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the Comanches, provided that Mexicans from either side of the line between the United States and Mexico, and all others, were effectually prevented from the indiscriminate and vicious commerce now open to them, and against which there seems to be at this time not the slightest impediment.
While at Zunia I saw several Mexican traders, who hailed from various places; all, however, on our side of the supposed boundary line between the United States and Mexico. They informed me they had travelled hrough the Apache country from the Rio Grande, west, a great distance, on the Gila river, in the direction of the Colorado. They spoke of the Apaches as good people, who had treated them kindly, which fact is not to be doubted; and although it was true ihat these Indians had a number of Mexican captives, they were nevertheless friendly with and peaceably disposed towards the people of the United States, and guiltless of outrages generally.
So long as these wandering merchants are permitted a free and unrestrained access to the wild and roving Indians of this country, just so long are we to be harassed by them and their allies, the various bands of robbers and other disturbers of the peace to be found east, west, north, and south, and whose agents these merchants may be. It is through the medium of these traders that arms and ammunition are supplied to the Indians who refuse submission to our authority. These traders go where they please, without being subjected to the slightest risk; but one not of the fraternity dare not advance an inch abroad, without risking life and property. Why is it that these traders have no fears, no apprehensions, and pass in every direction through the country roamed over by the Comanches, Apaches, Navajoes, and Utahs, unharmed in person or property, when these same Indians show by their conduct a determined and eternal hostility to all Mexicans and others who remain quietly at home, and whose wives and children, and property of every kind, are unsase beyond the shadow of their own domicils?
The question cannot be answered in such a way as to justify a further toleration of these travelling merchants, who are daily creating much anxiety among and bewildering many of the Indians of the various pueblos, by attempting the impression that the government of the United States are unable to hold possession of this country; that the Mexican government, at this time, has twenty-five thousand troops marching, or ready to march, into New Mexico, for the purpose of reconquering and repossessing the ceded domain; and that extermination will be the fate of all Indians who are found in alliance with or claiming the protection of the United States; and further, if it were possible (illud none but a very wild imagination can think it possible) that the Americans should coutinue to hold the country, the fate of all Indians is fixed, as nothing will satisfy the American people short of the entire possession of their whole country and their utter extermination. To this may be added, the crafty misrepresentations of wicked priests, aided by the robbing and thieving instincts of others, have also continued to give circulation to falsehoods of every bue, for the purpose of alienating these people, and causiug them to believe the Americans were more heartless and untruthful than their former oppressors, and more insatiable in their purposes upon their property than the banded robbers of the mountains.
The whole object of these people is, to keep American settlers out of the country as long as possible; for their presence might lessen the power of some, and throw impediments in the way of others, so as to check their present impositions and frauds upon the Indians, and put an earlier end to their designs upon the lands of this country, in covering the most desirable spots with fictitious grants. I do not assert that all these mischievous people are under preconcerted arrangements; but the tendency of their elforts points to a common end.
There is scarcely a day passes, that a deputation from some one or more of the pueblos does not come to me with statements confirmatory of what is herein stated, and the facts noted in my previous communications; and the question comes up, Qught not soine effective remedial measures to be adopted at once? Before I conclude this letter I will show, wlrat to me is very plain, the measures that should be adopted for the government of the Indian tribes in this far-off region.
First, then, the Pueblos. You are already apprized of the fact, if we in. clude the Mochies, only, beyond Zunia, these people of various tongues, each unknown to the tribes of their respective origins, are to be found in villages ueblos) at uncertain distances from each other, in an extent of country near four hundred miles square. Their pueblos are built with di. rect reference to defence, and their houses are froin one to six stories high, and not one is reached in the ordinary way, except by ladders These and all other Indians of this country send out mounted warriors only; foot soldiers remain at home, and fight on foot only when their pueblos are assaulted.
The rapidity of the movements of all Indian warriors or robbers shows the utter worthlessness of infantry, except to take care of localities and property.
To remove and consolidate the Indians of the various pueblos at a common p imt, is out of the question. The general character of their houses is superior to those of Santa Fe. They have rich valleys to cultivate, grow quautities of corn and wheat, and raise vast herds of horses, mules, sheep, and goats, all of which may be immensely increased by properly stimulating their industry, and instructing them in the agricultural arts. For the reasons, in an economical point of view, heretofore given, the government of the United States should instruct these people in their agricultural pursuits. They are a valuable and available people, and as firmly fixed in their homes as any one can be in the United States. Their lands are held by Spanish and Mexican grants to what extent is unknown; and in their religion they are Catholics, with a certain admixture of an early superstition, with its ceremonials; all of which attaches them to the soil of their fathers—the soil upon which they came into existence, and the soil upon which they have been reared; and their concentration is not ad. visable.
But, in considering this subject, it must not be forgotten there are a few old Spanish villages to be found in the vicinity of perhaps all the pueblos; and the extent of their grants and privileges is not yet known; and judicial proceedings only can reveal the truth in relation to these matters. In this way is the Indian country of the pueblos checkered, and the difficulties in relation to a disposition of thein suggested.
Santa Anna (as Major Weightman, a gentleman and a very intelligent lawyer, informs me, decreed in 1843 that one born in Mexico was a Mex. ican citizen, and, as such, was a voter; and therefore all the pueblo Indians are voters. · But still the exercise of this privilege was not known prior to what is termed an election, the last one in this Territory. I understand this was a hurried' affair, and manageable voters picked up at whatever place found; and this arose from their extreme anxiety to secure the ser. vices of an exceedingly clever man, the Hon. Hugh N. Smith, as the del. egate of certain influential citizens of this l'erritory. Under ihis view of the subject, what will you do with them?
They must become citizens, sooner or later, of the United States; and, if there was a State or Territory to be formed immediately west of the Rio Grande, I should not hesitate to say these Pueblo Indians are entiiled to all the rights and privileges of citiza ns of the United States as mere voters. As to the rights which it may have been designed to confer upon them under the 9th article of the late treaty, I venture not an opinion. If Congress must give to this country a territorial government, they must, of ne. cessity, include the Spanish, and, if there be such, Mexican villages too, that are found in the neighborhood of the pueblos. If the Pueblo Indians are to be taxed, thry are, from their general intelligence and probity, as inurh enritled to select their agents as the mass of New Mexico. But, for the present, unless a Territory or State is to be organized on the western side of the Rio Grande, these people should be subjected only to the laws passed by the Congress of the United States. The Mexicans and the Puiblo Indians have not one ferling in common.
It is a subject of great delicacy; yet I apprehend it is easier to dispose of the tribes of roving Indians than the better and more civilized Pueblo Indians.
In disposing of the "savage" Indians, the most vexatious, troublesome, and delicate questions will arise from our obligations as recorded in the 11th article of the before referred to treaty. At all hazards, and without reference to cost, the government of the United States will, to the letter and to the spirit, comply with our every pledge, and redeem our every undertaking
It is not necessary to repeat to you that, although the Apaches frequently rove east of the Rio Grande, their conceded localities, and the great mass of them, when at home, are to be found on the west side of the aforesaid river, and on both sides of the boundary line between the United States and Mexico, as indicated by the maps, running west several hundred miles to or near the Piwo villages. Here are to be found a majority of the captives to be delivered up under the before mentioned treaty. Here are a people who feed on game, the spontaneous products of the soil, and the fruit of other people's labor. Here it is, the boundary line will present a barrier to the castigations which these Indians should receive. Here
you will find about an equal number upon each side of the boundary line, and alike committing depredations; and it may be we shall be called upon to pay millions on account of the doings of the Merican Apaches, whose bad deeds will be charged to those on our side of the line—the one not being better than the other.
Here, too, the most delicate questions will arise. How are these people to subsist, if you efectually check and stop their depredations? How are you to comply with your obligations under the aforesaid 11th article, without invading foreign territory?
To establish a proper state of affairs in this country, with the economy which the government of the United States should and will ever observe, requires a strong arm, and a prompt arm, guided by an enlightened patriotism and a generous spirit of humanity.
Expend your million now, if necessary, that you may avoid the expenditure of millions hereafter.
The Comanches and Apaches, with all the adjacent fragments of other tribes, must he penned up; and this should be done at the earliest possible day.
If the Navajoes comply with the treaty as entered into with Governor Washington and myself, it is believed the Utahs will ask for a similar treaty. There are strong indications of a disposition to yield upon their part, independently of the course which the Navajoes may pursue. But suppose these tribes continue to withhold their submission to our authority, and to war upon our interest: it will be absolutely necessary to remove and concentrate these people.
To what localities should these wild tribes be confined?
Can the foregoing question be discreetly answered without a thorough knowledge of this country? And can such thorough knowledge be obtained without a thorough exploration?. I affirm that it cannot be done; and without an additional number of mounted troops, such an exploration cannot be made at an early day.
If I had authority to do so, I could make treaties with all these tribes; and they would comply with every stipulation, just so long as you have an arm raised to strike them, and no longer-provided they are permitted to roam as heretofore. But confine them to certain limnits, restrict intercourse with them, and instruct them, and compel them to cultivate the soil: when you have thus subjugated them, and caused them to feel and appreciate your power, then the proper time will have arrived when presents, to a limited extent, will have a salutary influence, in awakening their pride of person, and creating a love or desire for some of the luxurics of life; for, until a man has reached that point, he has made but a slight advance in civilization.
Let it be remembered, the Navajoes have all the necessaries of life, and grow large quantities of corn and wheat, raise immense flocks of sheep and goats, and a great number of fine horses and mules; and rob and murder, and seize captives, because it is a business of life in which they delight.
In reference to the number of Pueblo Indians east of the Mochies, which includes the Pueblos named in No. 5, I have come to the conclusion it cannot be put down at less than twelve thousand, and it would not surprise me if it should reach fifteen thousand. We ventured to guess, while at Zunia, at the number of its people; and no one supposed it to exceed six hundred, all told. It now appears they have five hundred and fiftyfive warriors, which does not include boys under sixteen years of age, or old men. If this be trueand I do not question the fact--the aggregate number of inhabitants in Zunia will reach two thousand; and I have no reason to believe the estimates as to other pueblos are more correct than was the estimate for Zunia.
I do not feel at liberty, at present, to disturb the estimates as forwarded to your office by the late Governor Bent. I will remark, however, it is advisable to reduce the number of tribes, in any general classification which may be made by authority of the government of the United States; for there are a number of fragments of tribes, being the product of amal
gamations, who are not entitled to the consideration of distinct tribes, and they should be compelled to an association with one or the other of the amalgamating parties, and located and considered accordingly. Without alluding to the Indians of the Arkansas, I would reduce all the roving tribes of New Mexico to four-the Comanches, A paches, Navajoes, and Utahs.
It would ill become me to venture an opinion as to the proper disposition of the United States military force now in this country: that duty is confided to an abler head. Bui, as preventive measures, and as measures, too, of a defensive character, allow me to submit, with all due respect, the following suggestions and recommendations:
I repeat the suggestions to be found in my previous letters:
The presence of agents in various places in the Indian country is indispensably necessary. Their presence is demanded by every principle of humanity, by every generous obligation of kindness, of protection, and of good government, throughout this vast Territory. These agents should be intrusted with ordnance and ordnance stores, to be used as emergencies might require, under the direction of a general superintendent; and should be selected, not only with regard to their prudence and discretion, but with a view to the proper training of the Pueblo Indians in the efficient use of our arms.
I design preparing, to accompany this communication, a diagram ex. hibiting my views of the Indian localities, and pointing out the most ap. propriate places for the residence of agents; and from which you will perceive how easily the depredlations of Utahs, Navajoes, and a portion of the Apaches, may be checked, by a proper use of the arms which I have recommended to be placed in charge of Indian agents.
By keeping up a proper line of communication between the pueblos and other places in this 'Territory, it will be no difficult matter to intercept roving bands of robbers, no matter what their color may be, so soon as it is ascertained from what quarter they proceed; and that may be done uuerringly by an examination of their trail.
That I may be distinctly understood upon this point, look at the locations of Laguna, Zunia, Jemez, and other places. Now, the ordnance and ordnance stores, under the control as before suggested, would enable these people effectually to protect themselves against their implacable enėmies; and, at the same time, a vigorous and rapid movement along the line of communication between the pueblos and other points would give them the additional and important power of intercepting those who should dare to penetrate towarıls the heart of New Mexico.
The rough diagram which will be hereto appended will show why it is, with the views herein expressed, I recommend
1st. The establishing of a full agency at Taos, or near that place, for the Utahs and Pueblos ef that neighborhood;
2d. Also, a full agency at and for Zunia and the Navajoes;
3d. A full agency at Socorro, a military post south of Albuquerque, now being established—the agent of this place to look after the Apaches and Comanches, and the pueblo of Isletta, north.
Sub-agenis should be sent to San Ildefonso, or near there; to Jemez, Laguna, and the military post near El Paso.
These agents and sub-agents are absolutely necessary to an economical administration of our Indian affairs in this Territory. It is my honest