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servatory of Music at Brussels, 538 students ; Conservatory of Music at Liége, 811 students; military school at Brussels, 97 students; two schools of navigation, (Antwerp and Ostende,) 70 students. Total number of special schools, 82, with 13,171 students.
DEXMARK, constitutional monarchy, (kingdom :) Area of Denmark proper, 14,533 square miles;
population, 1,784,741. Area of the colonies, (Færoer, Iceland, Greenland, West Indies,) 55,580 square miles; population, 125,891. Capital, Copenhagen; population, 181, 291. Minister of worship and public instruction, C. C. Hall.
Primary instruction.—The basis of the present system is the school-law of 1814, with several additions and modifications made in 1818, 1844, 1855, 1856, 1863, and 1864. Education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 7 and 13.
The sums required for the support of primary schools are chiefly raised by the manicipalities by a small school-fee, a school-fund, and by subsidies from the central goyernment. The whole country is divided into school-districts, which have the following statistics for 1867 :
Number of public schools, 2,781; number of male teachers, 2,929; number of female teachers, 59—total number of teachers, 2,988; number of children of school-age, 200,761 ; number of children attending public schools, 194,198; number of children attending private schools, 13,994-total number of children under instruction, 208,192 ; number of normal schools, 5, with 233 students.
Secondary instruction.—The laws in force are those of 1805 and 1809, though considerably amended and modified. The secondary schools are both private and public, and, so far as their course of instruction is regarded, are either so-called cathedral- or learned schools, classical colleges, or higher realschools.
Number of public cathedral-schools, 15; number of public higher realschools, 5; number of private schools, 6–total number of secondary schools, 26; number of teachers in public cathedral-schools, 163; number of teachers in public higher real schools, 6; number of teachers in private schools, 145; number of teachers in secondary schools, 314; number of students in public cathedral-schools, 1,629; number of students in public higher real schools, 410; number of students in private schools, 1,437; total number of students in secondary schools, 3,476.
Superior instruction. The University of Copenhagen, with five faculties, viz: theology, with 5 professors; law, with 6; medicine, 11 ; philosophical sciences, 19, and mathematical and natural sciences, 10; inaking a total of 51 professors and attended by about 1,200 students.
Special instruction.-Royal polytechnic school, with 13 professors; the school of agriculture, veterinary surgery, and forestry, with 16 professors; the military school; the baral school; a number of schools of navigation; the academy of fine arts.
GERMANY, constitutional monarchy, (empire :) Area, 212,091 squaro miles; population, 41,060,695.
Capital, Berlin; population, 826,341.
Germany has no national system of education, but each of the twenty-six states composing the empire has its own ministry or bureau of public instruction and manages its own educational affairs. Education is compulsory in all the states.
Primary instruction, statistics of 1871.-Number of public primary schools, 60,000; number of pupils attending, 6,000,000; number of normal schools, 152.
Secondary instruction.-Number of gymnasia, 330; number of realgymnasia, 14; number of progymnasia and Latin schools, 214; number of real schools and higher burgber-schools, 485–total number of secondary schools, 1,043; total number of stadents in secondary schools, 177,379.
Superior instruction.-Number of universities, 21; number of students, 15,587 ; number of professors, 1,665; number of polytechnic schools, 10; number of students, 260; number of professors, 4,500.
The detailed statistics of the German universities for the academic term 1872-73 show the following:
1. Berlin... 2. Bonn......... 3. Breslau............ 4. Erlangen........................... 5. Freiberg ... 6. Giessen ... 7. Göttingen... 8. Greifswald.... 9. Hallo..... 10. Heidelberg........... 11. Jena ..... 12. Kiel............. 13. Königsberg.... 14. Leipzig... 15. Marburg. 16. Munich .. 17. Münster.. 18. Rostock... 19. Strasburg ........... 20. Tübingon ................... 21. Würzburg............
733 374 149
581 2, 650
Special instruction.-Number of industrial and drawing-schools, 253; number of schools of agriculture, 97; schools for nurses, 45; military-schools, 39; business-colleges, 37; schools of architecture, 30; schools of navigation, 24; schools of mining, 19; schools of music, 18; schools of forestry, 10; schools of veterinary surgery, 9; schools of gymnastics, 6; schools of surgery, 6-total number of special schools, 593.
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, constitutional monarchy, (kingdom :) Area, 121, 114 squaro miles ; popula
tion, 31,817, 108.
1. ENGLAND AND WALES: Area, 58,673 square miles; population, 23,055, 756. Capital, London; popula
tion, 3,883,092. Lord president of the council on education, the Earl of Ripon; vice-president of the committee of the council on education, Hon. William Edward Forster.
Primary instruction. The basis of the present system is the elementary-educationact” of 1870, by which it is provided that there shall be for every school-district a sufficient amount of accommodation in public elementary schools available for all the children resident in such district for whose elementary education efficient and suitable provision is not otherwise made." It is enacted further that all children attending these “public elementary schools,” whose parents are unable, from poverty, to pay anythings towards their education, shall be admitted free, and the expenses so incurred be discharged from local rates. The new schools are placed in each district under "schoolboards," invested with great powers, among others that of making it compulsory upon parents to give all children between the ages of 5 and 13 the advantages of education.
Since August, 1872, Scotland has a separate committee of council on education, the bill to amend and extend the provisions of the law of Scotland on the subject of education" having become law on the 6th of Augnst, 1872. The parliamentary grants for popular education in England, Wales, and Scotland, in 1872, amounted to £1,551,560.
Higher elementary and secondary instruction.—It is difficult to draw the dividing line, but in nearly all the schools, under this head, at least Latin is taught, in most of them Latin, Greek, and mathematics. They are either public schools or endowed and private schools.
The six great public schools are Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, Harrow, and Rugby, with a total of about 2,600 scholars. The number of endowed and private schools, in 1872, was (according to Our Schools and Colleges, by F. S. de Carteret-Bisson) 2,160; of this number 1,254 are simply called schools or institutes, 603 grammar-schools, 153 colleges, 92 academies, and 58 classical and commercial schools.
Superior instruction.—The number of universities is six, viz: Oxford, Cambridge, Durham, London, University College, (London,) and King's College, (London.)
Special instruction.- Military schools, 7; Royal Military College, Sandhurst; Staff College, Sandhurst; Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; Indian Civil-Engineering College, Cooper's Hill, Middlesex; Army Medical School, Notley ; Royal Military Asylum Model Schools, Chelsea ; Royal Military Asylum, Duke of York's schools, Chelsea. Number of medical colleges, 18; number of theological colleges, 33; number of naval schools, 5; miscellaneous, technical, and art-schools, Royal School of Mines, Royal College of Chemistry, Royal Veterinary College, Royal Academy of Arts. Number of artschools under the art- and science-department, 122, with 22,854 students.
2. SCOTLAND: Area, 30,686 square miles; population, 3,358,613. Capital, Edinburgh; population, 196,979.
Committee of council on education, the Duke of Argyle, Hon. Henry Austin Bruce, Right Hon. · George Young.
The Scotch education-bill.—The bill “to amend and extend the provisions of the law of Scotland on the subject of education” became law on the 6th August, 1872, and on the 9th day of August, 1872, the Queen, in council, appointed the above-mentioned men a committee of council on education in Scotland.
Statistics of elementary schools.
Estimated population at the middle of the year .......
Receiving annual grants ........................
In annual-grant-schools .........
In schools simply inspected. Present at examination:
Training-schools.-According to the last report 712 non-resident students are in training, in addition to 43 female students resident in the Episcopal Training School at Edinburgh.
The following table shows the increase which has taken place in the number of candidates for admission to training-schools and of students undergoing a course of professional instruction :
Superior instruction.-Four universities-Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and St. Andrews.
3. IRELAND: Area, 31,874 square miles; population, 5,402,759. Capital, Dublin ; population, 245,724
There are twenty commissioners of national education in Ireland ; secretary, James Kelly, educa tion-office, Dublin.
Primary instruction, statistics for 1872.-Number of schools in operation, 7,050; number of children on the rolls, 1,010,148; average daily attendance, 355,821 ; number of teachers, 9,756; number of district- and minor model schools, 27, with 19,076 pupils ; total number of school-farms, 181. Annual disbursement, £333,904 198. 41.
Superior education.-Five universities-Queen's University, Dublin; Queen's College Belfast; Queen's College, Galway; Queen's College, Cork; and the Catholic University of Ireland, at Dublin.
ITALY, constitutional monarchy, (kin gdom :) Area, 112,677 square miles; population, 26,801,15
Capital, Rome; population, 244,484. Minister of public instruction, A. Scialcia. Primary instruction, statistics for 1872.-Number of schools: Public schools for boys, 17,845; public schools for girls, 12,609—total number of public schools, 30,456. Private schools for boys, 3,503 ; private schools for girls, 3,671—total number of private schools, 7,179; total number of primary schools, 37,635.