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Such agents should be continued at each pueblo for the next year or two.
5th. Unless this be done, emigrants and others claiming to be officers of the United States will disaffect these people by their lawless conduct.
6th. It is but fair to presume that in a year or two such improvements in public morals will take place as to justify the discontinuance of most of the agencies that ought now to be in existence in each pueblo. Just at this moment the Pueblo Indians (in number 54) who accompanied Governor Washington in his expedition against the Navajoes are complaining that they are not paid for their services. In New Mexico a better population than these Pueblo Indians cannot be found, and they must be treated with great delicacy. The slightest disappointment in their expectations, no matter how created, they regard as a deliberate deceit practised upon them. If properly cared for and instructed, in all Indian wars these Pueblos would be very important auxiliaries. Even now, notwithstanding the discontent mentioned above, at least two hundred of them could be readily raised for mounted service; and, if I had the military command of this Territory, I should regard them as necessary adjuncts.
In compliance with one of the stipulations of the treaty entered into by Governor Washington with the Navajoes, they are to deliver at Jeinez, on the ninth of next month, certain captives and stolen property. Although they have delivered to us sheep, horses, mules, and captives, as an earnest of their intentions, we do not feel confident that they will comply with the terms of the treaty. They may not be there at the time. And on the occasion alluded to, the governors, captains, and alcaldes of most of the pueblos east and north of Moques, it is supposed, will be at Jemez. It is my intention to be there too, and, if permitted, what shall then and there occur shall be imniediately thereafter reported to you.
The mail leaves to-morrow morning, and I have not been able to-day to complete the labor that belongs to my position, nor have I been able to revise with care what I have caused to be recorded in the foregoing pages.
It is sincerely hoped I may yet, and in due time, cure my omissions of to-day. No opportunity for the transmission of intelligence shall pass me by without my advising you of my actings and doings, and my where. abouts. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Sunta Fe, New Merico. Colonel MEDILL,
Commissioner of Indian Affuirs, Washington city, D. C.
Indian AGENCY, Santa Fe, New Mexico,
October 4, 1849. Sir: Without having recovered from the prostration occasioned, as I suppose, by the occupancy of a room more confined than I have been accustomed to of late, I will attempt to-day to cure some of the omissions which you will have noted in my communication of the first of the present month.
It is with pleasure I bring to your notice several Indians from different pueblos, who accompanied Governor Washington in his late expedition
against the Navajoes. They, as a matter of course, know but little if anything about the military discipline of the United States; yet their depostment and bearing were such as to justify high expectalions of their effectiveness in expeditions against their implacable enemies, the wild tribes of New Mexico.
Of the fifty-four Pueblos with us, the following-named Indians were the most prominent and influential:
From Jemez.- Francisco Soste, civil governor and alcalde.
Hosea Beheale, selected captain to command all the Indians engaged in the expedition. This excellent man is without official position in the pueblo to which he beloags, and there are but few who have such a decided influence over these people generally.
Zia.- Francisco, war captain.
These men are all deserving of favorable consideration. When they were about to part with us to return to their homes, occasion was seized to compliment them upon their gallantry and general good conduct, which was received with lively demonstrations of gratification, and an expression of the desire that the President of the United States should be made acquainted with the estimate in which we held them as men and as soldiers.
In this connexion, I may be pardoned, I trust, for commending, in terms of decided praise, Henry Linn Dodge, captain commanding a volunteer company, also with us in the late Navajo expedition. He was at all times efficient and prompt, and commanded the admiration of Governor Washington, as well as others. If I mistake not, Captain Dodge has a father and brother now senators in Congress.
It may be useless to add, the officers and soldiers fully sustained the character of the American army.
Zunia is an isolated Indian pueblo, one hundred and six miles from the cañon of Cheille, (or Chey,) and eighty-eight miles west of Laguna. At Zunia we met with its governor, Pedro Piero; the captain of war, Salvadore; and the alcalde, Mariana Vaca; all intelligent men. Indeed, the citizens of this pueblo, it is believed, are, in every sense of the word, excellent people, and ought to be immediately protected as well against the lawless conduct of emigrants and others, as against the treacherous Navajoes.
At Laguna the men were out gathering pine moss. Martio Conchi, the alcalde, was at home, and did the honors of the pueblo, and manifested every disposition to oblige us. This village, and another some ten or fifteen miles to its south, (Ăcoma,) from their locations, will continue to suffer gross wrongs, until they are protected by the laws of the United States and the presence of an agent.
I have been kindly furnished with the following statement by the Hon. Joab Houghton, one of the supreme judges of this Territory. If the number of Indians in each pueblo was accurately ascertained, I am of the opinion, from actual examinations in the villages I have visited, the aggregate would be more than ten thousand. Be that as it may, it is desirable to know their entire, strength, and this cannot be done until agencies are duly established.
The pueblos or civilized towns of Indians of the Territory of New Mexi. co are the following:
In the county of Taos.-Taos, Picoris-283 inhabitants.
In the county of Santa Fe.-San Ildefonso, Mambé, Pojoaque, Tezu. que_590 inhabitants.
In the county of Santa Ana.—Cochiti, Santa Domingo, San Felipe, Santa Ana, Zia, Jemez–1,918 inhabitants.
In the county of Bernalillo.-Sundia, Gleta_883 inhabitants.
In the county of Valencia.-Laguna, Acoma, Zunia—1,500 inhabitants, Opposite El Paso.--Sucorro, Islettas—600.
Recapitulation_“ Pueblos of New Mexico." County of Taos
6 years Rio Arriba
do. Santa Fe
do. Santa Ana
- 1,918 Bernalillo
do. District of Fontero, opposite El Paso del Norte 600
6,524 The above enumeration was taken from the census ordered by the legis. lature of New Mexico, convened December, 1847, which includes only those of five years of age and upwards.
It is well to remember these pueblos are located from ten to near one hundred miles apart, commencing north at Taos and running south to near El Paso, some four hundred miles or more, and running east and west two hundred miles. This statement has no reference to pueblos west of Zunia.
It must be remembered, too, but a few of these Pueblos speak the same language; and, so far as a majority are concerned, they are so decidedly ignorant of each other's language, they are compelled to call to their aid Spanish and Mexican interpreters. I have not found a single individual in the country who can render any one of the languages of the Pueblos or Navajoes into English.
The protection of these Indians in their persons and property is of great importance. In addition to the obligation which the government of the United States has assumed for their protection, it may be suggested, as a matter of government economy, their property should be protected, and their industry properly stimulated and directed. These people can raise immense quantities of corn and wheat, and have large herds of sheep and goats. The grazing for cattle, generally, is superior, and the reason why they have so few of the cow kind is to be found in the ease with which they may be driven off by the Navajoes and others. The average price paid for corn in this Territory by our government cannot be less than two dollars per bushel; and since I have been in Santa Fe, public horses have not received half the forage allowed to them by the regulations of the army. The exorbitant price now paid for corn and the insufficient quantity grown in this country, and other inconveniencès, may be remedied in one yearcertainly in two years."
For reasons herein suggested, I venture respectfully to say
1st. The Pueblos, for the present, ought to be divided into six or seven districts, and an agent conveniently located in each.
2d. Blacksmiths, implements of husbandry, and other implements, ought to be sent to them. Also, some fire-arms, powder and lead, and other présents, should be given to them.
3d. None of the Indians of this Territory have a just conception of the American power and strength; and many of them think, as we have associated with us the Mexicans, for whom they have no respect, we may not have a more efficient government for the protection of the people here than they afforded to them. Therefore it is I add to the recommendations above the propriety of allowing, or rather inviting, some fifteen or twenty of these and perhaps it would be well to select a few other Indians—to visit Washington city at an early day during the session of the approaching Congress. Unless my powers are enlarged, or other duties assigned me, I may, without detriment to the public service, leave here for a short period; and, if agreeable to the department, I should be pleased to receive orders to take a certain number to Washington city, as one among the best means of securing order and quiet in this Territory.
In January or February we might with safety take the southern route by El Paso, and through Texas, passing by and through the country inhabited by the Apaches and Comanches.
We continue to complain that we are without a mail or proper mail facilities. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Col. W. MEDILL,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington city, D. C. P. S. Since the foregoing was written, I have been informed an arrangement with a merchant has been effected, by which the Pueblo Indians who accompanied Governor Washington in his late Navajo expedition have been satisfied for their services.
J. S. C.
INDIAN AGENCY, SANTA FE,
October 5, 1849. SIR: Since my letter of yesterday's date, I regret to say, rumors of Indian troubles have increased, and received some confirmation by the murder of a Mexican within three miles of this place. 'l he surgeon who examined the murdered man on yesterday says he was shot with sixteen arrows in the back and two in front; that he found arrows upon the ground, and that the trail indicated the number of Indians as unusually large. Several Indians from Ildefonso came to me yesterday, also, saying the Navajoes were impudent, troublesome, and dangerous, and that they were in every nook and corner of the country.
A few moments since, the governor and others of Santa Domingo, thirtyone miles west of Santa Fe, came to give me similar intelligence. One of the owners of Bent's Fort has removed all property from it, and caused the fort to be burnt. Mr. St. Vrain, long a citizen here, every way reliable and intelligent, says a worse state of things has not existed in this country since he has been an inhabitant of it. This fact is sustained by Mr. Folger and others-among them Mr. Smith, who will be in Washington at an early day, as the delegate of a convention assembled here on the 24th of last month to consider of the public good.
The number of discontented Indians in this Territory is not small; and I regret to add, they are not the only evil people in it.
This whole country requires a thorough purging, which can be accomplished only by a thorough exploration of every hole and corner in it. The entire country should be immediately examined and surveyed, and military roads should be opened, and posts and depots established.
This policy would render it absolutely necessary to send out one or two additional regiments, (mounted,) as the surest and only plan of economiz. ing in this branch of the public service; and with this branch, should one or more additional regiments be raised, I should be pleased to be associated, as I have written to you and to the Secretary of War heretofore.
Governor Washington left for Taos on yesterday morning, to be absent for a few days only. I am arranging to leave for Jemez on to-morrow, where, it is understood, a number of the chief officials of several pueblos are to be on the 8th of the present month.
Colonel Monroe has not arrived. No report of troops approaching from the States; and we are yet without a mail. I am your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Merico. Col. MEDILL, Commissioner, &c., Washington city.
October 13, 1949. Sir: For obvious reasons, my communications to the department should have been numbered. To remedy the omission, as far as practicable, is now my purpose.
Since my arrival at Santa Fe, on the 22d of July last, the following is the order of my letters to the department: No. 1
August 15, < 3
September 25, 4
October 1, 16 5
October 5, Will you oblige me so far as to cause the foregoing numbers and dates to be appropriately endorsed on my letters, which you will have received before this my seventh. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe. Col. W. MediLL, Commissioner of Indian Affairs.