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of the Italian nation. A great plastic model of Vesuvius deserves special mention. A skillful hand planned it, and it is in every way a most interesting object.
Widely varying opinions are expressed by the Swiss Bund and the Vienna Freie Pädagogische Blätter concerning the Russian educational exbibition. The former says: “ The Russian educational exhibition is a mere rudiment compared with the other civilized States of Europe," and finds nothing worthy of remark but a series of " objectlessons for the school and family.” The latter paper remarks :
Ou visiting the Russian educational exhibition we find occasion to rid ourselves of many a prejudice. Russia here appears very respectable, not by the number of objects exhibited, but by their excellence. The object-lessons for the school and family are truly admirable. The work done by the inmates of the Warsaw Institute for the Blind deserves to be mentioned, as well as two models of school-desks. A box with arithmetical blocks is very practical, and it is only astonishing to find it in the Russian department, because the Russians are particularly fond of complicated calculating-ma chines. Russia has a great future, and even its small educational exhibition is a grain of seed from which much may be expected.
Of Portugal the Freie Pädagogische Blätter says:
The Portuguese school-house makes a very pleasant impression from the outside, but inside it looks very empty. On the walls there are photograpuic views of schoolhouses, wbich show that the school-house exhibited cannot be considered a model. Among the few objects exhibited our attention is first of all attracted by the schooldesks, in which there is nothing remarkable, except that there are two seats screwed firmly to the floor belongiug to every desk. Some pictures of parts of the human body elicit the inquiry whether in Portugal drawing consists merely in copying and whether in mathemetical instruction no natural bodies are employed. Neither the one nor the other awakens a favorable opinion of the method of Portuguese educators. The cartagraphic exhibition comprised two-maps, both of Portugal, one of them lithographed, the other drawn by hand.
EUROPEAN TOUR. On the first day of August I received your instructions to visit the various states in Europe to observe their educational systems, especially to study the representation of education at the Exposition in Vienna, and gather such facts and suggestions as would better enable this Office to meet the demands upon it for information in regard to education in foreign countries. I sailed on the 3d instant and returned in November, haying been as far north as Edinburgh and Glasgow, as far south as Rome, and as far east as Vienna and Berlin. My attention was directed chiefly to the organization of educational systems and institutions, but including, as far as circumstances permitted, the minutest details in methods of instruction and discipline, from the professional or aniversity-training through all grades, down to the plays of the Kindergarten and the nursing of the crèches; tracing, as far as lay in my power, the effect of differences in system and method upon the condition of the people, their comforts, their industries, their vices, crimes, and virtues. Reports and documents bearing upon all the phases of education were collected as far as was possible. Nothing so complete on the present condition of foreign education has ever been gathered in this country in a single year as has by this and other means come to this Office during the past year. It is impossible to bring out in a single report all of this information that would be valuable to American educators. I include here only the baldest statement of figures and facts in regard to the countries visited, and some others from which officials reports have been received. The great mass of suggestion and information can only come out in special publications as opportunity offers in the future.
During the past year an unprecedented number of American educators, induced by the opportunities afforded by the Vienna Exposition for comparing the different systems of education and of conveniently observing the methods and apparatus used in the various European countries, visited Europe. Many of them have brought home more or less valuable observations; all desire what may be gathered from official sonrces. The inquiries of these educators and of other persons whose desire for information has beeu stimulated by converse with them have made the demands on this Oflice very great, perhaps greater than it can fully meet, but I propose to do all that the means placed at the command of the Office will allow. It has been estimated that American educators expended in foreign travel last year not less than $500,000.
I onght not to dismiss this subject without expressing the satisfaction I received from meeting so many eminent gentlemen who bave been in correspondence with this Office. The cordiality and consideration extended to me by every minister or official of public systems or institutions of education on whom I had occasion to call, were altogether too great to be appropriated to my own personality, and could only be received as the expression of their feelings towards the country that it was my privilege to represent in my travels.
This interest in the educational work and progress in foreign countries, which is thus strikingly shown, has been long apparent in the correspondence of this Office, and to meet this the abstracts of foreign educational progress bave been prepared and inserted in the appendix to my annual reports. Want of space compels me, in my present report, to substitute for the extended abstract prepared for the appendix the following statistical summary: LATEST STATISTICS OF EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
1.-EUROPE." Austro-Hungarian monarchy: Area, 226,406 square miles; population, 35,904,435. Since the year 1867, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy forms a bipartite state, consisting of a German, or “cisleitlan," monarchy, and a Magyar, or "transleithap,” kingdom, the former officially designated as Austria and the latter as Hungary. Each of the two countries has its own parliament, ministers, and government, while the connecting ties between them consist in the person of the hereditary sovereign, in a common army, navy, and diplomacy, and in a controlling body known as the delegation, half of whom are chosen by Austria and half by Hungary. 1. ACSTRIA, constitutional monarchy: Area, 108,234 square miles; population, 20,394,980. Capital,
Vienna; population, 834,284. Minister of worship and public instruction, C. V. Stremayr. Administration.—The highest authority is the ministry of public instruction, established in 1848; subordinate are the provincial school-council in each province, the district-school-council in each school-district of which there are 363—and the municipal scbool-council in each municipality.
The ministry of public instruction has the supervision of educational institutions of every grade, the provincial school-council of all except the universities; the district school-council of all institutions of primary instruction, with the exception of the norinal schools, which belong to the former council, and the municipal school-council of all public schools in the municipality. Each council reports to the next highest authority and the ministry publishes (since 1870) an annual report.
Primary instruction.-Primary instruction has been considered compulsory since 1781 for all children between the ages of 6 and 14. The school-law in force is that of 1869. The sums needed for maintaining primary schools are raised by the township and district, and in cases of necessity the province grants subsidies. The normal schools are supported by the general government.
In 1873 the total expenses for primary instruction were $7,660,305, gold, of which $530,350 were raised by the general government and $7,079,955 by the townships, districts, and provinces.
Statisties of primary schools : Number of public schools, 13,815; number of private schools, 954-total number of primary schools, 14,769.
Connected with these schools are 71 infant-asylums, 73 Kindergärten, 10,277 repetition-courses, 108 agricultural courses, and 49 industrial courses. Number of male teachers, 20,904; number of female teachers, 3,445 ; number of assistant teachers, 910– total number of teachers, 25,259. Number of boys of school-age, 1,701,000; number of girls of school-age, 1,709,100—total number of children of school-age, 3,410,100. Number of boys attending school, 942,497; number of girls attending school, 428,316-total number of children attending school, 1,370,813. Number of normal schools for males, 40; Dumber of normal schools for females, 20—total number of normal schools, 60. Number of teachers in male normal schools, 381 ; number of teachers in female normal
schools, 200—total number of teachers in normal schools, 581. Number of students in male normal schools, 1,978; number of students in female normal schools, 1,307 - total number of students in normal schools, 3,285.
Secondary instruction.—The institutions representing secondary instruction are gympasia, realschools, and realgymnasia, (a combination of the two.) The total expenditure for secondary instruction in 1873 was $2,168,513, gold, of which sum the general government contributed $1,273,950, gold, and the provinces and municipalities $1,168,513.
Number of gymnasia, 93; number of realgymnasia, 48; number of realschools, 64 -total number of secondary schools, 205. Number of teachers in gymnasia, 1,667 ; number of teachers in realgymnasia, 571; number of teachers in realschools, 1,069— total number of teachers in secondary schools, 3,307. Number of students in gymnasia, 24,429; number of students in realgymnasia, 7,042; number of students in realschools, 18,349—total number of students in secondary schools, 49,820.
Superior instruction. The institutions grouped under this head are universities and technical high schools or polytechnic schools, all under the supervision of the ministry of public instruction. During the scholastic year 1872–73 the expenses for superior instruction amounted to $1,386,900, gold, viz, $990,700 for the universities, paid entirely by the central government, and $396,200 for the polytechnic schools-$430,700 by the central government and $137,500 by the provinces.
Special instruction.—Theolugical seminaries, 44, with 254 professors and 1,847 students. Of these seminaries, 39, with 229 professors and 1,616 students, are Roman Catholic; 3, with 16 professors and 92 students, are Greek; 1, with 3 professors and 2 students, is Armenian, and 1, with 6 professors and 37 students, is Protestant. Schools of surgery, 3, with 35 professors and 602 students. Schools of mining, 4, with 25 professors and 352 students. Schools of forestry,5, with 28 professors and 352 students. School of veterinary surgery, 1. Schools of agriculture, 35. Schools of navigation,5. Business-colleges, 6. Schools for nurses, 12. Schools of music, 3. Academies of fine arts, 3. Industrial schools, 31. Military schools, 13.
The theological seminaries are supported by the different religious denominations ; the schools of surgery and of navigation, the schools for nurses, the business-colleges, the schools of music, the academies of fiue arts, and the industrial schools, by the min. istry of public instruction; the schools of agriculture and of forestry, by the ministry of agriculture; the schools of mining, by the ministry of finance; the school of veterinary surgery and the military schools, by the ministry of war.
2. HUNGARY, constitutional monarchy: Area, 118,172 squaro miles; population, 15,509, 455. Capital,
Buda-Pest; population, 256,488. Minister of worship and public instruction, A. Trefort. School-legislation. The school-law which is in force dates from the year 1867. According to this law all the schools, public and private, are under the supervision of the ministry of public instruction. The expenses are met by the municipalities and in cases of extreme need a subsidy is granted by the general government. Education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 6 and 12 in the primary schools and between the ages of 12 and 15 in the repetition-courses.
Primary instruction.-Number of public schools, 14,550 ; number of teachers, 19,297 ; Dumber of children of school-age, 2,206,187; number of children attending school, 1,233,500. Number of state normal schools, 20; number of denominational normal schools, 40—total number of normal schools, 60; total number of professors in normal schools, 368; total number of students in normal schools, 1,786; number of adults receiving instruction, 55,000.
Secondary instruction.-Number of gymnasia, 146; number of realschools, 28—total number of secondary schools, 174. Number of students in gymnasia, 30,992; number of students in realschools, 5,472—total number of students in secondary schools, 36,464. Number of teachers in gymnasia, 1,624 ; number of teachers in real schools, 267-total number of teachers in secondary schools, 1,891.
Superior instruction.-Number of universities, 2, with 149 professors and 2,375 students; number of polytechnic schools, 1, with 42 professors and 451 students.
Special instruction.-Number of theological seminaries, 41, with 231 professors and 1,660 students; number of law-schools, 15, with 102 professors and 2,074 students; 1 school of veterinary surgery; 2 schools of mining; several schools of agriculture, industrial schools, and business-colleges.
Total expenditure for public instruction, $2,632,628, gold.
BELGIUM, constitutional monarchy, (kingdom :) Area, 11,313 square miles; population, 5,021,336. Capital,
Brussels; population, 314,077. Minister of public instruction, the minister of the interior, C. Delcour; director general of public instruction, J. Sauveur.
Administration.—The bureau of public instruction is a bureau in the ministry of the interior. Most of the public schools, with the exception of some under the ministry of justice and the ministry of war, are under its supervision, as also those private or muncipal schools which receive aid from the government. Education is not compulsory. The whole country is divided into school-districts, each with an inspector appointed by the government. The basis of the present system of primary instruction is the law of 1842.
Primary instruction.-Schools under the ministry of the interior: number of primary schools, (1869,) 5,641 ; number of pupils, 593,379; number of teachers, 10,576; number
of adult-schools, 2,620; number of pupils, 217,168; number of infant-schools, 609; number of pupils, 60,570.
Schools under the ministry of justice: Prison-schools, hospital-schools, almshouseschools, 6,564.
Schools under the ministry of war: Schools for illiterate soldiers and soldiers' children, attended by 2,782 pupils.
Number of normal schools for maies, 14; number of normal schools for females, 23— total number of normal schools, 37. Number of male students, 1,192; number of fomale students, 704-total number of students in normal schools, 1,896.
Total expenditure for primary instruction, $1,600,408, gold.
Secondary instruction.—The basis of secondary instruction is the organic law of June 1, 1850, modified by succeeding laws. The secondary schools are either governmentschools (those of a higher grade being called royal atheneums and those of a lower grade called intermediate schools-écoles moyennes) or provincial and municipal schools, (those of the higher grade being called colleges and those of the lower grade intermediate schools.) Royal atheneums, 10; intermediate government-schools, 50; municipal schools aided by the government, 30; municipal schools, 3; secondary schools supported by religious corporations, 64; secondary schools supported by private individuals, 4-total number of secondary schools, 161. Number of students in the 93 government-and municipal schools, 15,822; number of normal schools for secondary instruction, 4, with 38 students.
Superior instruction.—The institutions for superior instruction are four universities, two supported by the government, at Ghent and Liége, and two free universities, at Brussels and Louvain. Each of these universities has four faculties, viz, of philosophy and literature, of mathematical and natural sciences, of law and of medicine, and in one case of theology.
Annual expenditure for the two state-universities, $172,123.
Special instruction. The special schools are either connected with the universities or are government, provincial, or municipal establishments. Special school of civil ongineering, university of Ghent, 173 students; school of arts and manufactures, miversity of Ghent, 63 students; school of arts and manufactures, university of Liége, 211 students; special school of mines, university of Liége, 35 students; state agricul. tural school at Gembloux, 79 students; two schools of horticulture, 39 students ; school of veterinary surgery at Cureghem, near Brussels, 78 students; Royal Academy of the Fine Arts at Antwerp, 1,588; 69 drawing academies and schools, 9,389 students; Con