of the neighbour- from other remains of the speculaing islands used the oriental language; tions of ingenious and reflecting Pa. for these names have not in the Greek, gans, that their minds, as it was natuany particular meaning and force ; but ral in their circumstances, laboured When expressed in Hebrew, it will be under much anxiety and uncertainty immediately acknowledged, by all concerning the issues of death. Of who are acquainted with that lan- this the application made to Socrates guage, that they are terms expressive to visit Axiochus ip great dejection of the dispositions and actions of men. and anguish of spirit, under the proMinos, if written 17 wlinoh, they spect of his dissolution, is an affecting radical letters which signifies he the mind of the dying man, and to will instantly perceive contains the proof. Though the reasoning of the

philosopher appears to have satisfied urighedwhich is very appropriate have even inspired him with a desire to the office of a judge, who holds of it, yet it is evident that it was prothe balance and weighs all things posed by Socrates himself with hesiwith equal scales. In like manner, fation, not so much as the result of his nantot Rad-hammelh, is lord of conviction as a relation of the lectures the dead; a title aptly descriptive of he had received in early life, mingled the office of Radamanthus, who, it is with much fable, and producing in imagined, determines the lots of the himself only, a general conclusion, dead. The place in which these two that the soul is inmortal, and, on persons preside is called “the Field leaving this state, will be released of truth';" because there the truth from all sorrow and trouble. cannot be concealed. On the same ground, Plato, it seems, fixes this the suggestions of Socrates created,

It is also' to be observed, that tho' plain to the heavenly regions, because in Axiochus, a happy frame of mind, he believed that truth was known the sentiments he delivered do not only amongst the gods. Hence, in bis Phædo, he says, that souls who had appear to have been commonly refallen from heaven were seized with the discourse of the philosopher bad

ceived; for the dying man owns that an ardent desire of visiting “ the Field led him into views entirely different of Truth.”

from what he had before.' And the When, at the close of the dialogue, future state, which Socrates delineales, Axiochus expresses his contempt of is such as would suit only persons of life in the prospect of " going to a a refined taste, of a philosophic mind, much better abode," it reminds us of and an ear for music; rather than a the elevated views entertained by the scene adapted to the mass of man. ancient patriarchs, who, an apostolical kind, as the reward of those who had, writer assures us, “ desired a better in humble and uncultivated scenes, country, that is, an heavenly,” | Heb. fulfilled, with probity, the duties of life. xi. 16. Anaxagoras replied to one Much of the reasoning of Socrates is who observed that “ he had no care drawn from sources independent of the about a country;” “indeed you must hope of another life; namely, from an correct yourself, for my country,” enumeration of the evils accompanying pointing with his finger to the hea- every period of our earthly existenca

and attendant on our different occul- mixing with all their entertainments; pations in life*, which Axiochus re- and when it did so, would as unavoida garded only as the rhetorical decla- ably allay and spoil their relish, which nation, from which death would be we find some of them confessing and an eternal release: or from the idea complaining of. This was the sword of it as a state of insensibility, in continually hanging over their heads which all consciousness of pain or by a single hair; the spectre always. enjoyment would be lost. These baunting their abode *.". The piece, were considerations that at best af- under our review, is, on these grounds, forded only a negative consolation : a memento to us of the excellence they left a dying man to lament over and value of Christianity, which has himself with the moralizing heathen brought life and immortality to light. poet, “ that he must soon leave, for From the spirit and sentiments exerer, wife and friend, and all that was pressed by Axiochus and Socrates, in dear to him; his pleasurabie house ihis death-bed scene, it may be con and inviting gardens; and nothing ceived with what high esteen and gl !. but the dull cypress accompanying ness such persons would receive the him to the grave, his eternal home." discoveries of the gospel, and the eviHere was no counterpart to grief, no dence it affords of a resurrection to redress for his fears and sorrow, no immortality and glory, as the reward compensation for a temporary loss, of a patient continuance in wellno hope of his joys and felicities being doing: a reward held up not merely renewed. In the subsequent part of to superior and cultivated intellect, the conversation, as it has been but preached to the poor; who, tho' noticed, Socrates does, indeed, set philosophy has not entered them into sublimer views, more exhilarating her school, nor science placed them prospects before his frienck; but then, among her sons, may be rich in faith as we have said, not without evident and virtue; and, by the grace of the signs of fluctuating in doubt; of in- gospel, are chosen to be heirs of the ward distrust in ihe justness of his heavenly kingdom. It is Christianity own conclusions, and in the truth which gives confidence to hope, cerof the principles he had learnt from tainty to our faith, and ardour to our Gobrias.

virtue. On the whole, this Dialogue may be looked upon as a proof of the ig- Vol. xull, p. 386, col.2, line 3, for norance and gloomy uncertainty con- thining, road shining boil. cerning a future state, and tire consequences of death, with which the minds of the heathen world, eren The Adventures and Travels, in where the light of philosophy shone,

various Parts of the Globe, of were perplexed and dejected. It is a

Henry VOGE... Translated from

the German. Testimoiy, though I know not that it has ever been produced for this pur- [Coinued from p. 208. ] he apostle's representation, when he ITunes great the university of 'jena

, speaks of Pagans being, througis the in company with many other students, fear of death, all their lifetime sub- and under the impression of various ject to bondage," and " being without feelings. In general, the journey hope.” “To them," as a most valu- from this place to Leipsick was through able writer says, death had a terrible Kamburg. Naumbury, and Weissensound, and could not but be attended fels or Merseburg, because in that with a train of the most melancholy route we meet not only with fine, seflections whenever they were forced level roads, but also pass through (as they were frequently) to reflect

As I bapa upon it. This would be unavoidably penel, however, to have an intimate

some handsome lowas.

friend from Gera, and two others from “The evils of life," says Dr.Jortin, are no where betier described than

* Law's “Theory of Religion," atschines, Dialogue iii, p. 92. 7th erl. p. 36?


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