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thunder-storm, the lightning was con- begun to be cleared away, and several ducted down the rod, and split the rock stalls and small houses removed which into several pieces without displacing intercepted a view of the edifice. A it.

beginning has also been made to clear M. Wiebeking, director of roads the three principal apartments in the and bridges to the King of Bavaria, baths of Titus, which has been most has discovered a method of construct. admired by strangers, and are suffiing wooden bridges, which, in point cient to in part a correct idea of the of strength and solidity, promise a celebrated grottos of Ludis and Arelduration of several centuries. They lio, imitated in the paintings of Ra. are not less remarkable for the ele- phael. The remains of the Temple of gance of their forin and width of the Antoninus and Faustina, and the arches. One upon this plan has been theatre of Marcellus, the portico of laid over the river Roth, five leagues Octavia, the temples of Concord and from Passau, consisting of a single Jupiter Stator, and other monuments arch two hundred feet wide. Another of ancient grandeur, are all under has been made for a large city, 280 repait. feet wide. These arches may be so constructed as to admit of ships of the ancient Tusculum, a quantity of

On digging lately at Frescati, near or merchant

vessels passing through them, an aperture being made ken statue, were found, probably that

arms, vases, human bones, and a bro. in the centre, which can be opened of a Roman consul; and a few days and shut at pleasure. These bridges after another resembling a Roman may also be very speedily taken to

matron, pieces, if it be necessary to stop the.

M. Vincenzio has lately published progress of an enemy; the arch may at Rome, Scientific Letters and Obbe removed in one day, the abut- servations on I'wo Fasciculi of An. ments in another, without cutting the smallest piece of' timber. Upon this tique Gems. He has also written a new plan the expense of bridges horses of the Quirinal have been

Dissertation to prove that the Colossal for a century will ensure a saving of changed in their

places, and that, in 11,680,000 forins.

fact, they were but badly placed at Indies, East.

first. The large Hindoo Temple, seated

Russia, on the road to Chilpore, fell to the M. Tauscher, the botanist, employground on Saturday, Sept. 2, 1809, ed by Count Alexci Rasumowski, was and has since remained a magnificent lately at Sarepta, on the Wolga, with heap of ruins. The spire and its surr- a rich collection of rare and unknown rounding turrets had long exhibited plants from the Steppes or desart every appearance of complete decay plains northward of the Caspian sea, and danger. Only three natives lost the islands of which be visited, and their lives on this occasion, and two there found the lodian lotus. The others received violent contusions. governor of Casau gave M. Tauscher Italil,

an escort of 100 Cossacks, with one Restoration of Roman Antiquities.- piece of cannon, which enabled hina Among inferior objects lately disco- lo disperse a troop of 600 Girgishan vered at Pompeii

, is a large edifice Tartars, collected for the purpose of adorned with columns, supposed to pillaging him. This, it is observed, have been one of the chief public is probably the first time a botanist

has ever travelled with cannon. buildings of the town.

The Committee of Arts, appointed Towards the end of January last, a since the French goverpnient has been dreadful gale of wind from the south. established, have issued orders for re. east came on, when the waters of the patring, with all possible dispatch, the Ochota, (which, after passing through two elegant temples of Vesta and For- the towy, discharge themselves into buna Virilis, great part of which yet the sca) rose twelve feet above their exist between the great sewer and the ordinary level, and above the tops of ancient bridge of the senate. From the houses. Between two and ihree the former the rubbish has already hundred of the inhabitants perished

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in their sleep. A transport belonging to be the shaft of a column exquisitely to the East India Company, carried ornamented with grape vine, &c. into the river by a tempest in 1803, Digging farther, they met with a prowas raised by the waves, and driven digious quantity of remains of elegant into the middle of the town.

columns, beautiful arches, and every

other appendage to the most splendid South America.

edifices, all within a circumference of About the middle of June 1809, two miles. The figures are all decisome men, digging for gold in the dedly Mexican'; but it cannot be true province of Quito, came to an ex. as reported, that some of ihem would tremely hard substance two feet below vie with the best productious of the surface of the earth, which proved Greece and Rome.

Sir FRANCIS BARING, Bart. be adopted on this occasion.

HIS gentleman was born in 1736. wealth, talents, and activity, augment-

His father was a merchant in the ed his favour and importance with Virginia tråde, which he began with a Mr. Pitt's administration.

He was very inconsiderable capital: but his considered as one of the strongest rigid honesty and dexterity in business links of the monicd aristocracy, and having recommended him to some was created a Baronet in 1793. great mercantile houses, they adopted It is well known that the system of his interest, and by liberal loans ena. this country, with regard to all its fobled him to extend the circle of his reign possessions, has ever been that commerce: from this assistance the of exclusive monopoly, accordingly, house of Baring soon rose to conside. when the whole body of English inerration in a city where wealth and ta- chants demanded some participation lents for business are estimated at in the East Indian traffic, Sir Francis their proper value. With parental came forward as the advocate of the fondness Mr. Baring watched over the Company. He insisted that their education of his son, in order to ren- heavy expense and their actual public der him a complete man of business, services composed a debt, to the distill he was sent to a reputable school charge of which an eternal monopoly under a Mr. Colman, the author of of the East India trade would scarcely several mathematical treatises. It was be sufficient! It is needless to add, here he acquired the talent for which that the charter was again renewed; he was most dintinguished; for in cal- and the relief of the body of English culations made upon the spot, admit- merchants, from what their petition ling of previous study, he was cer- called oppressive monopoly;" lefi, tainly considered as unequalled. like other evils, to the gradual effect

Upon the death of his father he was of time, or the shock of some revolu. considered as a most worthy succes

tion. for; and the richest houses, and ihe In 1796, upon Sir John Jervis being most wealthy heiresses at the east end rewarded witby a peerage, and vacating of the town, considered him as a des lois seat for Chipping Wycombe, sir sitable partner, He, at length, mar- Francis Baring was elected for that tied the daughter of Mr. Boston, an borough, and at the last general elecopulent merchant. Mr. Baring, trointion in 1802, he was again returned a proprietor, having becoine a direc. for the same place. tor of the East India Company, in the Sir Francis was esteemed as not less Jear 1784 canvassed the Cornish bo- amiable in domestic than in public fough of Grampound, and took his life. Although of a grave cast of seat in the House of Commons. The mind, he was not without a relish for nation was then just beginning to re- social enjoyments, and was, till within cover from the effects of the Ameri. a few years past, seldum absent from can revolution, and Mr. Baring had the parties and entertainments of his the honour of being cousulted by the friends. The routes of his lady were premier with respect to the means to reckoned among song of the most

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བ་མཚམས་དམ་པའི དག ། ལས་ ཚོ ངས : ཨམི། ཁ ག ་ ལྟག་

brilliant in town; but he rather pre- tion of Minorca, the famous attack on
ferred the more tranquil enjoyment of Gibraltar, and other remarkable ope.
a domestic circle, to those gay: but rations. Having attained the rank of
promiscuous assemblies. His table Captain, he went out in 1788 as se-
was such as became his wealth, and cond in command of the squadron
his solid hospitality was perfectly sent to the river Plate.
suitable to the opulent character of He remained on this station until
an English merchant. His conversa- the peace of 1802, when he found
tion, like his address, was simple; bis himself reduced to beggary by some
great characteristics being method and ill-judged speculations of his brother,
dexterity in business, a sound judg, and he was under the necessity of re.
ment, and an upright heart.

turning to Spain to clajin the rank of One of Sir Francis's daughters was Brigadier, which had been unjustly married to Mr. Wall, an eminent mer-' with-held from him. The Govern. chaut; and one of his brothers was nient having appointed him head of member for Exeter. He was of the the missions to the interior of Mexico, middle size, and very thin, and was or in other words to the country of some time under a difficulty in El Dorado, established by the Jesuits, point of hearing. He seldom spoke be passed two years in visiting that in parliament but on commercial sub- most interesting tract of the Spanish jects, and was for several years in possessions. During this journey he habits of intimacy with the late Mar- had the misfortune to be deprived of quis of Lansdowne.

his wife and one of his daughters, by He died at his seat at Leigh, in whom he was accompanied. Kent, on the with inst. in the 74th On his return to Buenos Ayres, he year of his age, being physically ex. found that war was declared, and the hausted; but his mind remained un- town in the greatest consternation on subdued to the last breath. His bed account of the appearance of an Eng. was surrounded by nine out of ten, lish privateer in the River Plate. He the number of his sons and daughters, had hardly taken the necessary steps, all of whom he assisted to establish by fitting out some armed vessels, to in splendid independence. Three of secure the town from insult, and prohis sons carry on the commercial tect an East India ship of inmense house, and the other two are returned value, the object of the privateer, from India with fortunes. To his five when the expedition from the Cape of daughters, married, he gave liberal Good Hope appeared at the mouth of dowries. He is supposed to have left the River Plate. freeholds to the amount of balf a The Viceroy was guilty of a great million, and to have been the hoider error in politics, that of sending back of more than two millions of ompjum. to the Cape of Good Hope the Eng.

lish prisoners, who had been for a

long time at large at Buenos Ayres, DON SANTIAGO DE LINIERS.

and who had therefore an opportunity "He Chevalier Liniers is the de- of observing the weakness of the

, was born at Niort, in Poitou. At parations for defending it, and in twelve years he was received into the general the whole colony. CommoOrder of Malta, and became page to dore Sir Home Popham baving, the Grand Master. He returned to through these persons, become ae• France when he was fifteen, and was quainted with the feeble sta'le of appointed an officer in the Royal Buenos Ayres, (it being the practice Piedmont Regiment of Cavalry. In to send in time of war all the troops 1774, he went to Spain, and, having to Monte Video, notwithstanding the entered into the navy in the following incessant representations of M. De year, was employed in the unfortunate Liniers, that Buenos Ayres was more expedition, under the command of exposed to a coup de mein, than Monte Count OʻReilly, against Algiers. He Video) was incited by the prospect of continued to serve in the Spanish great advantage, which the atiаck of navy for several years, in the course à place so rich as Buenos Ayres beld of which lic was present at the reduc- out to a Cemmander who was no less

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a good speculator than officer, to reason to suspect his weakness from urge the fitting out of an expedition the fact of his caution. The Viceroy against that colony. The rashness of was satisfied with sending some badlythe project might have been forgotten armed militia to the coast, and sufferin its success, if, after the taking of ed General Beresford to land without Buenos Ayres, the British Command opposition, within four leagues of ers bad followed the example of the Buenos Ayres, on a marshy coast, immortal Du Guay Trouin, at Rio which the English troops had great Javeiro, by accepting a ransom for difficulty in passing through. The the place and returning. But success Leda, of 44 guns, was the only vessel intoxicates, and vanity and want of that covered the disembarkation. It judgment cost England much on this will be obvious that if M. De Liniers occasion.

could have placed his flotilla, on ac“The English expedition arrived count of the shoal water between the in the River Plate. An officer, who frigate and the shore, he might have descried it from a light vessel, brought destroyed, with grape-shot from his the intelligence to the Viceroy, ihe gun-boats, the troops who were in the Marquis of Sobremonte, who was inud to the very middle. But every thrown into the utmost confusion by thing fed before the English. The the news. He ordered M. De Liniers first who retreated was the Viceroy to repair to Ensenada, who observed himself, throwing on the superior that he could contribute more to the officer the task of making the best defence of the town by opposing the capitulation he could. landing with his small paval force, " At tbe time that the English than by removing to such a distance. marched, as if they were going to a He declared at the same time, that he parade, from Barraccas to Buenos was ready to obey these orders, and Ayres, M. De Liniers returned from required that all the officers of the Ensenada, and perceived from a height coast of Ensenada should he put un- two feeble discharges of musquetry, der bis command. The Marquis So, after which the fire inmediately bremonte returyed an insulting an- ceased. He concluded that the town swer, and ordered him to set out in- had surrendered; he immediately restantly, which M. De Liniers did turned and took up his residence at a. under a firm persuasion that all would country-house within six leagues of be lost. · He reached Ensenada, but Buenos Ayres. A countryman, whom Do orders to obey bim had been trans. he sent to procure him information, mitted there. As it, however, ordi- brought him back word that the town narily happens in times of danger, had capitulated, and that the English that the governed have sometiines General had taken possession of it. more instinct than the governors have The first idea of M. De Liniers judgment, every one put himself un- was to set out immediately, notwithder the orders of M. De Liniers. standing the dreadful weather, to cross

"Liniers immediately made pre- the Parama at 50 or 60 leagues from: parations for defending the post with Buenos Ayres, and to proceed to two gun-boats, a merchant vessel, two Monte Video; but on reflection, he light field pieces, three hundred mili. decided on applying for perniission to tia, and a fort in decay. A landing enter the town, for the purpose of obwas attempted, but the English per- taining information of the enemy's ceiving the resolution of the troops, strength, and seeing with his own re-embarked and proceeded along the eyes the resources which circumcoast. ' M. De Liniers sent a messen. stances might offer, and the advantage ger: the Viceroy to apprize bim, it might be possible to derive from that from the number of vessels of them. He dispatched, in consequence, which the convoy was composed, he a faithful messenger to General Bereswas of opinion that they could not ford, to inforın bim, that not having have more than two thousand men on the honour to be attacked in the post board : observing at the same time committed to his care, he was not inthat a commander, who after making cluded in the capitulation, but that, a demonstration of attacking, with with his permission, he would enter shrew without trying his strength, gave the town, for the purpose of seeivg bis children, and settling his affairs. Monte Video, which was corroborated This was very politely granted to him, by the appearance of some English with an assurance that he might enter vessels in addition to those that llock. and quit the town whenever he aded the port;-all these circumpleased.

stances gave rise to a Council of War, “M. De Liniers, in consequence at which the Governor of Monte of this permission, entered the town, Video read the Viceroy's dispatches, where he found the inhabitants in and laid before it the reasons which consternation, and burning with shame induced him to believe that the town at having been conquered by a hand- he commanded would be attacked, ful of troops. They were particularly the defence of which he considered enraged at the conduct of the Viceroy. to be his chief duty; and declared Several plans were proposed to M. De that he not only did not conceive Liniers for rescuing the town from the himself authorised to take the compower of the English. Some of these mand of the intended expedition, but were ridiculous; others too dangerous, that on no account could he agree to He endeavoured to shew them the separate his force. Upon this M. De consequence of such'an attempt. He Liniers observed to the Council, that represented to them that having vo- if Buenos Ayres remained in possesluntarily surrendered, and the ma- sion of the English, Monte Video gistrates having taken the bath of must fall sooner or later, that he allegiance, the insurgents would ex. would again offer to attack Buenos pose the town to be sacked if their Ayres with 500 men; that in case he plan did not succeed, and that even failed in the attempt, the consequence success could not justify the violation would be the speedier. fall of Monte of a solemn treaty; that they should Video; but that if he succeeded both expect their deliverance from Monte towns would be saved. The Council Video, whither he would go to make of War were of M. De Liniers preparations for it.

opinion. “Having obtained all the infornia. '“ Buenos Ayres was retaken on the tion he desired, M. De Liniers secretly 12th of August, 1806a. It is unnecesleft Buenos Ayres. His departure sary to enter into the details, which was soon known, and the agents of the are known throughout all Europe by Government did every thing in their the Spanish and English official gaa power to arrest him; but he eluded zettes. their vigilance, and arrived, after a The complete success of this alvery extraordinary journey, at the tenipt of Don Santiago Liniers (for colony of Saint Sacrement, from so we shall in future call him) was folwhence he wrote to the Governor of lowed by the unlimited confidence of Monte Video, acquainting him

of his the inhabitants. He took advantage arrival, of his plans against Buenos, of it to inspire them with confidence Ayres, and requesting to know if he in their own strengtlı, by devoting could supply him with 500 chosen themselves to obedience and constant men. He was not long behind his practice in the use of arms, which letter, and found an expedition pre- would become formidable in their pared on the plan he had formed. He bands if their docility and perseapplied to the Governor, under verance did not relax. whose orders he was, for the com-- “The enthusiasm with which Don mand of the advanced guard. The Santiago inspired the people of Buepreparations were carried on with nos Ayres, was such that the artisan great activity for some days; the left his manufactory, the merchant Viceroy having written to the Gover- his counting-house, and the lawyer nor of Monte Video that he had gone his cabinet, to learn to handle a mus. to Cordova to collect troops and at. ket, or manæuvre a gun, and to inarch tack Buenos Ayres, and requesting to the sound of fife and drom. Pikes him to send him arins and a few com- and bayonets were manufactured, panies of troops of the line; and on muskets were repaired, trenches were the other hand intelligence having dug, stakes were driven to form been received from Buenos Ayres that pallisades' and entrenchments, and the Commodore intended to bombard the inhabitants were daily exercised

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