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chausen, he was saluted as the “ father tuating practically as are all computed of lies.” Now, on these calumnies, distances at all times and places. The it is pleasant to know that his most close approximations of Herodotus to fervent admirer no longer feels it re- the returns of distances upon caravan quisite to utter one word in the way routes of 500 miles by the most vigi. of complaint or vindication. Time lant of modern travellers, checked by has carried him round to the diame. the caravan controllers, is a bitter re. trical counterpole of estimation. Exa- tort upon his calumniators. And, as mination and more learned study have to the consummation of the insults justified every iota of those state- against him in the charge of wilful ments to which he pledgeil his own pri. falsehood, we explain it out of hasty vate authority. His chronology is bet reading and slight acquaintance with ter to this day than any single system Greek.. The sensibility of Herodo. opposed to it. His dimensions and tus to his own future character in this distances are so far superior to those respect, under a deep consciousness of of later travellers, whose hands were his upright forbearance on the one strengthened by all the powers of mi- side, and of the extreme liability on litary command and regal autocracy, the other side to uncharitable constructhat Major Rennell, upon a deliber. tion for any man moving amongst ate retrospect of his works, preferred Egyptian thaumaturgical traditions, his authority to that of those who comes forward continually in his anxcame after him as conquerors and ru. ious distinctions between what he gives lers of the kingdoms which he had on his own ocular experience (otis) described as a simple traveller ; nay, what upon his own enquiries, or comto the late authority of those who had bination of enquiries with previous conquered those conquerors. It is knowledge (isFogin) - what upon heargratifying that a judge, so just and say (aron) --what upon current tradi. thoughtful as the Major, should de- tion (10395.) And the evidences are clare the reports of Alexander's offi. multiplied over and above these discers on the distances and stations in tinctions, of the irritation which bethe Asiatic part of his empire, less sieged bis mind as to the future wrongs trustworthy by much than the reports he might sustain from the careless and of Herodotus : yet, who was more li. the unprincipled. Had truth been less berally devoted to science than Alex. precious in his eyes, was it tolerable ander? or what were the humble to be supposed a liar for so vulgar an powers of the foot traveller in compa- object as that of creating a stare by rison with those of the mighty earth- wonder-making ? The high-minded shaker, for whom prophecy had been Grecian, justly proud of his superb on the watch for centuries. It is gran intellectual resources for taking captifying, that a judge like the Major tive the imaginations of his half-poshould find the same advantage on the lished countrymen, disdained such side of Herodotus, as to the distances base artifices, which belong more proin the Egyptian and Lybian part of perly to an effeminate and over-stimuthis empire, on a comparison with the lated stage of civilization. And, once most accomplished of Romans, Pliny, for all, he had announced at an early Strabo, Ptolemy, (fur all are Romans point as the principle of his work, as who benefited by any Roman ma- what ran along the whole line of his chinery,) coming five and six centu- statements by way of basis or subsumpries later. Weindeed hold the accu. tion, (παρα παντα τον λοξον υποκειται) racy of Herodotus to be all but mar. that he wrote upon the faith of hearsay vellous, considering the wretched ap- from the Egyptians severally: meanparatus which he could then command ing by “severally," (ixu5wy)—that he in the popular measures. The stadium, did not adopt any chance hearsay, but it is true, was more accurate, because such as was guaranteed by the men less equivocal in those Grecian days, who presided over each several departthan afterwards, when it inter-oscilment of Egyptian official or ceremolated with the Roman stadium ; but nial all the multiples of that stadium, such Having thus said something to. as the schenus, the Persian parasang, wards re-vindicating for Herodotus or the military stathmus, were only his proper station_first, as a power less vague than the coss of Hindostan in literature ; next, as a geographer, in their ideal standards, and as fluce economist, mythologist, antiquary, historian-we shall draw the reader's he introduced to the world a fine new attention to the remarkable “set of author, one Jazon, Esquire ; and the the current" towards that very con- squire holds his place in the learned summation and result of justice Abbé's book to this day. Good Greek amongst the learned within the last scholars are now in the proportion of two generations. There is no such perhaps sixty to one by comparison ease extant of truth slowly righting with the penultimate generation : and itself. Seventy years ago, the repu- this proportion holds equally for Gertation of Herodotus for veracity was many and for England. So that the at the lowest ebb. That prejudice still restoration of Herodotus to his place survives popularly. But amongst the in literature, bis Palingenesia, has been learned, it has gradually given way to no caprice, but is due to the vast de. better echolarship, and to two genera- positions of knowledge, equal for the tions of travellers, starting with far last seventy or eighty years to the acsuperior preparation for their difficult cumulated product of the entire prelabours. Accordingly, at this day, vious interval from Herodotus to 1760, each successive commentator, better in every one of those particular fields able to read Greek, and better provide which this author was led by his situaed with solutions for the inevitable tion to cultivate. errors of a reporter, drawing upon Meantime the work of cleansing others for his facts, with only an occa. this great tank or depository of archæsional interposition of his own opinion, ology (the one sole reservoir, so placed comes with increasing reverence to in point of time as to collect and draw his author. The laudator temporis all the contributions from the frontier acti takes for granted in his sweeping ground between the mythical and the ignorance, that we of the present ge- historical period) is still proceeding. neration are less learned than our Every fresh labourer, by new accesimmediate predecessors. It happens, sions of direct aid, or by new combithat all over Europe the course of nations of old suggestions, finds bimlearning has been precisely in the in- self able to purify the interpretation verse direction. Poor was the condi. of Herodotus by wider analogies, or tion of Greek learning in England, to account for his mistakes by more when Dr Cooke (one of the five accurately developing the situation of wretched old boys who operated upon the speaker. We also bring our own Gray's Elegy in the character of unborrowed contributions. We also Greek translators) presided at Came would wish to promote this great labridge as their Greek professor. See, bour, which, be it remembered, conor rather touch with the tongs, his ceros no secondary section of human edition of Aristotle's Poetics. Equal. progress-searches no blind corners ly poor was its condition in Germany: or nooks of history--but traverses the for, if one swallow could make a sum. very crests and summits of human mer, we had that in England. Poorer annals, with a solitary exception for by far was its condition (as generally the Hebrew Scriptures, so far as openit is) in France : where a great don ing civilization is concerned. The in Greek letters, an Abbé who passed commencement-the solemn inaugufor unfathomably learned, having oc. ration-of history, is placed no doubt casion to translate a Greek sentence, in the commencement of the Olymsaying that “ Herodotus, even whilst piads, 777 years before Christ. The Ionicising, (using the lonic dialect,) doors of the great theatre were then had yet spelt a particular name with thrown open. That is undeniable. the alpha and not with the eta," ren- But the performance did not actually dered the passage “ Herodote et aussi commence till 555 B.C., (the locus Jazon." The Greek words were of Cyrus.) Then began the great these three- Ηροδοτος και μαζων. He tumult of nations—the termashaw, to had never heard that xæ means even speak Bengalicé. Then began the almost as often as it means and: thus procession, the pomp, the interweav

Which edition the arrogant Mathias in his Pursuits of Literature (by far the most popular of books from 1797 to 1802) highly praised ; though otherwise amusing himself with the folly of the other grey-headed men contending for a school-boy's prize. It was the loss of dignity, however, in the translator, not their worthless Greek, which he saw cause to ridicule.

own.

ing of the western tribes, not always there. And in cases so palpable as by bodily presence, but by the actio that of an external sense, it is not difin distans of politics. And the birth ficult to set the student on his guard. of Herodotus was precisely in the But in cases more intellectual or seventy-first year from that period. moral, like several in Herodotus, it is It is the greatest of periods that is difficult for the teacher himself to be concerned. And we also as willing- effectually vigilant. It was not any ly, we repeat, would offer our contin- thing actually seen by Herodotus gent. What we propose to do, is to which led him into denying the sobring forward two or three important lar functions; it was his own indesuggestions of others not yet popu- pendent speculation. This suggested larly known-shaping and pointing, if to him a plausible hypothesis ; plaupossible, their application-brighten- sible it was for that age of the world; ing their justice, or strengthening and afterwards, on applying it to the their outlines. And with these we actual difficulties of the case, this hypropose to intermingle one or two pothesis seemed so far good, that it suggestions, more exclusively our did really unlock them. The case

stood thus :-Herodotus contemplated

Cold not as a mere privation of Heat, 1.- The Non-Planetary Earth of He- but as a positive quality ; quite as

rodotus in its relation lo the Plane- much entitled to a high consideratary Sun.

tion," in the language of ambassadors, Mr Hermann Bobrik is the first as its rival heat; and quite as much torchbearer to Herodotus who has to a “retiring pension," in case of thrown a strong light on his theory of being superannuated. Thus we all the earth's relation to the solar sys- know, from Addison's fine raillery, tem. This is one of the præcognita, that a certain philosopher regarded literally indispensable to the compre- darkness not at all as any result from hension of the geographical basis the absence of light, but fancied that, assumed by Herodotus. And it is as some heavenly bodies are lumireally interesting to see how one naries, so others (which he called teneoriginal error had drawn after it a brific stars) might have the office of train of others--how one restoration “raying out positive darkness.” In of light has now illuminated a whole the infancy of science, the idea is hemisphere of objects. We suppose natural to the human mind; it the very next thing to a fatal im. remember hearing a great man of our possibility, that any man should at own times declare, that no sense of once rid his mind so profoundly of all conscious power had ever so vividly natural biases from education, or als dilated his mind, nothing so like a most from human instinct, as barely revelation, as when one day in broad to suspect the physical theory of He- sunshine, whilst yet a child, he disrodotus-barely to imagine the idea covered that his own shadow, which of a divorce occurring in any theory he had often angrily hunted, was no between the solar orb and the great real existence, but a mere hindering of phenomena of summer and winter. the sun's light from filling up the Prejudications, having the force of a space screened by his own body. The necessity, had blinded generation after old grudge, which he cherished against generation of students to the very ad this coy fugitive shadow, melted away mission in limine of such a theory as in the rapture of this great discovery. could go the length of dethroning the To him the discovery had doubtless sun himself from all influence over been originally half-suggested by ex. the great vicissitudes of heat and cold planations of his elders imperfectly --seed-time and harvest--for man. comprehended. But in itself the disThey did not see wbat actually was, tinction between the affirmative and what lay broadly below their eyes, in the negative is a step perhaps the Herodotus, because it seemed too fan most costly in effort of any that the tastic a dream to suppose that it could human mind is summoned to take ; be. The case is far more common and the greatest indulgence is due to than feeble psychologists imagine. those early stages of civilization when Numerous are the instances in which this step had not been taken. For we actually see-not that which is Herodotus, there existed two great really there to be seen-but that counter-forces in absolute hostility-which we believe à priori ought to be heat and cold; and these forces were

and we

incarnated in the WINDS. It was the rivers, and really find things tolerably north and north-east wind, not any comfortable. India is now cooled distance of the sun, which radiated down to a balmy Grecian temperacold and frost; it was the southern ture. “ All right behind !” as the wind from Ethiopia, not at all the mail-coach guards observe; but not sun, which radiated heat. But could quite right a-head, where the sun is a man so sagacious as Herodotus stand racing away over the boiling brains with bis ample Grecian forehead ex- of the Ethiopians, Lybians, &c., and posed to the noonday sun, and suspect driving Jupiter-Ammon perfectly disno part of the calorific agency to be tracted with his furnace. But, when seated in the sun ? Certainly he things are at the worst, the proverb could not. But this partial agency is assurés us that they will mend. And no more than what we of this day for an early five o'clock dinner, Ethio. allow to secondary or tertiary causes pia finds that she has no great reason apart from the principal. We, that to complain. All civilized people are regard the sun as upon the whole our now cool and happy for the rest of the planetary fountain of light, yet recog. day. But, as to the woolly-headed pise an electrical aurora, a zodiacal rascals on the west coast of Africa, light, &c., as substitutes not palpably they “catch it" towards sunset, and dependent. We, that regard the sun “no mistake." Yet why trouble our as upon the whole our fountain of heads about inconsiderable black fel. heat, yet recognise many co-operative, lows like them, who have been cool many modifying forces having the all day whilst better men were miltsame office—such as the local configu- ing away by pailfuls ? And such is ration of ground-such as sea neigh- the history of a summer's day in the bourhoods or land neighbourhoods, heavens above and on the earth bemarshes or none, forests or none, strata neath. As to little Greece, she is but of soil fitted to retain heat and fund it, skirted by the sun, who keeps away or to disperse it and cool it. Precisely far to the south ; thus she is mainin the same way Herodotus did allow tained in a charming state of equilian agency to the sun upon the daily brium by her fortunate position on the range of heat, though he allowed very frontier line of the fierce Boreas none to the same luminary in regu. and the too voluptuous Notos. lating the annual range. What caused Meantime one effect follows from this the spring and autumn, the summer transfer of the solar functions to the and winter, (though generally in those winds, which has not been remarked, ages there were but two seasons recog- - viz. that Herodotus has a double nised,) was the action of the winds. north; one governed by the old noisy The diurnal arch of heat (as we may Boreas, another by the silent constelcall it) ascending from sunrise to lation Arktos. And the consequence some hour, (say two p.m.,) when the of this fluctuating north, as might be sum of the two heats (the funded an- guessed, is the want of any true north nual heat and the fresh increments of at all; for the two points of the wind daily heat) reaches its maximum, and and the constellation do not coincide the descending limb of the same arch in the first place; and secondly, the from this hour to sunset—this he ex- wind does not coincide with itself, but plained entirely out of the sun's daily naturally traverses through a few revolution, which to him was, of points right and left. Next, the east course, no apparent motion, but a real also will be indeterminate from a dif. one in the sun. It is truly amusing ferent cause. Had Herodotus lived to hear the great man's' infantine in a high northern latitude, there is no simplicity in describing the effects of doubt that the ample range of differthis solar journey. The sun rises, it ence between the northerly points of seems, in India ; and these poor In- rising in the summer and the southerly dians, roasted by whole nations at in winter, would have forced his attenbreakfast-time, are then up to their tion upon the fact, that only at the chins in water, whilst we thankless equinox, vernal or autumnal, does the Westerns are taking “tea and toast” sun's rising accurately coincide with at our ease. However, it is a long the east. But in his Ionian climate, lane which has no turning ; and by the deflexions either way, to the north poon the sun has driven so many or to the south, were too inconsiderstages away from India, that the poor able to force themselves upon the eye ; creatures begin to come out of their and thus a more indeterminate east would arise -- never rigorously cor- the city in the northern part of this rected, because requiring so moderate corridor, (or, strictly speaking, this a correction. Now, a vague unsettled Mesopotamia,) consequently about 200 east, would support a vague unsettled miles to the east of Vienna: but others, north. And of course, through what. and especially Hungarian writers, betever arch of variations either of these ter acquainted by personal examinapoints vibrated, precisely upon that tion with the ground, remove it 150 scale the west and the south would miles more to the south-that is, to follow them.

the centre of the corridor, (or gallery Thus arises, upon a simple and of land inclosed by the two rivers.) easy genesis, that condition of the Now, undoubtedly, except along the compass (to use the word by antici- margin of this Attila's corridor, there pation) which must have tended to is no considerable section of the Danconfuse the geographical system of ube which flows southward; and this Herodotus, and which does in fact will not answer the postulates of Heaccount for the else unaccountable rodotus.

rodotus. Generally speaking, the obscurities in some of its leading fea. Danube holds a headlong course to tures. These anomalous features the east. Undoubtedly this must be would, on their own account, have granted; and so far it might seem deserved notice; but now, after this hopeless to seek for that kind of explanation, they will have a separate parallelism to the Nile which Herovalue of illustrative proofs in relation dotus asserts. But the question for to the present article, No. I.

us does not concern what is or then

was—the question is solely about what 11.— The Danube of Herodotus con- Herodotus can be shown to have sidered as a counterpole to the Nile. meant. And here comes in, season

There is nothing more perplexing ably and serviceably, that vagueness to some of the many commentators on as to the points of the compass which Herodotus than all which he says of we have explained in the preceding the river Danube; nor any thing easier, article. This, connected with the under the preparation of the preced- positive assertion of Herodotus as to ing article. The Danube, or, in the an inverse correspondency with the nomenclature of Herodotus, the Istros, Nile, (north and south, therefore, as is described as being in all respects sx the antistrophe to south and north,) Taparanas, by which we must under would place beyond a doubt the creed stand corresponding rigorously, but of Herodotus- which is the question antistrophically, as the Greeks ex- that concerns us. And, vice versa, this press it,) similar angles, similar dimen- creed of Herodotus as to the course of sions, but in an inverse order, to the the Danube, in its main latter section Egyptian Nile. The Nile, in its no. when approaching the Euxine Sea, torious section, flows from south to re-acts to confira all we have said, north. Consequently the Danube, by proprio marte, on the indeterminate the rule of parallelism, ought to flow articulation of the Ionian compass through a corresponding section from then current. Here we have at once north to south. But, say the com- the a priori reasons making it probable mentators, it does not. Now, ver- that Herodotus would have a vagrant bally they might seem wrong ; but compass; secondly, many separate substantially, as regards the justifica. instances comfirming this probability; tion of Herodotus, they are right. thirdly, the particular instance of the Our business, however, is not to jus. Danube, as antistrophising with the tify Herodotus, but to explain him. Nile, not reconcilable with any other Undoubtedly there is a point about principle; and fourthly, the following 150 miles east of Vienna, where the independent demonstration, that the Danube descends almost due south for Ionian compass must have been cona space of 300 miles; and this is a fused in its leading divisions. Mark, very memorable reach of the river; reader, Herodotus terminates his acfor somewhere within that long corri- count of the Danube and its course, dor of land which lies between itself, by affirming that this mighty river (this Danube section,) and a direct enters the Euxine--at what point? in parallel section, equally long, of the what direction ? Opposite, says he, Hungarian river Theiss, once lay, in to Sinope. Could that bave been the fifth century, the royal city or en. imagined? Sinope, being a Greek campment of Attila. Gibbon placed settlement in a region where such

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