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with greater suffering to the inhabitants if the deserters be from the infantry, as they will be longer upon the road and have greater wants to sup ply than deserters from a mounted corps.

The disposition I have proposed will be an experiment, but one that should be tried, if only for the sake of preventing a repetition of the outrages unoffending people have suffered from those they have been led to suppose would protect them from Indian depredations and domestic violence. It is reasonable to suppose that troops stationed within the vicinity of the placer, with permission to work a portion of their time for their own benefit, will willingly devote the remainder to military duties, for the sake of the clothing, subsistence, and medical attendence furnished them by the government.

They can be placed in tents during the summer, and, with the abundance of timber on the slopes of the Sierra, can easily build quarters before the commencement of the rainy season. It is believed that the neces. sary supplies can be transported by water to within a very short distance of the posts to be established, and that the additional expense will not equal the value of property that has already been lost or destroyed by desertions.

The mass of the population will be in the mines, and the presence of troops in that neighborhood will have a salutary effect upon the lawless and turbulent of our own people, as well as upon the Indians of that region, if they should become troublesome. It is probable, too, that it may have a tendency to diminish desertions in commands that are necessarily stationed at a distance from the mineral region. Under present circumstances, if no other result be obtained than that of keeping embodied a respectable portion of the troops, it will be well worth the experiment; and it is my settled conviction that this result can be attained in no other way.

For the troops stationed at a distance from the mines, a system of periodical exchanges, well understood and uniformly acted upon; furloughs, granted to such numbers and for such lengths of time as may be most consistent with the interests of the service; a liberal use of the provision of paragraph 3, division orders No. 5; and permission to the enlisted men to labor for their own benefit when not employed for the governmentwill, it is believed, have a great tendency to render them contented, and diminish the number of desertions.

The Tulan Indians, emboldened by the absence of many of the male inhabitants of the country in the vicinity of San Luis Obispo, have become more daring in their incursions. Depredations are more frequent than formerly, and several murders have recently been committed; and it will be necessary to establish troops in that vicinity for the protection of the inhabitants. The remarks made above, intended for troops stationed in the vicinity of the northern placers, will apply also to a command stationed in the vicinity of the pass by San Luis Obispo. Mines recently discovered in the Sierra, east of that place, are now being successfully worked; and the troops stationed there, by being permitted to visit them, will be contented. Their presence will intimidate the Indians in that neighborhood, and detachments may be made to punish them, if necessary. Troops stationed in the south might be furloughed to visit the mines, when it would be impracticable for them to reach the upper mines in any reasonable length of time.

I have written hastily, with a view to obtain the general's views upon these matters as early as possible, and, if his concurrence is obtained, in order that suitable positions for the troops to occupy may be selected before their arrival in this country. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

B. RILEY, Brevet Brigadier General, commanding 10th Mil. Department. W. T. SHERMAN,

3d Art., A. A. A. Gen. 3d Division, San Francisco, California.

HEADQUARTERS TENTH MILITARY DEPARTMENT,

Monterey, California, April 17, 1849. Major: I am instructed by the commanding general to enclose herewith a communication for the United States commissioner, which you will please hand him on his arrival. It is unnecessary to request that the commissioners should be treated with all proper courtesy and respect during their stay at your post. You will cause ihem to be furnished with everything that may facilitate their operations while at San Diego, and after their surveys are commenced.

Communications are sent by this mail for the commanding officers at San Luis Rey and Los Angeles. The general directs that they be forwarded by a trusty person, immediately after their receipt, to San Luis Rey, and, if the garrison for that place has not arrived, to Los Angeles.

You are desired to use all practicable measures to prevent desertions, and are authorized to grant furloughs, and any other reasonable indul

your estimation will have a beneficial effect. Secure the public property by paying liberally, under the provisions of division orders No. 5, current scries, the non-commissioned officers and privates in charge of it. You will make reports of the state of your command, and of other matters of interest, as often as opportunities occur. Very respectfully, major, your obedient servant,

E. R. S. CANBY,

Assistant Adjutant General. Brevet Major S. P. HEINTZELMAN,

Commanding 2d Infantry, San Diego.

gence that in

HEADQUARTERS TENTH MILITARY DEPARTMENT

Monterey, California, April 17, 1849. Sır: I have the honor to enclose for your information copies of department orders Nos. 1,112 and 1,113, current series.

The commanding officer at San Diego has been instructed to furnish you with all the facilities under his control during your stay at San Diego, and after your operations have been commenced.

I will be happy to receive any suggestions that may, in your estimation, tend to facilitate those operations. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

B. RILEY, Brevet Brig. Gen., com'g Tenth Military Department. Hon. JNO. B. WELLER,

U.S. Com'r, (care of Major Heintzelman, San Diego.)

HEADQUARTERS TENTH MILITARY DEPARTMENT,

Monterey, Colifornia, April 20, 1849. Major: As it is uncertain whether the supplies ordered to San Diego by the department instructions of February 25 and March 1 have yet reached that place, you are desired, if there should not be a sufficiency of supplies there, to communicate with Majors Graham and Rucker, and obtain from the posts of Los Angeles and San Luis Rey any supplies that may be needed for your command. It is not intended at present to send to the south more supplies than are needed for the commands of San Luis Rey and San Diego; and, in order to ascertain what supplies are already in that quarter, you will instruct the quartermaster and commissary of your command to report to this office, by the first opportunity after the receipt of this communication, what stores they now have on hand.

Captain Kane, assistant quartermaster United States army, has been instructed to send, after the removal of the public property from Los Angeles is completed, to San Luis Rey, the wagons and other means of transportation at Los Angeles, to be within reach of San Diego, if required there.

It is expected also that a considerable portion of the property at that place will be transferred to San Luis Rey, and the remainder to San Pedro, for embarcation for San Francisco, but may be sent to San Diego if it will be useful there. Please communicate with Major Graham as soon as possible, and advise him of your wants in this respect. It will be necessary, after the abandonment of Los Angeles, to send the express rider from your post through to Dana's ranch, instead of Los Angeles, as directed in department orders No. 10. Very respectfully, major, your obedient servant,

E. R. S. CANBY,

Assistant Adjutant General. Major S. P. HEINTZELMAN,

Second Infantry, commanding, San Diego, California.

HEADQUARTERS TENTH MILITARY DEPARTMENT,

Monterey, California, April 17, 1849. CAPTAIN: If it be decided to send the public property at Los Angeles to San Pedro for embarcation for San Francisco, the commanding general directs that you give your attention to its embarcation before acting upon the orders which you will receive from Major Graham to repair to these headquarters.

property there.

One or more vessels will be sent very soon to San Diego with troops and supplies. By communicating with the quartermaster at that place, arrangements may be made for one of them to touch at San Pedro for the

Wagons and other means of transportation should be sent with the transferred men to San Luis Rey, in order that it may be within reach of San Diego, if required by the commissioners or for other purposes. Very respectfully, captain, your obedient servant,

E. R. S. CANBY,

Assistant Adjutant General. Captain E. K. KANE,

Assistant Quartermaster U. S. A., Los Angeles.

(Under cover to commanding officer at Los Angeles.]

HEADQUARTERS TENTH MILITARY DEPARTMENT,

Monterey, California, April 20, 1849. MAJOR: As it is not intended at present to send more supplies to the south than may be absolutely necessary for the commands at San Luis Rey and San Diego, Major Heintzelman, commanding at the latter place, has been instructed to communicate with Major Rucker and yourself, and obtain from San Luis Rey and your post the supplies needed for his command.

Some embarrassment is experienced by the general in giving instructions for the disposition of the public property at Los Angeles, from the want of the customary reports from the quartermaster and commissary of your command.

It is hoped that they will be able to forward them by the mail which leaves your post on the 6th proximo. In the mean time, I am instructed to say that it is desirable, as indicated in department orders No. 14, if there be a sufficiency of land transportation at Los Angeles, to send all the public property at that place to San Luis Rey.

If the reports in regard to the number of desertions from your command be true, the general apprehends that you will experience some difficulty in securing the public property at your post from loss; in this contingency, he desires you to exercise your discretion, with view to the best interests of the service, in giving directions for the disposition of this property.

If the property be not sent to San Pedro, and cannot be immediately embarked, Mr. Alexander, the collector at that port, is suggested as a suitable person to be put in charge of it. Very respectfully, major, your obedient servant,

E. R. S. CANBY,

Assistant Adjutant General. Major L. P. GRAHAM,

Second Drugoons, Los Angeles, California,

HEADQUARTERS SECOND INFANTRY,

Monterey, California, April 21, 1848. GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of general orders No. 4, dated “War Department, Adjutant General's office, Washington, January 24, 1849," in regard to certificates of merit. All the recommen: dations for the 2d infantry that have been received at regiment headquarters have already been forwarded.

I have also to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 16th Janu-
ary, 1849, enclosing certificates of merit for privates Meridith Qualls and
Vernon B. West, transferred from the 4th infantry to the 2d infantry.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. RILEY,
Brevet Brig. Gen. U. S. A., commanding

Tenth Military Dept. and 2d Infantry. Brigadier General R. JONES,

Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C.

HEADQUARTERS TENTH MILITARY DEPARTMENT,

Monterey, California, May 4, 1849. MAJOR: Your communication of the 1st instant, reporting the arrival of the battalion of the 2d infantry under your command, has been received and snbmitted to the commanding general, by whom I am directed to enclose department special orders No. 19, indicating the disposition to be made of the companies of your command.

The camp to be established at or near the main crossing of the Sau Joaquin will be a temporary one; but care will be taken in selecting a dry and healthy position, in the neighborhood of good water and abundance of wood. As soon as the necessary arrangements can be made, a topographical examination of that part of the country will be made, with a view to the selection of a more permanent position. In the mean time, you are desired to collect and report for the information of the commanding general all the inforination that may be useful in determining such a selection.

You are authorized to grant furloughs, so soon as your camp is established, to the men of your command, and any other reasonable indulgen that may in your estimation have a tendency to prevent desertions; and you will endeavor to secure the public property by paying liberally, under the provisions of division order No. 5, current series, the non-commissioned officers and men that inay be placed in charge of it.

It is supposed here that your command and the necessary supplies can more readily reach the position to which you are ordered in launches than by any other means; but you are desired to consult with the assistant quartermaster at San Francisco, and to furnish him with any assistance that may be useful in manning the launches or vessels by which your command is sent up. The men so employed shonld be paid. Instructions more in detail will be furnished yon in a few days.

If Major Seawell should not arrive by the next steamer, the command of the 2d infantry will be turned over to you, and the headquarters of the regiment established in some central position; until then, the interest of

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