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Summary of students in classical and scientific preparatory courses.
196 Oregon....... Pennsylvania .....
109 Rhode Island
Total .......... 2,965
The total number reported in courses preparatory to the scientific schools or to the scientific departments of colleges was 6,477. Of this number, 1,233 were in the city high schools, (public,) 1,514 were in academies, 2,274 were in other preparatory schools embraced in Table VI, and the remaining 1,426 were in preparatory departments of scientific schools or of colleges. The whole number of the two classes reported was 45,352.
It will be seen, by referring to the summaries of the tables of colleges and of scientific schools, that in 1873 there were in collegiate courses 25,010 classical and 3,414 scientific students. Perhaps one-third of these would represent the number in the preparatory courses who will be sent up to the colleges and scientific schools in 1874. In what stage of their preparation the 45,000 students reported as in preparatory classes were cannot be determined.*
A cursory examination of the preceding summary develops some instructive facts:
In the six New England States the city high schools are preparing 664 students, the academies are preparing 985 students, and the special preparatory schools and preparatory departments 2,586 students, while the colleges themselves are preparing only 40.
In other words, the academies of New England are preparing 3,571, or more than 83 in 100 of students being fitted for superior classical instruction. The case is very different in other portions of the Union. For example, in the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin the city high schools are preparing 1,213 students; the ordinary academies, 791 ; other preparatory schools, 731, and the preparatory departments of the colleges, 9,472 ; that is to say, 127 per cent. of this work is done by the academies and preparatory schools and 774 per cent, by the colleges themselves; only about 10 per cent. are preparing in the city high schools. It thus appears that out of every 100 students preparing for college in New England, the colleges of New England are only burdened with the care of 1, wbile 83 out of every 100 students preparing in the Northwestern States mentioned must be drilled by the colleges. It is obvious that until institutions of secondary instruction are able to supply a sufficient
number of prepared students to the colleges or until the city high schools regularly / give opportunity for acquiring the rudiments of classical training, American colleges
in the West and South must directly or indirectly prepare at least 75 per cent. of their students. Of course there are exceptional cases in which this necessity does not exist, but this burden on secondary instruction borne by institutions chartered as colleges, though unavoidable under existing circumstances, is nevertheless a very grievous one. Such a condition of affairs tends to a low standard of scholarship in the colleges, impairs the energies of the teachers, and fails to arouse and foster a love of high and thorough culture among students.
Of the 949 students in New England reported as preparing for scientific colleges, 165 were in city high schools, 768 in academies and special preparatory schools, and 16 in preparatory departments of colleges; while, in the Northwestern States before mentioned, of the 1,278 students thus preparing, 489 were in city high schools, 497 in academies and special preparatory schools, and 292 in preparatory departments of colleges. t RELATIONS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS TO THE COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS OF SCIENCE.
The past few years bave been fruitful in discussions of the higher education, both classical and scientific, the results of which are seen in the new vigor, in the improved
* College-entrance-examinations. No statistics have been collected ip respect to the proportion of applicants annually rejected on examination for admission to the colleges since the effort made by this Office in 1871, which resulted chiefly in showing that few colleges kept any record of these examinations and that very few examined the candidates respecting their knowledge of the English lan guage. The Military and Naval Academies are the only institutions of superior instruction in regard to which we have official annual data of this character. It is qnestionable whether these would afford a very accurate criterion for the universities and colleges.-(See extracts from report of Board of Visitors of Military Academy, under " Military and Naval Academies," p. lxxxvii of this report.)
t For Harvard entrance-examinations for 1876, soe summary under the head of "Colleges."
methods, and in the wider and higher aims of the better class of our colleges and schools of science.
These discussions have incidentally thrown much light on the present condition of secondary instruction, and the relations of secondary schools to the colleges and schools of science have become in turn the subject of a good deal of thought and discussion among educators.
Academies and high schools.-It is from the academies and endowed schools embraced in Tables V and VI that the colleges and schools of science in the North and East receive the majority of their students. It will be seen, by referring to the summary under the head of preparatory schools, that in 1873 there were, in academies and other secondary schools not belonging to the public-school-system, 14,563 pupils reported in courses of study preparatory to the colleges and schools of science, while in the public high schools there were of this class but 4,198.
Present condition of the schools.-While many of these schools are of a higb order of merit and afford excellent training for the colleges and schools of science, it is nevertheless the common observation of experienced educators tbat a large proportion of the class do not neet present requirements, either in the qnality or extent of training, whether the destination of their pupils be the college, the school of science, or business. Many of them are doing the work of the primary school ; in a great number, the variety of classes and the great multiplicity of studies are out of all proportion to the teaching force. Even in many of the long-established schools, the old routine of studies is kept up, notwithstanding the changes in the curriculum of the classical colleges and the special requirements of the schools of science. The frequent changes of teach-' ens and the insufficient inducements for well-trained graduates of the colleges and schools of science to adopt teaching as a profession serve to keep many of the schools at a low standard. Hence the superficiality of much of the so-called secondary instruction; hence the little uniformity of standard in schools nominally of the same general class; hence, too, the little philosophical arrangement or co-ordination of studies and the general lack of the due co-operation with the aims of advanced instruction.
Entrance-examinations at Tet Point.-In their report for 1873 the visitors of the Military Academy call the attention of all school-officers and teachers to the surprising fact that, of the 134 appointees of the year, 49, or 38 per cent., were rejected on the scholastic examination, and express the opinion that this result was mainly due to the want of thoroughness in the schools. As the candidates must be between 17 and 22 years of age, the majority of the failures are to be attributed to the low standard in schools for secondary instruction.
Sheffield Scientific School.—The report of the committee on the Latin entrance-examidation of the Sheffield Scientific School holds the following language on the causes of the inefficiency of the secondary and preparatory schools in classical, especially Latin, instruction. Much of the criticism would doubtless apply with equal truth to other sabjects which it is the business of these schools to teach.
In the large majority of cases it is believed that the teachers are young graduates of college, who for ulterior objects spend two, three, and four years in teaching, and who are usually so pressed with work that they cannot if they would make up to any considerable extent their own deficiencies. The consequence frequently is that the student is pat over precisely tbe same course, good or bad, that his teacher had purspell, and thas many defective and even pernicious methods have been perpetuated by a long succession of pro-tempore teachers and the student's time and the cause of classical education have often been sacrificed. Even among uuquestionably competent Latia scholars, tradition and fashion have often bad undue intluence, and their own narrow-mindedness bas sometimes been one cause of the failure, partial or complete, of Classical studies to secure a really good education. Methods and objects, proper and Eseful enough in the sixteenth century, have been held on to in some places with almost religions bigotry; reasons for classical study, which in fact are chiefly historical, bave been invented, of a necessary and a priori character; and the growth of modern literatures, the advance of science, and in particular of the science of language, have often failed to open the eyes of the classical zealot to the changed position of classical stodies in the sum total of human knowledge. The side incompetence of classical teachers is another cause, temporary probably,
but very much to be regretted, of unsuccessful classical study. Only those, perhaps, who have had considerable experience in conducting college-entrance-examinations can realize this in its full extent; but the knowledge of the fact is by no means confined to them. Able and experienced scholars, who are at the head of various preparatory schools scattered throughout the land, find this one of the most formidable difficulties they are obliged to encounter in giving efficiency to the institutions under their charge. Of course this state of things cannot be so noticeable in New England as in other parts of the country. Aside from the fact intimated above, that so many classical teachers are young college-graduates, there are many academies, select schools, and public schools in which the bulk of the bigher teaching is done by one man. He does this, perhaps, year after year, beginning probably with only general attainments, which subsequent reading does little to advance. It cannot be expected that much efficient teaching of any kind can be done under such circumstances, still less in a language so difficult as the Latin, and where such wide and varied reading is necessary for the elucidation and illustration of a single author.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.-Mr. W. P. Atkinson, A. M., professor of English and history in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, says:
The question of the best method of adjusting my instruction to the real wants of the students of the institute has been from the outset a very perplexing one. The imperfect preparation for the scientific studies of the course which the students bring with
them lays a heavy pressure upon them in that direction; and, on the other hand, the ; deficiencies of too many of them in English studies require an attention to rudimentary
drill, especially in composition, which should properly have been completed before admission.
Elementary deficiencies are very general. I have taken the ground that, while the Institute of Technology does not offer itself as a teacher of writing, spelling, punctuation, and the rudiments of the art of composition, it will give all the incidental help it can to its students for the making-up of such deficiencies in their ecbool-education, but should refuse to give a degree or diploma to any student who, by the end of the four years, has not acquired, directly or indirectly, a 'satisfactory proficiency in them.
Endowed, chartered, and private secondary schools. In the census of 1070 there were in the whole country over 1,500 schools reported under the head of academies. It is evident that most of those for the superior instruction of women, reported in Table VII of the appendix, were included by the census in this class. The number of secondary schools embraced in Tables V, VI, and VII of the appendix of this report is 1,235. The number exclusive of those embraced in Table VII is 1,030, of which number 447 are chartered schools. Of these 1,030, 193 are boys' schools, 196 are girls' schools, and 651 are for boys and girls.
Denominational schools.—Of the 1,030 secondary institutions above indicated, 440 were reported under the patronage of religious denominations and were distributed as follows, viz: Roman Catholic, 100; Presbyterian, 69; Protestant Episcopal, 63; Congregational, 47 ; Baptist, 34; Methodist Episcopal, 20; Methodist, 19; Friends, 16; Freewill Baptist, 11 ; Lutheran, 10; Universalist, 7 ; Reformed, 6; Christian, 5; American Missionary Association, 4; Methodist Episcopal South, 4; Union, 4; New Jerusalem, 3; Evangelical, 3; Moravian, 3; United Presbyterian, 2; Orthodox, 2; and the remaining 8 under the following denominations, respectively: Reformed Dutch, Reformed German, Unitarian, Independent, Seventh-Day Baptist, Cumberland Presbyterian, United Brethren, and Protestant. Two hundred and ninety were reported as nonsectarian and 300 did not report at all upon this point.
Teacher8.—The number of teachers reported in Table V was 5,058, of whom 2,029 were men and 3,029 were women. The number of teachers in preparatory schools and preparatory departments, Tablo VI, was 690.
Endowments. The schools in several States reporting more than nominal endowments are as follows: In Connecticut, the Morgan School, Clinton, $50,000; Bacon Academy, Colchester, $16,000; Hartford Public High School, $30,000; Buckley School, New London, $50,000; Norwich Free Academy, $90,000 ; Connecticut Literary Institution, Suffield, $22,000 ; Woodstock Academy; $16,000 : in Delaware, Middletown Academy, at Middletown, $8,000: in Georgia, Hearn Manual-Labor School, Cave Spring, $7,500; Martiu Institute, Jefferson, $17,000 : in Illinois, Grand Prairie Seminary and Commercial College, Onarga, $20,000: in Indiana, St. Mary's Academy, La Fayette, $25,000; Vincennes University, $48,000: in Kentucky, Mt. St. Benedict's Academy, Portland, $10,000;
Shelby Graded School, Shelbyville, $11,000: in Maine, East Maine Conference Semipary, Bucksport, $30,000; Westbrook Seminary, Deering, $25,000 ; Lincoln Academy, Newcastle, $10,300; Bridgeton Academy, North Bridgeton, $14,000; Maine Central Institute, Pittsfield, $12,000 : in Maryland, McDonogh Institute, Owing's Mills, $680,000: in Massachusetts, Punchard Free School, Andover, $60,000; Phillips Academy, Andover, $93,500; Hitchcock Free High School, Brimfield, $76,277; Williston Seminary, Easthampton, $100,000; Dean Academy, Franklin, $180,000; Lawrence Academy, Groton, $80,000; Putnam Free and Brown High School, Newburyport, $41,351; Wesleyad Academy, Wilbrabam, $70,000; Worcester Academy, $100,000: in New Hampshire, Pinkerton Academy, Derry, 20,000; Pbillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, $225,000 ; Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, $38,000; New Hampton Literary and Biblical Institute, $20,000; New Ipswich Appleton Academy, $25,000; Christian Institute, Wolf boro', $15,000 : in New Jersey, Farnum Preparatory School, Beverly, $20,000; Princeton Preparatory School, $30,000; Trenton Academy, $11,500: in New York, Clinton Liberal Institute, Clinton, $36,650; S. S. Seward Institute, Florida, $30,000 ; Ten Broeck Free Academy, Franklinville, $50,000; Gouverneur Seminary, $19,500; Colgate Academy, Hamilton, $30,000; Cook Academy, Havana, $45,135; Lowville Academy, $15,000; Cary Collegiate Institute, Oakfield, $20,000; Evans Academy, Peterboro', $15,082 ; Chamberlin Institute, Randolph, $42,291 ; De Veaux College, Supension Bridge, $190,645 : in Obio, Grand River Institute, Austinburg, $15,000; Gallia Academy, Gallipolis, $11,000; Raven High School, Youngstown, $70,000: in Oregon, Bishop Scott Grammar and Divinity School, Portland, $7,000 : in Pennsylvania, Academy of the Protestant-Episcopal Church, Philadelphia, $15,000 : in Rhode Island, New England Yearly Meeting Boarding School of Friends, Providence, $125,000 ; Lapham Institute, North Scituate, $10,000 : in Tennessee, Lo Moyne Commercial School, Memphis, $11,000 : in Vermont, Episcopal Institute, Burlington, $10,000 ; Castleton Seminary, $30,000; Burr and Burton Seminary, Manchester, $40,000 ; Beeman Academy, New Haven, $11,420 ; Caledonia County Grammar School, Peacham, $16,000; St. Johnsbury Academy, $10,000; Green Mt. Perkins Academy, Woodstock, $12,000 : in Wisconsin, Albion Academy and Normal Institute, $5,000; German and English Academy, Milwaukee, $6,000. Many other schools report small funds varying froin $3,000 to $10,000.
Insufficient endowments.- It will be observed that the endowments of only a very small number, and these mostly in the Middle and New England States, are sufficient to sustain the necessary teaching force of a well-appointed academy. In the great majority of cases the revenues from tuition-fees constitute the main fund for the payment of teachers' salaries and current expenses. Hence the financial results are often viewed as the measure of success of the schools. Salaries are generally too low to secure highly-trained men for head masters and assistants. It is true that men of superior qualifications are often found in them, but the business of teaching is often taken up by these as a mere temporary resource. As a general thing, the schools are sadly deficient in suitable apparatus for teaching physical science ; many of them possess none whatever. It is no doubt partly owing to the inferior quality of instruction given in these institutions as a class that so small a proportion of pupils pass into them from the lower schools. The statistics collected by the Bureau show that the number of pupils in the secondary schools of all classes, including city high schools (public) and those for the superior instruction of women, was, on an average for the whole country, 50 to each 1,000 of the population between the ages of 14 and 18. Even this ratio is donbtless quite too large for those who were in secondary courses of instruction. The following table will show the like proportion of pupils in secondary schools for the several States :