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ful abbots, in the middle ages, lorded it above their vassals. They were at one time firm allies of the House of Habsburg, and the abbot and his banner occupied the van at the battle of Morgarten. At a later period however, 1424, Abbot Peter of Pontaningen was one of the founders of Grison liberty who met under the sycamore at Trons. Dissentis is situated at a height of 3700 st. above the sea-level.

There is a steep and difficult footpath hence over the Lukmanier to Bellinzona (Route 78), another up the MedelserThal, and thence down the Val Piora to Airolo, 10 1/4 stunden; a third, difficult and dangerous, runs N. over tbe Dödi-Grat, by the Sandalp, to the Baths of Stachenberg, Route 72.

The path from Dissentis up to the Oberalp leaves the Medelser-Thal on the l. and ascends the vale of Tavetsch by the l. bank of the Vorder-Rhein, now reduced in breadth and volume to a mountain torrent. The path passes the villages Mompetavetsch, Sedrun, or Taveisch, the chief place in the valley, and Ruaras. A narrow gorge now leads out of the lower into an upper valley. This part of it is dreadfully exposed to avalanches. In 1808 one fell from the Ruenalsch upon the village of Selva, and killed 42 human beings and 237 head of calile. Here begins the last and most difficult part of the ascent ; all regular track disappears, and the numerous furrows worn by the feet of the cattle perplex the traveller who will hardly be able to find his way without a guide.

4 Ciamot is the last village in the valley deserving that name, and provided with a church; it is 5000 ft. above the sea. The valley of Tavetsch is the cradle of the VorderRhine; it is supplied from 3 branches, having their sources in the vast mountains which wall in its upper extremity. The 1.-hand branch flows from the foot of the Crispalt, on the S. side of the valley, the middle from the glaciers of the Sexmadan (Cima de Badus), the third comes from the Val Cornära on the S. At Ciamot the 1.-hand branch is crossed and the middle branch followed for about a mile, after which adieu to the Rhine; a constant ascent leads the traveller to the summit of the pass of the Oberalp, 6174ft. above, the sea, by the cross between the Calmot and the Neugallas.

On reaching the opposite declivity, a small lake, famed for its trout, lies at the foot of the traveller. This is the Oberalp-See, one of the headwaters of the Reuss, it is beset with bogs, across which the traveller must pick his way cautiously. This spot was the scene of a hard struggle between the French and Austrians, in 1799. The path winds along the N. or rt. side of the lake. The vale of Urseren, with Hospital in the distance, now opens out to view, and a

long and wearisome descent, through a naked valley of pastures, brings the traveller to

3 1/4 Andermatt, on the St. Gotthard, Route 34, p. 136.

ROUTE 78.

PASS OF THE LUKMANIER - DISSENTIS TO OLIVONE IN THE

VAL BLEGNO.

10 stunden 32 3/4 English miles. A foot-path, much frequented in summer. The valley of Medels, up which it lies, runs in a direction nearly due S. from Dissentis, and is traversed through its whole length by the Middle Rhine. The entrance to it is by a rocky and wooded gorge, about 2 miles from Dissentis, in the midst of which the Rhine forms two cascades, and beyond which the valley opens out into a wide basin, lined with pastures and forests, in the remotor parts of which the bear is still found, while the chamois abounds on the granite peaks forming the highest summits of the surrounding Alps. The path runs through Curaglia, or Kuragla. Plutta is the principal place in the Medelser Thal. Perdatsch is situated at the opening of the Val Cristallina, which runs in a S.E. direction, and sends forth one branch of the Middle Rhine. Another branch comes from the W. out of the Lake Dim, at the end of the Val Cadelina ; and a third, between these two, issues from the foot of the Monte Scuro.

5 Sta. Maria, a hospice, kept up for the benefit of poor travellers, nearly on the culminating point of the Pass of the Lukmanier (in Latin, Mons Lucumonius; in Romansch, Lukmajn, or Quolm Sta. Maria), 5740 ft. above the sea. It is said that the army of Pepin passed this way A. D. 754. Poles, stuck into the rocks, mark the direction of the path across the Col. Paths branch off from the hospice to Airolo, through the Val Termini, or Vál Forno, the Vai Piora, by Altanca, Brugnasco, and Madrano : 5 1/2 stunden.

The path to Olivone and the Val Blegno descends the Alpine Val Casaccia, to

2' The Hospice of Casaccia; and, a few miles lower, to that of

2 Camperio, both founded, it is said, by St: Carlo Borromeo, for the reception of travellers.

1 Olivone is the highest village in the Val Blegno, and stands at the point where the lateral valley of Casaccia joins it; it has about 740 inhabitants.

The Val Blegno (Germ. Polenzerthal) is traversed by the stream of the Brenno; and a tolerable char-road has recently been formed along thé 1. bank of the stream, from Oliyone to

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Biasca, on the route of the St. Gotthard (Route 34, p. 142), a distance of 4 stunden.

Many of the chocolate-sellers and chestnut-roasters, who swarm in the streets of the cities of Italy, come from the Val Blegno.

ROUTE 81.

THE PRETTIGAU. - MAYENFELD TO FIDERIS AND DAVOS.

Mayenfeld is an ancient walled town of 1200 inhabitants, on the rt. bank of the Rhine, but at a little distance from the river. It stands on the high-road from Bregenz to Coire, about 12 miles N. of the latter place. It is the chief town of the League of the 10 Jurisdictions (Zehngerichten-Bund). There is a cross-road direct from Mayenfeld to Malans, but it is better to follow the high-road as far as the Zollbrücke, and there to turn off on the l. to Malans, a village of 1054 inhabitants, overlooked by several ruined castles, and situated near the mouth of the Prettigau (? Rhæti-gau). The entrance of that valley is through a narrow gorge or defile, called Klus, a mile long, broken through by some geological phenomena, so as to give passage to the waters of ibe Landquart, a furious torrent. The valley abounds in fine scenery, is shut in by high mountains and glaciers, and is famed for its large breed of cattle. The rt., or N. side of the valley, is occupied by the Alpine chain of the Rhætikon, which separates it from the Vorarlberg and from the vale of Montafun. Its most remarkable summits are the Falknis, overlooking the Rhine, the Scesa Plana, and the Fermund (Ferreus Mons), on the borders of the Engadine. It is crossed by several passes - one is called Druser-Thor. The road ascends on the rt. bank of the Landquart by Grüsch and Schiersch to Rütinen, where it crosses the stream to

Fideris. About 2 miles S. of the village, in the wild, romantic vale of Raschitsch, a tributary of the Landquart, stand the Baths of Fideris, considered efficacious in cases of intermittent fevers, supplied by several alkaline acidulous springs, the strongest of their class in Switzerland. Visiters are accommodated in two Bath Houses, capable of lodging 100 persons. The visiters are almost exclusively Swiss.

Above the village of Fideris rises the ruined castle of Strahleck; and, on the rt. bank of the Landquart, opposite, that of Castels, which was stormed and taken, in 1622, by the peasants, armed with sticks alone, from the soldiers of the emperor Ferdinand, who at that period wanted to make himself master of the passes of the Grisons, to extinguish thc Protestant religion in this country, and to seize and banish its ministers. A path leads S., in 3 1/2 hours, over the mountains, into the Schalfik-thal.

About 13 miles above Fideris, on the rt. bank of the Landquart, lies Klosters (Inn, near the bridge), a village, named after a convent suppressed 1528.

Paths go from hence S. over the Stutz into the Davos-thal, and E. over the Selvretta into the Engadine. The latter runs up the Valley of Vareina, and down the valley of Süss. Süss is 9 stunden from Klosters.

* ROUTE 82.

PASS OF THE JULIER, FROM COIRE UP THE VALLEY OF

OBERHALBSTEIN, TO THE BATHS OF ST. MAURITZ, IN THE ENGADINE.

16 3/4 stunden 52 1/2 English miles.

The long-projected carriage road up the valley of the Oberhalbstein, and across the Julier, has at length been undertaken by the canton of the Grisons, and was so far advanced, in September, 1837, that carriages with 2 or 4 horses, could drive as far as Tiefenkasten. The rest of the journey may be performed in a char. But the entire road may possibly be completed in 1838. There is as yet great want of inns beween Coire and St. Mauritz. Lenz is a tolerable dining-place; but the traveller will do well in stowing away some eatables in his wallet, in case of accidents. He will everywhere be able to procure the tolerable wine of the Valteline.

On quitting Coire, the traveller leaves, on the l., the entrance to the Schalsík-thal, and passes through the villages of Malix, Churwalden, and Parpan; then, over a barren heath, to

4 3/4 Len 2-(Inn: Krone; not very good). Here the read divides; one branch, a path, runs to the Albula (Route 83); the other is the carriage-road to the Julier. Beyond Lenz, the Romansch tongue (p. 245) is almost exclusively spoken; even German is rarely understood, except in the inns.

The river Albula is crossed, in order to reach Tiefenkasten (Rom. Casté), a village situated, as its name implies, in a deep hollow, at the entrance of the Oberhalbstein. This valley runs up to the foot of the Julier and Septimer, a distance of about 20 miles. It is scattered over with ruins of castles; no less than 10 of which may still be counted. Immediately above Tiefenkasten, the road is carried through a remarkable gorge, called the Stein, which has been compared, in the grandeur of its scenery, with the Via Mala (Route 87).

2 Conters. Above this lies Savognin, or Schweiningen. At

1 Tinzen-Inn-travellers are received at the house of the magistrate (Landyoght), Dosch; it is but humble quarters. This part of the valley is very bleak and bare; its inhabitants, the women especially, bave a most squalid aspect. A constant and steep ascent through the villages of Rofna, Molins (Muhlen), to reach which the road crosses the stream, recrossing it to the next village of Saur and Marmels, brings you at length to

3 1/2 Bivio Stalla (the Capucin, who acts as parish priest, would possibly accommodate a traveller). This village lies at the foot of two passes, the Septimer, on the rt., leading into the Val Bregaglia and the Julier, in a direction nearly due E. it is placed in a secluded basin, shut in by high mountains, in a climate so severe that all vegetation is stunted. Not a tree can grow in the neighbourhood, and the people are reduced to burn sheep dung for fuel. Potatoes rarely ripen at this height-5630 ft. above the sea.

It takes about two hours to ascend from Stalla to the summit of the Julier Pass, 6830 ft. above the sea level. The ascent is not difficult, and the pass is remarkably safe from avalanches. Its scenery is not particularly grand, the outline of the mountains being round. On the top, the road passes between two rudely-hewn pillars of granite (derived from the neighbouring mountains), believed to be Roman, called Julius's Columns. They are about 4 ft. high, destitute of inscription, but may have been set up as mile-stones in the time of Augustus, who caused a Roman highway to be carried from Chiavenna over the passes of the Maloja and Julier. A carriage road was formed across this pass to St. Mauritz in 1823; but, as no attempt was made, till very lately, to improve the approach to it through the Oberhalbstein, little advantage was gained by it. Flocks of Bergamesque sheep are often found on the highest pastures, near the summit of the pass, in summer. A still more easy descent leads into the Engadine, to the village of

3 1/2 Silva Plana, situated between two small lakes, which are seeders and reservoirs of the river Inn, at the junc. tion of the roads from the two passes of the Julier and Maloja, 5560 ft. aboye the sea.

About 4 miles lower down, on the I. bank of the Inn, stands

1 1/4 St. Mauritz.-There are three Inns here, the Upper (Obere), best; Mittlere and Untere Gasthof: the accommodation in all is of the homeliest kind. This little village is rising into repute in Switzerland as a watering-place, upon the strength of its very powerful chalybeate waters, first described, 1539, by Paracelsus. The spring rises at the foot of Mount Rosegg, on the rt. bank of the Inn. A Kurhaus

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