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are voters. · But still the exercise of this privilege was not known prior to what is termed an election, the last one in this Territory. I understand this was a hurried' affair, and manageable voters picked up at whatever place found; and this arose from their extreme anxiety to secure the ser. vices of an exceedingly clever man, the Hon. Hugh N. Smith, as the del. egate of certain influential citizens of this l'erritory. Under ihis view of the subject, what will you do with them?
They must become citizens, sooner or later, of the United States; and, if there was a State or Territory to be formed immediately west of the Rio Grande, I should not hesitate to say these Pueblo Indians are entiiled to all the rights and privileges of citiza ns of the United States as mere voters. As to the rights which it may have been designed to confer upon them under the 9th article of the late treaty, I venture not an opinion. If Congress must give to this country a territorial government, they must, of ne. cessity, include the Spanish, and, if there be such, Mexican villages too, that are found in the neighborhood of the pueblos. If the Pueblo Indians are to be taxed, thry are, from their general intelligence and probity, as inurh enritled to select their agents as the mass of New Mexico. But, for the present, unless a Territory or State is to be organized on the western side of the Rio Grande, these people should be subjected only to the laws passed by the Congress of the United States. The Mexicans and the Puiblo Indians have not one ferling in common.
It is a subject of great delicacy; yet I apprehend it is easier to dispose of the tribes of roving Indians than the better and more civilized Pueblo Indians.
In disposing of the "savage" Indians, the most vexatious, troublesome, and delicate questions will arise from our obligations as recorded in the 11th article of the before referred to treaty. At all hazards, and without reference to cost, the government of the United States will, to the letter and to the spirit, comply with our every pledge, and redeem our every undertaking
It is not necessary to repeat to you that, although the Apaches frequently rove east of the Rio Grande, their conceded localities, and the great mass of them, when at home, are to be found on the west side of the aforesaid river, and on both sides of the boundary line between the United States and Mexico, as indicated by the maps, running west several hundred miles to or near the Piwo villages. Here are to be found a majority of the captives to be delivered up under the before mentioned treaty. Here are a people who feed on game, the spontaneous products of the soil, and the fruit of other people's labor. Here it is, the boundary line will present a barrier to the castigations which these Indians should receive. Here
you will find about an equal number upon each side of the boundary line, and alike committing depredations; and it may be we shall be called upon to pay millions on account of the doings of the Merican Apaches, whose bad deeds will be charged to those on our side of the line—the one not being better than the other.
Here, too, the most delicate questions will arise. How are these people to subsist, if you efectually check and stop their depredations? How are you to comply with your obligations under the aforesaid 11th article, without invading foreign territory?
To establish a proper state of affairs in this country, with the economy which the government of the United States should and will ever observe, requires a strong arm, and a prompt arm, guided by an enlightened patriotism and a generous spirit of humanity.
Expend your million now, if necessary, that you may avoid the expenditure of millions hereafter.
The Comanches and Apaches, with all the adjacent fragments of other tribes, must he penned up; and this should be done at the earliest possible day.
If the Navajoes comply with the treaty as entered into with Governor Washington and myself, it is believed the Utahs will ask for a similar treaty. There are strong indications of a disposition to yield upon their part, independently of the course which the Navajoes may pursue. But suppose these tribes continue to withhold their submission to our authority, and to war upon our interest: it will be absolutely necessary to remove and concentrate these people.
To what localities should these wild tribes be confined?
Can the foregoing question be discreetly answered without a thorough knowledge of this country? And can such thorough knowledge be obtained without a thorough exploration?. I affirm that it cannot be done; and without an additional number of mounted troops, such an exploration cannot be made at an early day.
If I had authority to do so, I could make treaties with all these tribes; and they would comply with every stipulation, just so long as you have an arm raised to strike them, and no longer-provided they are permitted to roam as heretofore. But confine them to certain limnits, restrict intercourse with them, and instruct them, and compel them to cultivate the soil: when you have thus subjugated them, and caused them to feel and appreciate your power, then the proper time will have arrived when presents, to a limited extent, will have a salutary influence, in awakening their pride of person, and creating a love or desire for some of the luxurics of life; for, until a man has reached that point, he has made but a slight advance in civilization.
Let it be remembered, the Navajoes have all the necessaries of life, and grow large quantities of corn and wheat, raise immense flocks of sheep and goats, and a great number of fine horses and mules; and rob and murder, and seize captives, because it is a business of life in which they delight.
In reference to the number of Pueblo Indians east of the Mochies, which includes the Pueblos named in No. 5, I have come to the conclusion it cannot be put down at less than twelve thousand, and it would not surprise me if it should reach fifteen thousand. We ventured to guess, while at Zunia, at the number of its people; and no one supposed it to exceed six hundred, all told. It now appears they have five hundred and fiftyfive warriors, which does not include boys under sixteen years of age, or old men. If this be trueand I do not question the fact--the aggregate number of inhabitants in Zunia will reach two thousand; and I have no reason to believe the estimates as to other pueblos are more correct than was the estimate for Zunia.
I do not feel at liberty, at present, to disturb the estimates as forwarded to your office by the late Governor Bent. I will remark, however, it is advisable to reduce the number of tribes, in any general classification which may be made by authority of the government of the United States; for there are a number of fragments of tribes, being the product of amal
gamations, who are not entitled to the consideration of distinct tribes, and they should be compelled to an association with one or the other of the amalgamating parties, and located and considered accordingly. Without alluding to the Indians of the Arkansas, I would reduce all the roving tribes of New Mexico to four-the Comanches, A paches, Navajoes, and Utahs.
It would ill become me to venture an opinion as to the proper disposition of the United States military force now in this country: that duty is confided to an abler head. Bui, as preventive measures, and as measures, too, of a defensive character, allow me to submit, with all due respect, the following suggestions and recommendations:
I repeat the suggestions to be found in my previous letters:
The presence of agents in various places in the Indian country is indispensably necessary. Their presence is demanded by every principle of humanity, by every generous obligation of kindness, of protection, and of good government, throughout this vast Territory. These agents should be intrusted with ordnance and ordnance stores, to be used as emergencies might require, under the direction of a general superintendent; and should be selected, not only with regard to their prudence and discretion, but with a view to the proper training of the Pueblo Indians in the efficient use of our arms.
I design preparing, to accompany this communication, a diagram ex. hibiting my views of the Indian localities, and pointing out the most ap. propriate places for the residence of agents; and from which you will perceive how easily the depredlations of Utahs, Navajoes, and a portion of the Apaches, may be checked, by a proper use of the arms which I have recommended to be placed in charge of Indian agents.
By keeping up a proper line of communication between the pueblos and other places in this 'Territory, it will be no difficult matter to intercept roving bands of robbers, no matter what their color may be, so soon as it is ascertained from what quarter they proceed; and that may be done uuerringly by an examination of their trail.
That I may be distinctly understood upon this point, look at the locations of Laguna, Zunia, Jemez, and other places. Now, the ordnance and ordnance stores, under the control as before suggested, would enable these people effectually to protect themselves against their implacable enėmies; and, at the same time, a vigorous and rapid movement along the line of communication between the pueblos and other points would give them the additional and important power of intercepting those who should dare to penetrate towarıls the heart of New Mexico.
The rough diagram which will be hereto appended will show why it is, with the views herein expressed, I recommend
1st. The establishing of a full agency at Taos, or near that place, for the Utahs and Pueblos ef that neighborhood;
2d. Also, a full agency at and for Zunia and the Navajoes;
3d. A full agency at Socorro, a military post south of Albuquerque, now being established—the agent of this place to look after the Apaches and Comanches, and the pueblo of Isletta, north.
Sub-agenis should be sent to San Ildefonso, or near there; to Jemez, Laguna, and the military post near El Paso.
These agents and sub-agents are absolutely necessary to an economical administration of our Indian affairs in this Territory. It is my honest opinion, that for the ensuing year, at least, a sub-agent should be in every pueblo, the whole to be under the direction of a general superintendent, who would be compelled to have one or more clerks.
I am aware that, possibly, I may be twitted concerning my notions of economy in these recommendations, but it will be by no one who has maturely considered the subject in all its various bearings. Adopt my sug. gestions in all their breadth, especially those in reference to the appointing of agents and depositing with them ordnance and ordnance stores, and properly stimulating and directing the industry of the Pueblos, and it will give quiet and tranquillity to this entire Territory, and materially reduce the now necessary expenditures of the government here. The labor of the country will be protected, the quantity of subsistence stores will be annually increased and the prices greåtly diminished, and millions will be saved to the government that must be expended as at present conducted; and this I say after due deliberation, and without intending the slightest disrespect to any hunian being.
The powers here have neither the authority nor the means to reduce to order, the chaotic mass in this Territory, and the government at Washington has not thoroughly comprehended the diversity and the magnitude of the difficulties to be overcome.
In conclusion, I still think it important to allow a few of the Pueblo Indians to visit Washington city-some of them are extremely anxious to do so.
Commending this communication to your indulgent criticisms, and re. ferring you to the appendix, I have the honor to be, your very obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Colonel W. MEDILL,
Coumissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington city.
SANTA FE, New Mexico,
October 16, 1849. Sır: I forward to you, for the information of whom it may concern, the prioted “ Journal of the Convention of the Territory of New Mexico.”' It is stated that the election for delegates to the convention was held “in conformity with the proclamation of Lieutenant Colonel Beall, civil and military commandant, &c., &c. I have not been able to procure a copy of the proclamation; therefore, one is not enclosed to you.
Before the honorable Hugh N. Smith left for Washington, he informed me that Governor Washington had refused to approve, or rather to recog. nise officially, the actings and doings of the convention.
All of which I submit to you without an additional remark.
J. S. CALHOUN. Hon. T. EWING,
Secretary of the Interior, Washington city, D. C.
[The department is unable to furnish a copy of the journal above alluded to--there being but one copy received, and that having been sent to the House of Representatives.]
SANTA Fe, New Mexico,
October 18, 1849. Sir: It may be important to the government of the United States, undoubtedly important to many of the inhabitants of said States, that the accompanying “table of marches, &c., 'should be made public.
For the “ table,” &c., as will be seen by a reference to it, I am indebied to that liberal and enlightened officer, H. L. Kendrick, Brevet Major U. S. A., who on every occasion, so far as I have seen, or believe, has manifested every becoming disposition to furnish all the information which he could command, for the general good; and I know of no gen. tleman who could surpass him in successfully advancing the general good. With great respect, your obedient servant,
J. S. CALHOUN. Hon. T. Ewing,
Secretary of the Interior, Washington city, D. C.