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very. But we shall now consider only the more important--the signs ficant inflections; those upon the correct use of which the meaning and force of composition depend;- leaving the learner, unincumbered by . rules which perplex rather than instruct, wo make a practical applica. tion of then to the less inportant parts of composition as his judgment may direct.
Falling Inflection. The falling infection is used where the language is bold and ener. getic; where a positive assertion is made; or where an indirect ques tion is asked.
EXAMPL.EX. Who first seduced them to that foul revolt 1 Tiie internal serpent. Where is boasting then? It is exclu led. But Jesis sudd, why tèir:pt ye me, ye ilypocrites! Linsi-t upon this point, Iurge you to it; press il; require it; nay, demand to of you.
What, Tubero, did that na pilsword of yo171's mea:, at the battle of Prarsa lia ? At whos best w is it thru? W : was the unius of your dimit vour spirit, your eyes, your hâlde, your arder of soul?
Rising Ingectisn. The rising in'lection accompanies the weaker emphasis, where the onunciation of thought is tender, conditional, or incoinplete.
EXAMPLES And he lifted up his eyes and saw his brother Benjamin, his mother's son. and said, is thi:s your younger brother of whom yon spake unto me?
If some of the branches be broken 0:1, ani thon, bring a wild olive tree. wert giantei in angoing ther, and with theu partake of the root and fatness of the olive tré.; beast notigainst the branches
The beauty of a plái, in greatness of a móhatain, the ornarnents of build. ing, the expression of a picture, the comp 1611.01 or a disco 198, the conuinctos a third person, the prope lins of different garantities and numbers--all the goneral subjects of science and laste-are wbat we and our companions regard, as liaving no peculiar relatio: lu either of us.
This inflection is also used with the direct question, or that which admits of yes or no for the answer; as, -Are you going to lieneva ?
Do you go to-tay ?-But if the same question be repeated, as if at first not heard or understood, it takes in the repetition the more forcible enphasis of the filling in lection ; as— sire you going to Genova ? Are you going to Genèva ? Is this your book ?" Sir?”—Is this your book?
When the disjunctive or connects words or phrases, it has the rising inflection before, and the falling after it.
Is it twill on tiie Sabbath day to do good, or to do evil ?mto save life, or to dastidy it?
Has God forsaken the works of his own liárds? or does he always gracion by preserve, and keep, and guid- them?
But when or is used conjunctirely, it has the same inflection after as before it; as,
Would a belief of divine revelation contribute to make rulers legs tyrannical or subjects less góveruable ?-lle is a man of wisdoun ; or, at least, of great Icàrning.
When affirmation and negation are opposed to each other, that which affirms has generally the falling, and that which denies the rising indicction.
confined to the resirom
duties of life, it is why of the saints: la
Think no that the influence of devotion is confined to the retirement of the olácet, and the assembly of the sai..ts: Imaxine not, that, incomected with the duties of lif, it is suited only to those elrapiled souls, whose ieelings per. haps you di'r.de as romantic and visionary :- It is th- yliaidian or innocence It is the instrument of virtue-it is a means by which every good affection inay be formed and improved.
The Circumfer. The circumflex is used to express ideas ironically, hypothetically, or comparatively; or when something is rather insinuated than strongly expressed.
Ife his inore àit than science.
Were we to ask a physician concerning a sick persoil, and receive in reply—“He is bētter"--we might suppose him to be yet danger. ously sick,-the circumfex giving us an idea only of a slight, or comparative amendment,—but were he to say--He is better-our anxiety for his sufity would be at once removed.
The following example will more clearly show the controlling infiuence which the inflection has upon the sense, without changing the seat of the emphasis :
In church I am unable to suppross evil thoughts. The idea, which this sentence is intended to convey, is, that the person making the assertion is subject to evil thoughts, which, not only most places of resort but even the sacrednces of a church does not enable him to suppress. Hence it should be read with the strong em. phasis and the falling infection upon church; thus-“In church I anı anable to suppress evil thoughts."-But if the circumflex be used with the emphasis, a diferent idea will be conveyed, --it will be, that the person, although in most places not subject to evil thoughts, is in church peculiarly afflicted by, and unable to suppress them; thusIn chůrch I am unable to suppress evil thoughts. We will take another example. Horatio in the Fair Penitent says: "I will not turn aside from iny loose pleasure, though all lhý force be armed har my way."
The circumfer upon thy implies the Terctic Icela upen the or posing force with contempt; and is cquivalent toe virg. "Triple Iurn aside for a respectible opposition, but thy firce is not worth ra garding." But place the filling int'ection un'un lly, and it makes it a miatter of grroirr mon ent:-while it compliu ents the ol'l'using force, it declares a determination to resist it, great as it is.
In cxan.ining the princi;les of vocal ivi'ection, the ingrnicus scho lar will find both anilisel.cnt and instruction. Without licinc understcod, they are practised by all, intuitive, when the stronger 0 Otions are excited ; and if disons could strictl: USUC the clictates of nature in these rescris, they would ucvcr err* Buitlir force of bit bit is almost irresistible: and when this is fomu od on the side of crror, nothing but the strongly excited crotions can eliscngage its liends. It will be in vain, theyctore. to do and us on the dictition of these cnotions; for they will lie fourid unerring only in the expressions of cri ginal thought.-and then only under circu: starors as i love descriled. It becomes necessary. then, that the doct:ine of infections be studied. that they mav le applied in win passione discourse, and to the coin position of cthers-studied, not under the ingression that the princi ples of nature are to ho subvcted, but discovered and strictly icllowed,
Porter, in speaking of the importance of a kincwlcilge of the prin. ciples of infection, says: “ Analysis of vocal insections licars iho saire relation to oratory, that the tuning of an instrument does le music. The rudest perform c. in tis latter ort
he rucest rerford c- in this later art lows, that liis fino business is to regulate the instrun ont le liers. wlion it is so derange as to produce no perfect notes, cr to produce others than ulicsp which, he intends. The voice is the scalor's instrument, which, liv neglec, or,nismanagemeut, is often so out of tune as no: to ciertłe will of hiin who uses it. Tocure lad halits is the first and liardest lesk in elocution. Among instructors of children, scarcely one in fifty thinks of carrying his precepts beyond correctness in uitering words, and a mechanical attention to pauses; so that the child who speaks the words of a sentence distinctly and fuently, and “ninds the stojis," as it is called, is without scruple pronounced a good reader. Hence, among the multitude who consider themselves good readers, there are so fi'w that gire br their voice that just expression of sentiment, which constitutes the spirit and soul of delivery."
V. Monolone... MONOTONE is a sameness of sound upon a succession of syllables, like the repeated strokes upon a bell. It has the peculiar property of rendering composition either sublime or ridiculous, according as it may be judiciouslv or injudiciously used. Nothing is more disgusting thau a dull repetition of sounds upon the san.e pitch of the yoice, resulting from a dullness in the reader or speaker, and applied in common dis course. It is notwithstanding used with the most happy effect, in grave delivery, in the expression of sublime and reverential emotiong, and in elevated description. The following examples will illustrate i on used with propriety:
• If a mon should scorer his own Douse on Rre, he would not like a dh tunt and disinterested observer, cry, fire! Are ! fire !---but we should licar los moro expressive exclamnation of fuel surelyre!
"Shall an inferior magistrate, a governor, whn holds his whole power of the a Roman peple, in a Roinan province, within sigfıt of Italy, bind, scourge, tör
ture with red höt piatrs of iron, and at last put to the infamous death of the ross, a Romai cilaca!"
“Iligh on a throne of royal state, which far
Satan exalted sat" • In the foregoing, the monótone adils much to the dignity of the
composition. The exarnpies which follow present a striking con. trast:--to read them with the monotone would make them insipid and sting :
" What the weak head with strongest bias ruics,
Bv reisin my life let me square;
VI. Modulation. By dimulation is inderstood that pleasing varirtv in the managemout of the voirs, which constituts a trac ful deliverv. It is one of the most imnuortant acquisitions of a good speaker, and at tlie namo time the most: liliult to do in.-In an extraci senso, it me: he understood is includimererr modification of which the voice is cnable.
It is nasior in point out the dcferts in modulation, than to dine the constituents of its excellence :-(f those we shall notice a frw. But in order togbe fully understood, we will caution the lemner og inst confoundinglish with loul, and low with sof sound. A person may pronounce a sotil in a voice barill: auctible, and again very louil, upon the sose kry, or cuals loin. leny lo the sake lipon a key equally high. This dicinction bet:reen pitch and voluine of sound, must be clearls under cod. Let the following line,
"Sal! Rome be taken while i am Consul?" be read 0:2 a lowy key i: te, and with a small voice. Let it be repeated several times in suecession, a li::le louder each time, wiilcut varying the pitch or key note, and the difference will he very apparent.
This listinction being understood, the first prominent defect in modulation thai we sliell notice, consists in inflating the lungs at tho beginning of each sentence, and pouring out a volume of sound, which in every stage of progression is graduated by the stock of breath on hand. The first part of the sentence, therefore, is uttered with a loud voice, and generally upon a high key; but terminates in a low and fecble close. This manner of reading, which is common, is illustrated by the following example. The capital letters represent the greatest, strength of sound, which gradually falls away to the ita. hic:
"GENTLENESS IS THE GREAT AVENUE TO Mutual enjoymene AMIDST TIE STRIFE OF INTERFERING INTERESTS, IT TEMPERS TYE VIOLENCE OF CONTENTION, AND KEEPS ALIVE the seeds of harmony. IT SOFTENS ANIMCSITIES, RENEWS ENDEARYENTS, AND RENDERS THE COUNTEN A NOE OP XAN a refreshment to mi?
The circumfer upon thy implies that I critic lociruren the op posing force with contempt; and is cquivalent to s vrgTriglie turn asiile for a respect::ble opposition, but thy force is uct worth re garding." But place the falling int'rction using thy, and it makes it a matter of greairr non ent:-while it compilin ents the opposing force, it declares a detornination to resist it, girat as it is.
In cxan.ining the principles of vocal iniection. the ingrnicus scho lar will find hoth anilisement and instruction. Without licing mderstcod, they are practised by all, intuitively, when the stronger en a tions are excited; and if y creous could strictly ursuc, the dictatcs of nature in these resorts, they would never crr.* Futtle force of ha bit is almost irresistible: and ivhen this is for cd on the sjele of crror, nothing lut ile strongly crcito enotions can discngage its lends. li will be in vain, therefore, to do and won the dirtition of these cmotions; for they will lie fourid ucrring only in the expressions of cri ginal thought, and then only under circu: starors as i love descriler?. It bosomes necessary. then, that the cloci:ine of inícctions be studied, that they mav lie applica in unin püssione discourse, and to tlic compositicn of cthers-studiel. Hot whiler this impression that the principles of nature are to ho subcited, lixt discovered, and strictly followed,
Porter, in speaking of the importance of a knowledge of the prin. ciples of infection, says: “ Analysis of vocal infections lirars ih naine relation to oratory, that the twing of an instrument does les music. The rudest perforn er in this latter art knows, that his fino business is to regulate the inetinin ont be uers, wlien it is so derange as to produce no perfect nctes, cr to produce oilors than il:cse which he intends. The voice is the speaker's instrument, which, liv neglec, or mismanagement, is often so cut of ture as nc: to chey the will of hiin who uses it. To cure bad haliis is the Irft and hardest lask in elocution. Among instructors of cliildren, scarcely one in fifty thinks of carrying his precepts beyond correctness in uitering words, and a mechanical attention to pauses; so that the child who speaks the words of a sentence distinctly and Cuently, and “ninds the stojis," as it is called, is without scruple pronounced a gocd reader. Hence, among the multitude who considler tliemsclves good readers, there are so fi'w that give brtheir voice that just expression of sentiment, which constitutes the spirit and soul of delivery."
V. Monolone... Monotone is a sameness of sound upon a succession of syllables, like the repeated strokes upon a lell. It has the peculiar property of rendering composition either sublime or ridiculous, according as it may be judiciously or injudiciously used. Nothing is more disgusting thau a dull repetition of sounds upon the sanie pitch of the yoice, resulting from a dullness in the reader or speaker, and applied in common dis. course. It is notwithstanding used with the most happy effect, in grave delivery, in the expression of sublime and reverential emotions, and in elevated description. The following examples will illustrate i was used with propriety :
If a mon should discover his own bonse on nre, he would not like a do Innt and disinterested server, cry, fire! fre! firé !-but we should hear hb moro expressive exclurbation or forel Sirel jare!