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was probably sent over from England by his executors. Two sides of the ancient cloisters, whose arches are filled in with exquisitely beautiful tracery, are yet standing. The other sides were not long since destroyed by fire. By the side of the cathedral is a curious circular chapel, perhaps a baptistry, in the centre of which is a Gothic model of the Holy Sepulchre. The chambers on the cloister portion of the ancient Episcopal palace contain many curious vestments and dusty relics of the past grandeur of the see.”-P.
“The Dominican Convent, now a colton factory, is very interesting. The church forms a most picturesque ruin, in the earliest style of German Gothic. The cloisters are perfect. The little island upon which this building stands was fortified by the Romans, and a portion of the wall, towards the lake, can yet be discerned”-P. • In a Hall of the Kaufhaus (an ancient edifice, dating from 1388), looking towards ihe lake, the Great Council of Cona stance held its sittings, 1414-18, in a large room supported by wooden pillars. That famous assembly, composed, not of bishops alone, like the ancient councils, but of deputies, ciyil and ecclesiastical, from the whole of Christendom including princes, cardinals (30), patriarchs (4), archbishops (20) bishops (150), professors of universities and doctors of theology (200), besides a host of ambassadors, inferior prelates , abbots, priors, etc., was convened for the purpose of remedying the abuses of the church: and as those abuses began with its head, the proceedings were prefaced by a declaration, that a council of the church has received, by Divine right, an authority in religious matters, even over that of the Pope. It exerted its influence in curbing the Papal power, by deposing the infamous John XXIII. and Benedict XIII., and by electing in their place Martin V. But there is one act of this council which fixes more lasting and odious celebrity than all the rest-the treacherous seizure and cruel murder of John Huss and Jerome of Prague, in spite of the safe-conduct granted to the former by the Emperor Sigismund, the president of the assembly.
The chairs occupied by the emperor and pope, the Bible of Huss, the door of the dungeon, now destroyed, in which he was confined, the hurdle on wbich he was dragged to execution, and some other relics of the council, still remain in the hall, besides a collection of Roman and German antiquities, dug up in the neighbourhood. · The house in which Hess lodged, bearing a rude likeness of him, is pointed out in the Paul's strasse, near the Schnetzthor. He was thrown into prison soon after his arrival, in the Franciscan Convent, now a ruin, whence he was removed to a more irksoine dungeon below ground, affording scarce
ly room to move, in the before- mentioned Dominican Content.
The field-outside of the town, in the suburb of Brühl, in which he suffered martyrdom, with a fortitude which moved even his judges and executioners to admiration-nay even the place where the stake was planted, are still pointed out; and rude images or Huss and Jerome, formed of clay taken from the spot, are offered for sale to the stranger.
In 1474 a perpetual treaty of peace was concluded at Constance, between Sigismund of Austria and the Swiss Confederation, which put an end to the contests which had endured for more than a century and a half, beginning with the fights of Morgarlen and Sempach. Constance belonged to the crown of Austria from 1549 to 1805, when, by the treaty of Presburg, it was transferred to Baden. Since 1802 it has ceased to be a bishopric.
Petershausen, on the opposite bank of the Rhine, was until 1803 a Benedictine monastery: it is now a château of the Grand Duke. It is still surrounded by its ancient fosse and ramparts. An excursion to the little Island of Meinau , about 4 miles N. of Constance, will well repay the trouble : it is decidedly one of the preštiest spots on the borders of the Bodensee.
The lake of Constance is described in Route 66. Two steamers run regularly, 5 times a-week , between Constance and the different ports of the lake.
There is another road, somewhat longer and more hilly, on the l. side of the Rhine, by Andelfingen-(Inn : Bar) — a village of 2000 inhabitants, and the large inanufacturing town of Winterthur (5 stunde), described in route 9.
The route by Eglisau passes within a short distance of the Rhine-fall. The roar of the cataract is audible 4 or 5 miles off in a calm night, and the column of vapour from it-"rising like inconse from the altar of nature"-is visible at a considerable distance. A corner of the territory of Baden, including the villages of Jestetten and Lostetten, is traversed before reaching
4 Eglisa u-(The Lion d'Or is a clean little inn by the river side; Hirsch, Stag).- A little town of 1600 inhabitants, in a contracted valley on the rt. bank of the Rhine, which here flows in a dark green stream, between wooded hills. At the end of the wooden bridge wbich traverses it rises a tall, square
walch-lower of massive masonry : it belonged to a castle now removed. Close to it is a toll-house. This road is much traversed by pilgrims to the shrine of our Lady of Einsiedeln (Route 74); and the traveller encounters, at every step, troops of the poor peasantry of the Black Forest, religiously counting their beads, and multering their aves and paternosters. From the heights above the town of
1 1/3 Bülach (4000 inhabitants) the snowy Alps may be discerned in fine weather, with the Righi in the middle distänce.
The descent upon Zurich, between yineyards and gardens, amidst neat villas and taverns, with the windings of the Limmat, and the lake and town of Zurich in front, is very pleasing. A little to the rt, of the road rises the hill or Weid, 3 iuiles from Zurich, commanding the finest view of the town and neighbourhood. A short distance outside of the town may be seen the junction of the Sihl with the Limmat. Since 1833, Zurich has ceased to be a fortress; a large portion of the ramparts are already swept away, and the stranger finds hinself within its walls without cncountering drawbridges and bastions as heretofore.
1 2/3 ZURICH-Inns : Schwert (Epée)-overlooking the Limmat, close to the broad wooden bridge which serves as a market-place;-expensive, and neither very good nor clean. Beds. 3 fr.: dinner. table d'hote. 3 fr.-in private. 4 fr.: tea and breakfast, 2 fr.-Raabe (Corbeau);—Siorch (Cycogne), table d'hôte, with wine, 2 fr. 8 sous; bed, 2 fr.; breakfast, 1 fr. 4 sous.
The inns at Zurich are notoriously dirty, high priced and ill attended : they have hitherto enjoyed a monopoly, and there has been no inducement to improve. But at this time (1837) two large new inns are building-one near the outlet of the Limmat from the lake, on the rt. bank of the river; the other near the new post-office.
Zurich, the most important manufacturing town of Switzerland, and the capital of a canton distinguished above all others for prosperous industry, has 14,500 inhabitants, and lies at the N. end of the lake of Zurich, and on the banks of The Limmat, just where it issues out of the lake in a rapid and healthful stream, clear as crystal. A Roman station, Thuricum , fixed on this spot, probably gave risc both to ihe town and its name. Zurich is the seat of the Swiss Diet (Vorort) alternately with Berne and Lucerne, for a period of two years together. The flourishing condition of the town is visible in the improvements going forward in it, in the number of the new buildings rising in and around it. The banks of the lake and Limmat, and all the neighbouring hills, are thickly dotted over with houses, which, by the removal of the useless and inconvenient ramparts, will soon be united with the town itself, forming a wide circle of suburbs.
Apart froin its agreeable situation and thriving manufactures, there is not much to be seen in Zurich. There are no fine buildings here : that of the most consequence is the Cathedral, or Gross Münster, on the rt. bank of the Limmat. It is venerable from its age, having been built in the 10th or 11th century, and worthy of respect from having been the scene of Zwingli's bold preachings of reformation in the church, and amendment of morals. It is a heavy, massive building, in a style of architecture resembling that called Norman in England; very plain within and without, but interesting in the eye of the architect and antiquary. Its nave is supported on square pillars and round arches: beneath it is a very perfect crypt. Ils circular portal, and the adjoining cloisters raised upon small low triple arches, with slender columns and capitals of various patterns, fantastically carved, are very curious.
The house in which the reformer Zwingli passed the last six years of his life is still standing : it is No. 185 in the Grosse Stadt.
The Church of St. Peter (with the large clock), on the 1. bank of the Limmat, had for its minister, for 23 years, Lavater, the author of the renowned work on physiognomy, who was born at Zurich. On the capture of the town by the French army, September 26, 1799, he was shot, within a few steps of his own door, by a brutal French soldier, to whom, but two minutes before, he had given wine and offered money,
nile he was in the act of assisting another soldier who had been wounded. A high reward was offered by Massena, the French commander, for the discovery of the inurderer; but, though known to Lavater and his farnily, he refrained froin informing against him. After lingering Through three months of excruciating agony, he expired, Jan. 2, 1801, at the parsonage : his grave is marked by a simple stone in the churchyard of St. Anne ; where Ebel, author of the Swiss Guide, and Escher von der Linth, are also buried. .,
The Rathhaus, a massive square building close to the lower-bridge, and opposite the Sword, is the place of meeting of the Diet, when it assembles at Zurich. In the council. chamber is an extravagant painting of the Oath at Grulli, by Henry Füseli (properly Füssli), who was born here.
The Town Library, close to the New stone bridge, in a building formerly a church (Wasserkirche), contains, in addition to 45,000 printed volumes and MSS., three autograph Latin letters of Lady Jane Grey, addressed to her preceptor, Bullinger, in a beautifully clear and regular hand-a few
grammatical errors have been remarked in them; a bust of Lavater, by Dannecker; a portrait of Zwingli and his daughter, by Hans A sper; a model in relief of a large part of Switzerland; some very curious fossils from OEhningen, including one described by Scheuchzer as a human skull, though in reality a portion of a lizard--fossils of the Glarus slate, chiefly fishes, from the Plattenberg.
The Old Arsenal (Alt-Zeughaus) contains some ancient armour; also a cross-bow, said to be (?) that with which William Tell shot the apple from his soli's head; and several tattered standards, taken by the Swiss from their enemies, including one of Charles the Bold of Burgundy. This collection is inferior to those in several other Swiss cantons.
The tall and picturesque Tower of Wellenburg, rising out of the water at ihe outlet of the Limmat from the lake, is used as a prison. State-criminals were formerly confined in it: Count Hans of Hapsburg passed more than two years in it. The Heretics' Tower (Ketzer Thurm) receives its name from the unfortunate Reformers confined in it during the religious troubles of Switzerland.
In 1832-3 a University was established at Zurich, and many professors, expelled from other countries for their political opinions, have repaired hitber as teachers. The most emipent among them is Oken. As yet the number of students is not great. The building of the suppressed Augustine Convent has been appropriated to its use, and considerable additions to it are contemplated. The Library contains many original MSS. of the early reformers, and the Museum of Nalural History some good specimens of Swiss minerals and fossils, together with the Herbarium of John Gessner.
One of the most pleasing features about Zurich is its promenades and points of view. The best of them is decidedly the Cats' Bastion (Katzen Bastei), an elevated mound commanding a delightful view of the town, lake and distant Alps, which originally formed a part of the fortification, and it has been deservedly preserved, though the adjoining ramparts are cut away. It has now assumed the peaceful shape of a garden and shrubbery.'
Nothing can be more delightful than the view at sunset from this point, extending over the smiling and populous shores of the beautiful Jake to the distant peaks and glaciers of the Alps of Glarus, Uri, and Schwytz, tinged with the most delicate pink by the sinking rays.
The Hohe Promenade, another rampart on the rt. bank of the Limmat, also commands a good view, but more confined than the former. Those who desire a complete panorama should ascend the Weid, a hill about 3 miles N. of the town, where an inn has recently been built. The triangular piece