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and there is but a step between this consequence and a decree of reprobation on all other human beings. Thus the doctrine that the atonement was addressed to the justice of God, in the popular sense, leads, unavoidably I think, either to Universalism, or to absolute predestination, and so impugns those Scriptures which declare an everlasting punishment for the wicked, or those which affirm that Christ was “ the propitiation for the sins of the whole world.” But no such consequences result from the theory that the atonement was addressed to the holiness of God. It is not a penalty endured for all, which cannot be again claimed from any; or for a few only, making their safety unconditional, and leaving all others without its
But it is a transaction which, rendering the pardon of sinful men consistent with God's moral perfection, has procured a pardon for all sinners, which will be granted to all who accept it: while those who will not accept it, are not released, as if their debt was paid, or their penalty fulfilled, but are still subject to the indignation of that divine holiness which they obstinately continue to dishonor. The ransom is paid for all; but those who prefer the bondage of sin remain captives. Thus we have a theory of the atonement which has no affinity whatever with either of the erroneous doctrines to which I have referred.”
We do not say that all the forms of expression in the above extract are such as we would prefer: for example, we do not know what is meant by “God's inflicting his abhorrence of evil” upon the person of an innocent being: and again he says, that “Christ represents our sins," as if his death were a scenic representation. But we do not quarrel with phrases. The article amounts to the same as Mr. Abbott's statement, namely, that the efficacy of the atonement consists in the moral impression produced, by which God's holiness is vindicated and his hatred of sin manifested ; and this is what we believe.
And a fact of importance, in this connexion, is that this remodeled doctrine receives the hearty approbation of the leading Episcopal newspaper of the country. Yet it has not been long, since the writer of this notice was condemned by an Episcopal clergyman, because he rejected the very doctrine above denounced !
W. G. E.
[The following article is from the Louisville City Gazette.]
Mr. EDITOR:Now that the Oakland races are over, I wish, with your permission, to offer some remarks upon them which have suggested themselves to my mind. They may not be in accordance with your own views, or those of many of our citizens, yet I should like to have them considered before they are rejected. Without intending any disrespect to those gentlemen who have lent their aid and countenance to this exhibition, it is my deliberate conviction that it is a great injury to our city to have races reestablished at Oakland. These are among my reasons,
1. Races bring to Louisville innumerable thieves and villians. I suppose more robberies and other crimes have been committed during the past fortnight in our city, than in six months previously. In the small circle of my own acquaintances, three houses have been entered and robbed within a week by plausible, gentlemanly looking, villains. Others I have heard of. The watchmen tell me that the streets swarm with them. If they would only confine their attention to those who patronize and encourage races, I should hope that it might be a lesson to such. But they are quite indiscriminate in their visits. It is well known that the r'uffians and reprobates are in the habit of following the races from New Orleans to Long Island. No doubt Louisville contributes her proportion to their support. Not long since in an Orleans paper, after a long list of house breakings, thefts, swindlings, and murders, the Editor remarked that these were owing to the races, which were just closing.
Thinks I “a great advantage will our Oakland track be to Louisville, if these are the kind of fish it brings to us."
2. The races bring to Louisville gamblers to prey upon our young men.
Gamblers seem somehow to be the necessary accompaniments of a race course. More than an hundred were probably last week in our city who gain their support by this elegant profession. They did not probably come here to prey upon one another. No-our young men are the game these blood suckers seek. Young men, many of them without parents near to advise them, some the only stay of widowed mothers, the pride of many a circle of affectionate hearts —these are to be ruined that the gambler may sport his dia
mond breast pin and fine clothes. Say not, they ought to protect themselves. Youth is ardent, inexperienced, easily led away by its own generous and noble impulses. It ought to be protected by the wiser and older portion of the community. Throw not temptations in its way, you who are a father, or beware lest you are preparing them for your own child.
3. Races increase the amount of crime. If villains are brought together, it is natural that villany will be committed. Robbery, murder, outrages on property and person, drunkenness, blasphemy, and licentiousness of all kinds are notoriously abundant at such places. A black man was killed last week at the race track. The last race before this, a white man was killed. Such events are common and expected.
4. Races encourage an open defiance of the laws of the land. By ihe laws of this state it is a penitentiary offence to keep a gambling house or table, or to play games for money at them. Yet, under the authority of the best men in our city, a large building is erected and let to gamblers, and filled with Faro tables, Roulette tables, Rouge et Noir, &c. To what purpose do we pass laws, and our juries find indictments and our prosecuting officers make speeches, if they are to be thus openly defied by the gentry of the land? Are oựr laws only cob-webs to catch small flies and let large ones escape? What is it but wholesale hypocrisy, to take the credit of being a most moral community by the purity of our statute-books, when our practice is the exact reverse ? Expunge your laws, or make your practices conform to them. You are teaching the community to despise that which ought to be ever sacred to their minds—the name of Law.
If these evils do attend races, (and few would deny it, how are they defended. It is said that they bring money to the city, that they improve the breed of horses, that vicious men will be vicious whether there are races or not, that races cannot be put down if we would, that the people must have amusements. Let us consider briefly these excuses.
1. They bring money to the city. Yes, and so it would bring money to the city were we to erect splendid gin palaces, gambling houses or brothels, and sell licenses to those who should keep them. The slave trade brought money to Old England and New England, and was defended on that ground. Who defends it now? Piracy brought money to the West Indies, and piracy was also defended by those who thought money the pearl of all price. But should we sell our peace, our virtue, the tranquility of our city, the morals of our children, for money? The argument is too flimsy to bear looking at.
2. Races, it is said, improve the breed of horses. And what if they did, if they degrade the breed of men. But I doubt the truth of this position. Some startling and stubborn facts are on the other side. I never heard of races in Arabia, yet.the best horses and best blood in the world are there. The great racing stock of England and America came from the blood of the Godolphin Arabian. There are no races in New England, yet the New England horses are worth in this country from fifty to a hundred per cent. more than southern horses. The horses for the plough, dray, saddle, stage, coach or gig, in New England would bring under the hammer far higher prices in racing sections of the country than their own horses.' Racing only improves the breed of race horses. I was told in Virginia by the stage drivers that their best horses were brought from Vermont and New Hampshire. The Green mountain horses are the best in the country for symmetry, strength, fleetness, and endurance. Yet there is no racing in New England. Racing then is surely not essential to make good horses.
3. It is said that wickedness will break out in some other way if there are no races. But because there will be always wickedness, shall we increase it and encourage it? And to bring villains together, and to bring their victims to them, and produce all the temptations and excitements to sin, it appears to me is likely to increase it. On this principle what vice would ever be reformed, what effort ever made to improve the world?
4. Racing cannot be put down. This is a mistake. Here, at least, it is struggling to sustain itself. It appeals to a philanthropic community to encourage it. It is a suppliant to the fair sex for their support. It begs for newspaper puffs and paragraphs. It appoints committees to invite ladies to smile upon its patriotic efforts. For several years, with a few exceptions, there has been but little interest felt in races here. The community are evidently indifferent to the amusement. I understand that with all the efforts lately made, those interested in its success were disappointed. No such crowds attended as they had hoped for. A little influence now, exerted one way or the other, may decide whether we shall have races here or not. I ask those who have influence to consider well how they exert it. I ask fathers and mothers to consider what they are doing in upholding what is an evident source of sin and evil. I ask wives to consider whether they will lead their husbands, as it were, to the gaming table. There is retribution even in this world for those who encourage evil.
5. The people must have amusement. But are there no inno
cent amusements? Better have no amusements than what are connected with such evils as I have enumerated. But I object to such amusements as racing that they prevent better amusements. They destroy the taste for purer, calmer, home pleas
Domestic felicity flees before them. He who has tasted the cup of their strong excitements, cannot enjoy the prattle of his child, nor the smiles of his wife, the walk at sunset, the social circle, the book, the garden, music, painting, poetry: These stimulants stupify the nerves and destroy their sensibility for the purer pleasures.
Mr. Editor, I may be mistaken in what I have written; if so, I should like to be corrected. At least the subject may be discussed; and if races can be defended, let them be so. By inserting this communication, therefore, you will show your usual independence, and also oblige