« 上一頁繼續 »
are endemial and local Infirmities proper unto certain Regions, which in the whole Earth make no small number: and if Asia, Africa, and America should bring in their List, Pandora's Box would swell, and there must be a strange Pathology.
Most Men expected to find a consumed kell, empty and bladder-like Guts, livid and marbled Lungs, and a withered Pericardium in this exuccous Corps : but some seemed too much to wonder that two Lobes of his Lungs adhered unto his side ; for the like I have often found in Bodies of no suspected Consumptions or difficulty of Respiration. And the same more often happeneth in Men than other Animals: and some think, in Women than in Men: but the most remarkable I have met with, was in a Man, after a Cough of almost fifty Years, in whom all the Lobes adhered unto the Pleura, and each Lobe unto another; who having also been much troubled with the Gout, brake the Rule of Cardan,2 and died of the Stone in the Bladder. Aristotle makes a query, Why some animals cough as Man, some not, as Oxen. If coughing be taken as it consisteth of a natural and voluntary motion, including expectoration and spitting out, it may be as proper unto Man as bleeding at the Nose; otherwise we find that Vegetius and Rural Writers have not left so many Medicines in vain against the Coughs of Cattel; and men who perish by Coughs dye the Death of Sheep, Cats, and Lyons: and though Birds have no Midriff, yet we meet with divers Remedies in Arrianus against the Coughs of Hawks. And tho it might be thought, that all Animals who have Lungs do cough; yet in cetaceous Fishes, who have large and strong Lungs, the same is not observed ; nor yet in oviparous Quadrupeds : and in the greatest thereof, the Crocodile, although we read much of their Tears, we find nothing of that motion.
i So A. F.
i Cardan in his Encomium Podagræ reckoneth this among the Dona Podagre, that they are delivered thereby from the phthisis and stone in the bladder.
- From the Thoughts of Sleep, when the Soul was conceived nearest unto Divinity, the Ancients erected an Art of Divination, wherein while they too widely expatiated in loose and inconsequent Conjectures, Hippocrates! wisely considered Dreams as they presaged Alterations in the Body, and so afforded hints toward the preservation of Health, and prevention of Diseases; and therein was so serious as to advise Alteration of Diet, Exercise, Sweating, Bathing, and Vomiting; and also so religious, as to order Prayers and Supplications unto respective Deities, in good dreams unto Sol, Jupiter cælestis, Jupiter opulentus, Minerva, Mercurius, and Apollo; in bad unto Tellus and the Heroes.
And therefore I could not but take notice how his Female Friends were irrationally curious so strictly to examine his Dreams, and in this low state to hope for the Fantasms of Health. He was now past the healthful Dreams, of the Sun, Moon, and Stars in their Clarity and proper Courses. 'Twas too late to dream of Flying, of Limpid Fountains, smooth Waters, white Vestments, and fruitful green Trees, which are the Visions of healthful Sleeps, and at good distance from the Grave.
And they were also too deeply dejected that he should dream of his dead Friends, inconsequently divining, that he would not be long from them; for strange it was not that he should sometimes dream of the dead whose Thoughts run always upon Death ; beside, to dream of the dead, so they appear not in dark Habits, and take nothing away from us, in Hippocrates his Sense was of good signification : for we live by the dead, and every thing is or must be so before it becomes our Nourishment. And Cardan, who dream'd that he discoursed with his dead Father in the Moon, made thereof no mortal Interpretation : and even to dream that we are dead, was no condemnable Fantasm in old oneirocriticism, as having a signification of Liberty, vacuity from Cares, exemption and freedom from Troubles, unknown unto the dead.
Hippoc. de Insomniis.
Some Dreams I confess may admit of easie and feminine Exposition : he who dreamed that he could not see his right Shoulder, might easily fear to lose the sight of his right Eye; he that before a Journey dreamed that his Feet were cut off, had a plain warning not to undertake his intended Journey. But why to dream of Lettuce should presage some ensuing disease, why to eat figs should signify foolish Talk, why to eat Eggs great Trouble, and to dream of Blindness should be so highly commended, according to the oneirocritical Verses of Astrampsychus and Nicephorus, I shall leave unto your Divination.
He was willing to quit the World alone and altogether, leaving no Earnest behind him for Corruption or Aftergrave, having small content in that common satisfaction to survive or live in another, but amply satisfied that his Disease should dye with himself, nor revive in a Posterity to puzzle Physick, and make sad mementos of their Parent hereditary. Leprosy awakes not sometimes before Forty, the Gout and Stone often later; but consumptive and tabidi Roots sprout more early, and at the fairest make seventeen Years of our Life doubtful before that Age. They that enter the World with original Diseases as well as Sin, have not only common Mortality but sick Traductions to destroy them, make commonly short Courses, and live not at length but in Figures; so that a sound Cæsarean Nativity? may out-last a natural Birth, and a Knife may sometimes make way for a more lasting fruit than a Midwife, which makes so few Infants now able to endure the old Test of the River, and many to have feeble Children who could scarce have been married at Sparta, and those provident States who studied strong and healthful Generations, which happen but contingently in mere pecuniary Matches,
i Tabes maxime contingunt ab anno decimo octavo ad trigesi. mum quintum.-Hippoc.
? A sound child cut out of the body of the mother.
3 Natos ad flumina primum deferimus sævoque gelu duramus et undis.
or Marriages made by the Candle, wherein notwithstanding there is little redress to be hoped from an Astrologer or a Lawyer, and a good discerning physician were like to prove the most successful Counsellor.
Julius Scaliger, who in a sleepless Fit of the Gout could make two hundred Verses in a Night, would have but five plain Words upon his Tomb.1 And this serious Person, though no minor Wit, left the Poetry of his Epitaph unto others; either unwilling to commend himself, or to be judged by a Distich, and perhaps considering how unhappy great Poets have been in versifying their own Epitaphs; wherein Petrarca, Dante, and Ariosto, have so unhappily failed, that if their Tombs should out-last their Works, Posterity would find so little of Apollo on them, as to mistake them for Ciceronian Poets.
In this deliberate and creeping progress unto the Grave, he was somewhat too young, and of too noble a mind, to fall upon that stupid Symptom observable
in divers Persons near their Journey's end, and which > may be reckoned among the mortal Symptoms of their
last Disease; that is, to become more narrow-minded, miserable and tenacious, unready to part with anything when they are ready to part with all, and afraid to want when they have no time to spend ; meanwhile Physicians, who know that many are mad but in a single depraved Imagination, and one prevalent De. cipiency; and that beside and out of such single Deliriums a Man may meet with sober Actions and good Sense in Bedlam ; cannot but smile to see the Heirs and concerned Relations, gratulating themselves on the sober departure of their Friends, and though they behold such mad covetous Passages, content to think they dye in good Understanding, and in their sober Senses.
Avarice, which is not only Infidelity but Idolatry, either from covetous Progeny or questuary Education, had no root in his Breast, who made good Works the
* Julii Cæsaris Scaligeri quod fuit.-Joseph. Scaliger in vita patris.
Expression of his Faith, and was big with desires unto public and lasting Charities; and surely where good Wishes and charitable Intentions exceed Abilities, Theorical Beneficency may be more than a Dream. They build not Castles in the Air who would build Churches on Earth: and tho they leave no such Structures here, may lay good Foundations in Heaven. In brief, his Life and Death were such, that I could not blame them who wished the like, and almost to have been himself; almost, I say; for tho we may wish the prosperous Appurtenances of others, or to be another in his happy Accidents, yet so intrinsical is every Man unto himself, that some doubt may be made, whether any would exchange his Being, or substantially become another Man.
He had wisely seen the World at home and abroad, and thereby observed under what variety Men are deluded in the pursuit of that which is not here to be found. And altho he had no Opinion of reputed Felicities below, and apprehended Men widely out in the estimate of such Happiness, yet his sober contempt of the World wrought no Democratism or Cynicism, no laughing or snarling at it, as well understanding there are not Felicities in this world to satisfy a serious Mind; and therefore to soften the stream of our Lives, we are fain to take in the reputed Contentations of this World, to unite with the Crowd in their Beatitudes, and to make ourselves happy by Consortion, Opinion, or Co-existimation : for strictly to separate from received and customary Felicities, and to confine unto the rigour of Realities, were to contract the Consolation of our Beings unto too uncomfortable Circumscriptions.
Not to fear Death, nor desire it, was short of his Resolution : to be dissolved, and be with Christ, was his dying ditty. He conceived his Thred long, in no long course of Years, and when he had searce out-lived the second Life of Lazarus ;2 esteeming it enough to
Summum nec metuas diem nec optes. ? Who upon some accounts, and tradition, is said to have lived thirty years after he was raised by our Saviour.-Baronius.