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was necessary to address separate papers to each bureau, for arms, &c., rations, and transportation. I have done so in general terms. I have only to inquire whether it would be improper to cause orders to issue in general terms to the proper officers to furnish arms, transportation, and rations upon my requisition to such only as should be present.
I hope to hear from you at St. Louis.
JAMES S. CALHOUN.
Washington city, D. C.
28 MILES WEST OF FORT LEAVENWORTH,
May 24, 1849. SIR: I write only to repeat what I addressed to you two or three days ago, that we are still halted at this point, awaiting orders from General Brooke, from whom we have no certain intelligence as to his arrival; and when he does arrive, in consequence of the feebleness of our oxen, our progress must be slow. For obvious reasons, this state of things is to be regretted; for I apprehend it is important that I should be at Santa Fe at the earliest practicable moment. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
J. S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe. To the COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
This note was written to the Secretary of the Interior before I remembered it should be addressed to you.
IN CAMP NEAR Santa Fe,
July 29, 1849. Sir: You are already advised of my departure from Fort Leavenworth on the 16th of May, and I have now to inform you that we reached Santa Fe on the 22d of the present month, having been employed in marching forty-nine days-our halting days numbering nineteen, a greater portion of which was six miles west of Kaw river, in obedience to an order issued by General Brooke to Colonel Alexander, commanding the troops. This, you will perceive, is the eighth day in camp at this place, not having been able to procure quarters elsewhere. I have the promise, however, of an adobe building at the enormous rent of $100 per month, to which an additional expenditure must be made to Americanize it, so that it may be inhabited with any degree of comfort. This excessive rent I was compelled to submit to, or remain in camp. All the buildings in Santa Fe are of mud, with floors and coverings for the roof of the same material. Until our government established a saw-mill near this place, sawed lumber could not be had at any price; since then it has been sold as high as $80 per thousand:
The foregoing statement of facts is submitted to the department to explain the apparent tardiness of my movements, and the extravagant, if not unusual and unreasonable expenditures to be incurred, and altogether unavoidable in Santa Fe. Before the meeting of the ensuing Congress I hope to be able to communicate to the department information more precise and in detail on this subject. While en route, and during the few days I have been in camp here, I have omitted no opportunity that has offered to procure such information as might enable me to execute discreetly the important trusts confided to me by the President of the United States. The obstacles to be overcome in adjusting our Indian relations in New Mexico and its borders are of a much more formidable character than has been anticipated. At and near the Arkansas crossing we found seve. ral thousand Indians of various tribes assembled, awaiting the return of Mr. Fitzpatrick from Washington. Their expectations in relation to presents to be received by them, on the return of Mr. Fitzpatrick, were so extravagant as to cause emigrants and others to have fearful apprehensions on account of those who were expected to be on the plains after the 15th of July, the day named by the Indians for the return of Mr. Fitzpatrick. Being ignorant of Mr. Fitzpatrick's authority to enter into stipulations with these Indians, and his means to quiet their expectations, I did not feel at liberty to communicate with them in any official capacity. The Arapahoes, Cheyennes, Kioways, Comanches, and Utahs were the principal tribes in lodges at the Arkansas crossing It will be readily perceived, if it were practicable at this time to visit the tribes in this Territory and in its borders, the influence which a government agent should exercise over beings guided chiefly by animal instincts would be completely ineffective, were I to attempt it, without definite information in relation to what Mr. Fitzpatrick may have accomplished.
Without visiting them, the information, precise and definite, which I am instructed to lay before the department, cannot be accurately gathered. Yet the nearest possible and reliable approximation shall be transmitted at an early day.
The Pueblo Indians, it is believed, are entitled to the early and especial consideration of the government of the United States. They are the only tribe in perfect amity with the government, and are an industrious, agricultural, and pastoral people, living principally in villages, ranging north and west of Taos south, on both sides of the Rio Grande, more than 250 miles. By a Mexican statute, these people, as I am informed by Judge Houghton, of Santa Fe, to whom I am greatly indebted for much valuable information, were constituted citizens of the republic of Mexico, granting to all of mature age, who could read and write, the privilege of voting. But this statute has had no practical operation. Since the occupancy of this Territory by the government of the United States, the territorial legislature of 1847 passed the following act, which is now in force:
" Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico:
“ Section 1, That the inhabitants within the Territory of New Mexico known by the name of Pueblo Indians, and living in towns or villages built on-lands granted to such Indians by the laws of Spain or Mexico, and con. ceding to such inhabitants certain land and privileges, to be used for the common benefit, are severally hereby created and constituted bodies politic and corporate, and shall be known in law by the name of the 'Pueblo,' &c., (naming it,) and by that name they and their successors shall have perpetual succession, sue and be sued,”' &c., &c.
These Indians are anxious to have schools established amongst them, and to receive agricultural information, which, if granted on a liberal scale, could not fail to produce marked and beneficial results, not only upon them, but upon all the tribes of the Territory. So soon as it may be attempted with propriety, it is my intention to visit the principal villages of this tribe, that I may from personal observation ascertain their true state and condition, and from them glean such information as they may be able to afford in relation to other tribes. At present, it is the opinion of Colonel Washington, the military commander of this division, that any attempt to conciliate the tribes who have caused the recent and present troubles in this Territory would have a very injurious tendency. The Indians, presuming upon their knowledge of safe retreats in the mountains, and our entire ignorance of all avenues except established military roads and well-known trails, are not to be subjected to just restraints until they are properly chastised. When they shall feel themselves so chastised, they will sue for peace; and it is respectfully suggested that the government of the United States ought to be prepared to meet them without delay. It may not be amiss to invite, for a moment, the attention of the department to perhaps the very gravest subject connected with our Indian affairs in this Territory.
There are wandering tribes, who have never cultivated the soil, and have supported themselves alone by depredations. This is the only labor known to them. The thought of annihilating these Indians cannot be entertained by an American public; nor can the Indians abandon their predatory incursions, and live and learn to support themselves by the sweat of their own brows, unsustained by a liberal philanthropy. This subject, I humbly conceive, should engage the earnest and early consideration of the Congress of the United States; for it is respectfully submitted, that no earthly power can prevent robberies and murders, unless the hungry wants of these people are provided for, both physically and mentally. I an, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent. Colonel MediLL, Commissioner, &c.
SANTA FE, New Mexico,
August 15, 1849. Sir: I had hoped by the mail of to-day to have transmitted to you some agreeable intelligence. The Utah Indians promised to come in for the purpose of suing for peace. They have disappointed us. On to-morrow we leave for the Navajo territory, intending to return by way of the Utah country
The Indians, generally, are in bad temper. The number of troops is not sufficient here to keep upon them a proper check; and infantry are useful only to protect posts, stations, and property. Mounted troops are the only military arm of this country that can be effectively used against the Indian tribes of this remote region. Colonel Washington goes in person in command of the expedition. With great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe. Colonel W. MEDILL,
Commissioner, fc., &c.
SANTA FE, NEw MEXICO,
September 25, 1849. Sir: With this note I transmit to you a copy of a treaty, the character of which will be elucidated by a reference to it.
With Governor Washington and others I returned to Santa Fe on the afternoon of the 23d instant.
During the expedition against the Navajoes, my health was all that I could desire; but I am seriously threatened this morning-resulting, as I suppose, from occupying a room where the air is more confined than I have been accustomed to of late. I trust, however, my recuperative energies will come to the rescue in time to enable me to make you a more elaborate report before our mail is ordered to the United States.
I have no communication from the Department of the Interior of a later date than the 14th of May last.
Is it possible that no plan can be adopted to remedy the want of mail facilities of which we now complain? I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe. W. MEDILL, Esq.,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington city. P.S. The great cañon, which we have spelt “Cheille" in the treaty, is pronounced“ Chey.” I am not at all satisfied as to the correct spelling, nor have I yet met with any one who could enlighten me in reference thereto.
J. S. C.
Copy of a Treaty between the United States of America and the Navaj
tribe of Indians.
The following acknowledgments, declarations, and stipulations hav been duly considered, and are now solemnly adopted and proclaimed by th undersigned, that is to say:
John M. Washington, governor of New Mexico and lieutenant colon commanding the troops of the United States in Mexico, and James Calhoun, Indian agent, residing at Santa Fé, in New Mexico, representir the United States of America; and Mariance Martinez, head chief, Chapitone, second chief, on the part of the Navajo tribe of Indians.
1. The said Indians do hereby acknowledge that by virtue of a treaty entered into by the United States of America and the United Mexican States, signed on the second day of February, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and forty-eight, at the city of Guadalupe Hidalgo, by N. P. Trist, of the first part, and Luis G. Cuevas, Bernardo Couto, and Migl. Atristain, of the second part, the said tribe was lawfully placed under the exclusive jurisdiction and protection of the government of the said United States, and that they are now and will forever remain under the aforesaid jurisdiction and protection.
2. That from and after the signing of this treaty, hostilities between the contracting parties shall cease, and perpetual peace and friendship shall exist; the said tribe hereby solemnly covenanting that they will not associate with, or give countenance or aid to, any tribe or band of Indians, or other persons or powers, who may be at any time at enmity with the people of the United States; that they will remain at peace, and treat honestly and humanely all persons and powers at peace with the said States; and all cases of aggression against said Navajoes by citizens or others of the United States, or by other persons or powers in amity with the said States, shall be referred to the government of said States for adjustment and settlement.
3. The government of the said States having the sole and exclusive right of regulating the trade and intercourse with the said Navajoes, it is agreed that the laws now in force regulating the trade and intercourse, and for the preservation of peace with the various tribes of Indians under the protection and guardianship of the aforesaid government, shall have the same force and efficacy, and shall be as binding and as obligatory upon the said Navajoes, and executed in the same manner, as if said laws had been passed for their sole benefit and protection; and to this end, and for all other useful purposes, the government of New Mexico, as now organized, or as it may be by the government of the United States, or by the legally constituted authorities of the people of New Mexico, is recognised and acknowledged by the said Navajoes. And for the due enforcement of the aforesaid laws, until the government of the United States shall otherwise order, the territory of the Navajoes is hereby annexed to New Mexico.
4. The Navajo Indians hereby bind themselves to deliver to the military authority of the United States in New Mexico, at Santa Fe, New Mexico, as soon as he or they can be apprehended, the murderer or murderers of Micenti Garcia, that said fugitive or fugitives from justice may be dealt with as justice may decree.
5. All American and Mexican captives, and all stolen property taken from Americans or Mexicans, or other persons or powers in anity with the United States, shall be delivered by the Navajo Ludians to the aforesaid military authority at Jemez, New Mexico, on or before the ninth day of October next ensuing, that justice may be meted out to all whom it may concern; and, also, all Indian captives and stolen property of such tribe or tribes of Indians as shall enter into a similar reciprocal treaty, shall, in like manner, and for the same purposes, be turned over to an authorized officer or agent of the said States by the aforesaid Navajoes.
6. Should any citizen of the United States, or other person or persons subject to the laws of the United States, murder, rob, or otherwise maltreat any Navajo Indian or Indians, he or they shall be arrested and