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In the county of Taos.-Taos, Picoris-283 inhabitants.
In the county of Santa Fe.-San Ildefonso, Mambé, Pojoaque, Tezu. que_590 inhabitants.
In the county of Santa Ana.—Cochiti, Santa Domingo, San Felipe, Santa Ana, Zia, Jemez–1,918 inhabitants.
In the county of Bernalillo.-Sundia, Gleta_883 inhabitants.
In the county of Valencia.-Laguna, Acoma, Zunia—1,500 inhabitants, Opposite El Paso.--Sucorro, Islettas—600.
Recapitulation_“ Pueblos of New Mexico." County of Taos
6 years Rio Arriba
do. Santa Fe
do. Santa Ana
- 1,918 Bernalillo
do. District of Fontero, opposite El Paso del Norte 600
6,524 The above enumeration was taken from the census ordered by the legis. lature of New Mexico, convened December, 1847, which includes only those of five years of age and upwards.
It is well to remember these pueblos are located from ten to near one hundred miles apart, commencing north at Taos and running south to near El Paso, some four hundred miles or more, and running east and west two hundred miles. This statement has no reference to pueblos west of Zunia.
It must be remembered, too, but a few of these Pueblos speak the same language; and, so far as a majority are concerned, they are so decidedly ignorant of each other's language, they are compelled to call to their aid Spanish and Mexican interpreters. I have not found a single individual in the country who can render any one of the languages of the Pueblos or Navajoes into English.
The protection of these Indians in their persons and property is of great importance. In addition to the obligation which the government of the United States has assumed for their protection, it may be suggested, as a matter of government economy, their property should be protected, and their industry properly stimulated and directed. These people can raise immense quantities of corn and wheat, and have large herds of sheep and goats. The grazing for cattle, generally, is superior, and the reason why they have so few of the cow kind is to be found in the ease with which they may be driven off by the Navajoes and others. The average price paid for corn in this Territory by our government cannot be less than two dollars per bushel; and since I have been in Santa Fe, public horses have not received half the forage allowed to them by the regulations of the army. The exorbitant price now paid for corn and the insufficient quantity grown in this country, and other inconveniencès, may be remedied in one yearcertainly in two years."
For reasons herein suggested, I venture respectfully to say
1st. The Pueblos, for the present, ought to be divided into six or seven districts, and an agent conveniently located in each.
2d. Blacksmiths, implements of husbandry, and other implements, ought to be sent to them. Also, some fire-arms, powder and lead, and other présents, should be given to them.
3d. None of the Indians of this Territory have a just conception of the American power and strength; and many of them think, as we have associated with us the Mexicans, for whom they have no respect, we may not have a more efficient government for the protection of the people here than they afforded to them. Therefore it is I add to the recommendations above the propriety of allowing, or rather inviting, some fifteen or twenty of these and perhaps it would be well to select a few other Indians—to visit Washington city at an early day during the session of the approaching Congress. Unless my powers are enlarged, or other duties assigned me, I may, without detriment to the public service, leave here for a short period; and, if agreeable to the department, I should be pleased to receive orders to take a certain number to Washington city, as one among the best means of securing order and quiet in this Territory.
In January or February we might with safety take the southern route by El Paso, and through Texas, passing by and through the country inhabited by the Apaches and Comanches.
We continue to complain that we are without a mail or proper mail facilities. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Col. W. MEDILL,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington city, D. C. P. S. Since the foregoing was written, I have been informed an arrangement with a merchant has been effected, by which the Pueblo Indians who accompanied Governor Washington in his late Navajo expedition have been satisfied for their services.
J. S. C.
INDIAN AGENCY, SANTA FE,
October 5, 1849. SIR: Since my letter of yesterday's date, I regret to say, rumors of Indian troubles have increased, and received some confirmation by the murder of a Mexican within three miles of this place. 'l he surgeon who examined the murdered man on yesterday says he was shot with sixteen arrows in the back and two in front; that he found arrows upon the ground, and that the trail indicated the number of Indians as unusually large. Several Indians from Ildefonso came to me yesterday, also, saying the Navajoes were impudent, troublesome, and dangerous, and that they were in every nook and corner of the country.
A few moments since, the governor and others of Santa Domingo, thirtyone miles west of Santa Fe, came to give me similar intelligence. One of the owners of Bent's Fort has removed all property from it, and caused the fort to be burnt. Mr. St. Vrain, long a citizen here, every way reliable and intelligent, says a worse state of things has not existed in this country since he has been an inhabitant of it. This fact is sustained by Mr. Folger and others-among them Mr. Smith, who will be in Washington at an early day, as the delegate of a convention assembled here on the 24th of last month to consider of the public good.
The number of discontented Indians in this Territory is not small; and I regret to add, they are not the only evil people in it.
This whole country requires a thorough purging, which can be accomplished only by a thorough exploration of every hole and corner in it. The entire country should be immediately examined and surveyed, and military roads should be opened, and posts and depots established.
This policy would render it absolutely necessary to send out one or two additional regiments, (mounted,) as the surest and only plan of economiz. ing in this branch of the public service; and with this branch, should one or more additional regiments be raised, I should be pleased to be associated, as I have written to you and to the Secretary of War heretofore.
Governor Washington left for Taos on yesterday morning, to be absent for a few days only. I am arranging to leave for Jemez on to-morrow, where, it is understood, a number of the chief officials of several pueblos are to be on the 8th of the present month.
Colonel Monroe has not arrived. No report of troops approaching from the States; and we are yet without a mail. I am your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Merico. Col. MEDILL, Commissioner, &c., Washington city.
October 13, 1949. Sir: For obvious reasons, my communications to the department should have been numbered. To remedy the omission, as far as practicable, is now my purpose.
Since my arrival at Santa Fe, on the 22d of July last, the following is the order of my letters to the department: No. 1
August 15, < 3
September 25, 4
October 1, 16 5
October 5, Will you oblige me so far as to cause the foregoing numbers and dates to be appropriately endorsed on my letters, which you will have received before this my seventh. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe. Col. W. MediLL, Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
• (No. 8.)
Santa Fe, New Mexico, Octuber 13, 1849. Sir: My intention to visit Jemez was announced to you in my letter of the 5th instant, which should have been numbered 6.' I reached Jemez on the afternoon of the 7th instant, and departed therefrom on the morning of the 10th.
In the first place, it is proper to state, during my stay at Jemez not one word of reliable information was received from the Navajo tribe of Indians, who, through their first and second chiefs, had bound themselves, by the fifth article of a treaty, a copy of which was forwarded to you on the 25th of last month, (No. 3,) to be there in such a way as to comply with certain stipulations contained in said treaty. Whether they failed to be there by design, or were operated upon and kept away by the artful misrepresentations of thieves and robbers, and their associates, is not yet revealed. It is a matter of no little import, in my opinion, to ascertain the cause of their absence, and I have put in requisition everything at my command for the purpose of ascertaining the facts in the case. In a very few days, I trust, I shall be able to afford you some light upon this subject.
While at Jemez, I met with the governors, war captains, alcaldes, and other controlling individuals, from twelve pueblos, viz: Jeroez, Laguna, Acoma, Santa Domingo, San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, Namba, Pojoaque, Zia, Santa Ana, Sundia. No information, of a perfectly satis. factory character, can be obtained as to the number of pueblos, the number of inhabitants in each, and their respective languages. . If, as far as it goes, the information in these particulars transmitted to you in my letter of the 4th instant, (No. 5,) and the statements made to me at Jemez by the most intelligent Indians, be correct, there are twenty-three pueblos east of Zunia; inclusive of these, I am informed by intelligent Indians, five use a language in common, without having sprung from a common tribe. Two of these are near Taos, two near Albuquerque, and one below El Paso. There are six who have a common language, peculiar to them. selves, and altogether unknown to others. To seven others the same re. marks are applicable, as their language differs from all others. Jemez has its owu peculiar language, and so has Zunia. In relation to the languages of the pueblos of Gleta, Socorro, and Seneca, I have found no one who could give me information upon the subject.
It must be remembered, the Indians using the same language are not confined to the same section of country. For instance, of the five pueblos first spoken of, Taos and Picoris are near Taos, seventy-five miles north of Santa Fe; Sundia and Isletta are from sixty to eighty miles south of. Santa Fe; and another Isletta, near El Paso, more than four hundred miles from the two first named. All the others lie between the extremes men: tioned, ruuning west about two hundred miles.
The Indians informed me at Jemez there were seven pueblos of Moques, six having a language of their own, and differing from all others, and one the language of the six first before mentioned.
The best intormation I could obtain in relation to these people induces me to locate them about one hundred miles west of Zunia, in an excellent country, through which a road must run to the Pacific. Indeed, it is
said a large number of emigrants selected that route this season. They are supposed to be decidedly pacific in their character, opposed to all wars, quite honest, and very industrious. It is said, in years gone by, these Indians abandoned a village because its soil had been stained with the blood of a human being. I deeply regret that I have not been able to visit these and all other pueblos in this country, that I might be able to Jay before you information of a character more precise and accurate.
The Indians at Jemez, with one voice, renewed their complaints of gross wrongs to which they have been compelled to submit; and they are such, too, as require immediate remedial measures. The lawlessness, the outrages of roving associnions, comprising all colors and dialecis, cannot be seen, and felt, and appreciated in Washington as the truth would sanction. And even here, so much of it comes to our knowledge, we become more indifferent to our own possible fate every day.
But a short time since, a band said to be commanded by an Englishman, well known in Santa Fe, ordered, in the name of the United States, he pueblo of Laguna to furnish them with twenty-five horses, and to call upon the quartermaster in Santa Fe for payment. The order was promptly obeyed, and the Indians do not yet understand the contrivance by which they lost their horses.
The frauds and impositions of certain alcaldes, unknown to their laws, ought not to be endured, if their various statements are correct; and these Indians have not given me one reason to question their veracity.
It is a matter of no moment whether an Indian is in debt or not; a judg. ment can be obtained against him, which must be paid in cash, or the spirit of the 6th article of the ordinance of 1787 is immediately violated.
Again: the prefects, who, to some extent, govern each a district, the alcaldes being subordinate, and their jurisdictions, so far as the Indians are concerned, confined to the puebloś to which they are appointed, do not, in my opinion, use their authority, whatever it may be, without abusing it. Contributions upon their labor and property are frequently made by the law, or laws, which alcaldes and prefects manufacture to suit the occasion. Many facts of this character were mentioned to me, that it is useless to record for your reading.
There are clever alcaldes and prefects in this Territory, who are not to be subjected to the above condemnatory suggestions.
To understand the condition of these people, it must not be forgotten they hold possession of the lands which they occupy and till by special grants from the government of Spain or Mexico.
The extent of these grants is not well understood here.
Checkered throughout the whole country of which I have any knowledge, old Spanish villages are yet to be found, inhabited by a prying people almost in utter seclusion. The extent of the grants and privileges to the proprietors of these villages is not yet known; and the spurious claims will be in proper form in time to meet the legislation of the Congress of the United States.
Let me add, these Pueblo Indians pride themselves upon their Catholicism, without having abandoned the queer ceremonials of a very remote and superstitious parentage, and they make no prisoners in war.
To the Indians of Jemez I explained the relation in which they stood to the United States, and to the powers controlling in New Mexico. They were made to comprehend the laws enacted by Congress