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of cotton commenced here in 1700, and that of indigo in 1748.
QUESTIONS. 1. What led to the Mrat settlement of Rhode Island and Providence plantations 5. Who laid the foundation of Hartford, Springfield, and Weathersdeld
When and by whom was New Ilarnpshire first settled ?
What instances of religious persecution took place in Massachusetts about the iniddle of the 17th century?
Where and what were the particulars of the Salein witchcraft? . When was Harvard college-rounded 1 **From whom did Maryland derive its name, and by whom was it first settled?
SECTION IV. Settlement of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela
: ware, and Georgia. 1. New YORK was first settled by the Dutch, and was by them held for about half a century. It was however, claimed by England as the first discoverer. Peter Stuyvesant, the third and last Dutch governor, began his administration in 1647 and was distinguished no less for his fidety than his vig:lance. In 1664 the colony surrendered to the English ; and the whole territory now.comprising New York, New Jersey, together with Pennsylvania, Delaware, and a part of Connecticut, was assigned by Charles II. to his brother the Duke of York. The Dutch inhabitants remained ; Stuyvesant re taijied his estate, and died in the colony. The country was governed by the duke's officers until 1688; when representar tives of the people were allowed a voice in the legislature.
2. In 1664, the Duke of York sold that part of his grand now called New Jersey to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. It had previously been settled by Hollanders, Swedes, and Danes. The county of Bergen was the first inhabited ; and very soon the towns of Elizabeth, Newark, Middletown, and Shrewsbury, were settled. The college, originally established at Newark, was, in 1748, finally fixed at Princeton : its chief benefactor was Governor Belcher. Among the governors of New Jersey was the celebrated Bam clay, author of the Apology for the Quakers, of which sett large number had established themselves there.
3. Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn, son of a distinguished admiral of the same name. From principle: this excellent man joined the Quakers, then an obscure and persecuted. sect. As one of the members, and a preacher, Penn was repeatedly imprisoned; but he pleaded his ow) BAUERE with great boldness. an! 760*...
from an independent jury, who with himself were imprison-, ed until an unjust penalty was paid.
4. In 1631, he purchased of Charles the tract now called Pennsylvania, for an acquittance of sixteen thousand pounds due to his father: and soon after, he obtained from the Duke of York a conveyance of the town of New Castle, with the country which now forms the state of Delaware. Tlic first colony, which wcre chiefly of his own sect, began their settleinent above the confluence of the Schuylkill and Delaware rivers. In August, 1682, this amiable man enbarked, with about two thousand einigrants, and in October, arrived in the Delaware.
5. Besides his own people, he was aided in the first settlement by Swedes, Dutch, Finlanders, and other English. The first legislative assembly was held at Chester, at that time called Upland. Among the first lass was one which den clared " that none, acknowledging one God, and living peaceable in society, should be molested for his opinions or his practice; nor be compelled to frequent or maintain any ministry whatever." Philadelphia was begun in 1683, and in 1699, it contained seven lundroil houses, and about four thousand inhabitants.
6. During the first seventy years of this settlement, no instance occurred of the Indians, killing unarmed people. T'he wise and good man, Penn, 'made every exertion and sacrifice to promote the peace and prosperity of his favorite colony; and between the persccution lie had to encounter in England, and the difficulties in Pennsylvania, his life was a continued scene of roxation--his private fortune was materially injured by the advances lie made-he was harrassed by his creditors, and obliged to undergo a temporary deprivation of his personal liberty.
7. He died in London, in 1718, leaving an inheritance to his children ultimatcly of immense value, which they enjoyed until the revolution, when it was assigned to the commonwealth for an equitable sum of money. In the interval betweon 1730 and the war of the revolution, in this state, there was a great insus of migrants, principally from Germany and Ireland ; and these pcoplc early brought the useful arts and manufactures into Pennsylvania. To the Germans she is indebted for the spinning and weaving of linen and woolen cloths; to the Irish, for various trades indispensable to useful agriculture.
8. Delaware was first settled in 1627, by the Swedes and Finlanders, and the colony bore the name of New Sweden, It was afterwards conquered by the Dutch from New York,
and remained subservient to that colony, until it passed into the hands of the English.
9. Georgia was the last settled of the thirteen colonies that revolte: from Britain. It received its name from George II. In Noveinber, 1732, one hundred and sixteen persons embarked at Gravesend, wider Oglethorpe; and early in the ensuing year arrived at Charleston. From this port they proceeded to their destined territory, and laid the foundation of Savannah.
10. The Spaniarıls laid claim to this territory, and made extensive preparations to attack it. But through the finesse of Oglethorp, in practising an innocent deception, their plans were deleted. For many years, this selliement languished from a variety of cansus. General Oglethorpe was distinguished as a soldier, a statesinan, and a philanthropist. At the beginning of the American revolntion, ne Wils otiered the command of the Bri:ish army in America, but this froin principle he declined. After thic contest wis decided, he died at the age of ninety-seven years, being the oldest seno ral in the Britishi service.
QUESTIONS. .. .
By whom was Nrw York first settl.!?
· SECTION V. :: War with Fraruce anul conquest of Canada. · 1. NEARLY coeval with thic first English settlement at James Town, in Virginia, was the establishment of a French colony at Quebec, on the great river St. Lawrence. The question of boundary between England and France, had long been a subject of unavailing negotiation. France, besides having Canada in the north, had also discovered and settled on the Mississippi in the south; and in 1753, she strove, by a military chain, the links of which were to be formed by outposts stretching along the Ohio and the lakes, to connect these two extremitics, and thus restrain them. British colonists to a small territory on the Atlantic ocean, if not entirely expel them from the country. * 2. The question of jurisdiction remained to be decided by the sword. Repeated complaints of violence having come to the ears of the Governor of Virginia, he determined to send a suitable person to the French commander at Fort Du Quesne, (now Pittsburgh,) demanding the reason of his hos tile proceedings, and insisting that he should evacuate the fort which he had recently erccted. For this arduous un
dertaking, George Washington, a major of militia, then lit te more than twenty-one years of age, offered his services.
3. The execution of this task seems to haye been accom. plished with all that prudence and courage, which were so eminently displayed by this hero in after life. At imminent peril, being waylaid and fired at by the Indians, he not only faithfully accomplished the errand on which he had been sent, but gained extensive information of the distances and bearings of places, and of the number, size, and strength of nearly all the enemy's fortresses. ,
4. The reply of the French commander brought matters to a crisis ; and in 1754, the Virginian assembly organized a regiment, to support the claims of the English over the territory in dispute: of this regiment a Mr. Fry was appointed colonel, and the young Washington lieutenant-colonel. Col Fry dying, the command of the whole devolved on Waşlı ington. 'l'he Frencli having been strongly reinforced, Washiington was obliged to fall back-was attacked in works which he had not time to complete, and, after a brave defense, Was obliged to capitulate,--the enemy allowing him to march out with the honors of war, and retire unmolested to the inhabited parts of Virgija.
5. 'l'he next year, 1755, General Braddock was sent from Europe to Virginia, with two regiments, wliere he was joined by as many provincials as made his force amount to twenty-two hundred. Braddock was a brave man, but lacked that courtesy which could conciliate the Americans, and that modesty which should profit from the knowledge of those who better knew the ground over which he was to pass, and the mode of French and Indian warfare, than hinisell. He pushed on incautivusly, until within a few miles of fort Du Quesne, he fell into an ambush of French and Indians.
6. In a short time, Washington, who acted as aid to Braddock, and whose cúly called him to be on horseback, was the only person "mounted who was left alive, or not wounded. The yait of the army was forced back, and the whole thrown into confusion. The slaughter was drcadful. Braddock was mortally wounded. What was remarkable, the provincial troops preserved their order, and covered the retreat under Washington; while the regulars broke their ranks, and could not be rallied:
7. Three successive campaigns procured nothing but ex pense and disappointment to the English. ., With an inferior, force, the French had succeeded in every campaign ; and : ... gloomy apprehensions were entertained as to the destiny.of; the Britis)i colonies, Dut in 1756, a change of ministryrini
England took place. William Pitt was placed at the helm. To despair, succeeded lope; and to hope, victory. Supplies were granted with liberality, and given without reluctance; soldiers enlisted frcely, and sought with enthusiasm.' * 8. In a short time ihe French were dispossessed, not only of all the territories in dispute, but of Quebec, and her ancient province of Canada ; so that all which remained to her of her numerous settlements in North America, was NewOrleans, with a few plantations on the Mississippi. Full of youth and spirit, the gallant General Wolf, who led the Eurupean and colonial, troops to victory, fell before the walls of Quebec, in the moment of success. : In 1762, hostilities having raged nearly eight years, a general peace was concluded: France ceded Canada, and Spain relinquished, as the price of recovering Havana, which had been taken by the British, both the Floridas to Great Britain.
What settleinents had the French in Ainorica ?
In what wily did France endeavor to contine the English within narrow lib. its, or to drive them froin the continent ?
When and what inethod did the Virginia ussembly adopt to support the Eng. ish claiins er the disputed territory?
Wlion and with whint force Wüs Cieiieral Braddock sent over to support these cirins ?
What was the success of Braddock's expedition ?
How many campaigns were altended only with expense and disappointment to the English? ; What led to a change in English prospects ? - What celebrated Englisla general was killed in the capture of Quebec?
SCCTION VI. Difficulties between Great Britain and the Colonies, and the
consequent War of the Revolution. 1. ALTHOUGH the American colonies liad principally contributed to the great extension of the power of Great Britain, co-operating with the vigilance of more than four hundred cruisers on the sea, and furnishing more than twenty-four thousand soldiers; yet the latter regarded her plantations as mere instruments in her hands. On the contrary, the high sentiments of liberty and independence nurtured in the colonies from their local situation and habits, wcre increased by the removal of hostile neighbors. Ideas favorable to independence increased ; and whilst combustible materials were · collecting in the new world, a brand to enkindle them was preparing in the old..
2. In 1765, under the auspices of the minister, George