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During the following years of prosperity these schools were kept up, but did not increase and flourish as much as might have been desired, although they continued to enjoy the royal and governmental patronage. The question began to be raised whether these schools bad not better be transferred from the committee of the poor to the genoral educational authorities.
The time had not yet arrived for answering this question satisfactorily, for if the educational authorities took the management of these schools and made, as was then inovitable, attendance in them compulsory for all female children, it became their duty to provide competent teachers; and this they were not able to do. This question was again raised about the year 1850, and though many prominent educators pronounced themselves in favor of compulsory attendance, the royal government, basing its views on the existing school-laws, (of 1836,) rightly judged that attendance could not be made compulsory and that the time had not yet come for making any changes in the existing laws.
Meanwhile the number of industrial schools was constantly increasing, and, up to the year 1857, such schools had been established in 1,383 towns and were attended by 64,733 children.
The question of transferring these schools to the minstry of public instruction could be no longer delayed, and assumed a more definite form, negotiations being entered upon in 1853 between the ministry of the interior and the ministry of public instruction, tending towards the definite solution of the question “shall these schools be closely connected with the primary schools and be treated according to the same principles; i.e., shall attendance be made compulsory?” After dragging their slow and often interrupted course through eleven long years, these negotiations were brought to an end by the ministerial decree of January 16, 1864, by which these schools were entirely transferred to the ministry of public instruction, and there, however, making attendance compulsory.
The institution for industrial-school-teachers at Ludwigsburg.-(1) Its origin and development. The principal problem was now solved on a basis which guaranteed a healthy development in the future. But there arose new duties and problems for the authorities, eonsisting in the systematic organization of these schools and in supplying them with competent teachers. There was, in spite of all the praiseworthy efforts that had been made, a deplorable lack of method, and the only way to remedy this was to appoint competent teachers by the state-authorities, teachers who had been technically and pedagogically prepared for their calling and who were properly remunerated for their services. The man who urged these considerations on the government was John Buhl, president of the Teachers' Seminary at Ludwigsburg. After a good deal of hard work he succeeded in inducing the government to establish a six-months course for industrial-schoolteachers in connection with the Teachers' Seminary at Ludwigsburg. During the first years, these courses were not as successful as was anticipated, owing to a want of public confidence. Buhl himself died in 1868, but his work was continued and gradually reached a more flourishing condition, so that, up to 1871, 128 teachers had been educated at the institution, who are now in active employment in different parts of Würtemberg. Besides this teachers' seminary, courses for industrial-school-teachers bave been held in a number of towns, thus extending the advantages of such a preparation to those who were unable to attend the seminary. Many persons educated through these courses are now employed as teachers in industrial schools.
(2) Course of instruction, &c. Persons desiring to be admitted to the seminary must not be younger than 17 and not older than 28, and must possess a degree of knowledge giving a fair promise of success.
The technical instruction embraces the following subjects: Knitting, sewing, embroidering, darning, mending, dress-making, working the sewing- and knitting machine.
The pedagogical or methodical portion of instruction is partly practical and partly theoretical. The students are taught the general principles of all education, and especially of industrial education, the means of maintaining discipline. There is connected with the seminary a practice-school for industrial instruction, where, under the guidance of experienced teachers, they make their first practical experiments in teaching.
Besides needle-work, &c., the following subjects are taught: Drawing, (with special regard to industry,) embroidering, &c., arithmetic, (2 hours a week,) penmanship, (2 hours a week,) composition, (1 hour a week, embracing also letter-writing, making out of bills, &c.) Book-keeping is shortly to be introduced ; religion, (2 hours per week,) history and geography, (2 hours per week.) Instruction in vocal music will in the future also be given, as likewise instruction in the elements of natural philosophy.
At the end of every course (average length about nine months) two members of the central school-authorities and a member of the royal bureau of industry and commerce hold a practical and theoretical examination and give certificates to the successful candidates, which serve as recommendations for their finding employment in one of the industrial schools of the country.
The students live and board in the school, and have to live according to the regulations of the same, thus accustoming them to habits of regularity, order, and punctuality.
Instruction commences at 7 a. m. in summer, at 8 a. m. in winter, and, with a break of 20 minutes, lasts till 12 m., and from 2 to 6 in the afternoon.
The total expense of the institution is met by the state, the annual average sum expended being $2,035.
11. "FORTBILDUNGSCHULEN"-ADULT-SCHOOLS. Schools for girls who have finished their studies at the elementary schools in Würtemberg. (Fortbildungschulen : literally, continuation-schools.)—These schools owe their origin to a desire of further educating girls who have left school (in their fourteenth year) for practical life, so as to enable them to keep books in their parents' business or in that of their busbands or their own; to make themselves useful in the telegraph-, postal, and railroad-service, or to earn a living by drawing and painting
The advantages of such an education are self-evident. By educating girls in the above-mentioned subjects, a working force is gained which can attend to business as well as men, and which, as active members of a family, do not involve any extra expense. By also instructing them in hygiene, they become impressed with the importance of a well-regulated mode of life and the raising of a healthy offspring, so that the family-life can only gain thereby; but, even outside of the family-circle, it will give to women a worthier and more advantageous position, and in many cases such an education will even be considered as a valuable marriage-portion.
The beginning of such an education in Würtemberg was made about 20 years ago by the late Mr. Beger, in Stuttgart, who, encouraged by the royal bureau of industry and commerce, opened private courses in Stuttgart. These courses, however, were not confined to the capital, for he was soon called by the various industrial societies all over the country to hold courses in book-keeping, &c., in different cities, at which, in some places, girls and women attended. The government encouraged this instruction by paying the school-fees demanded by Beger for indigent pupils, through the bureau of industry and commerce, and by exercising the inspection.
The next step was the establishment of a special division for girls in the industrial “Fortbildungschule," at Stuttgart, in 1861, the original course of instruction embracing book-keeping, German composition and business-correspondence, industrial arithmetic, and penmanship, to which were added at a later period drawing, painting, English, French, German literature, geography, and hygiene, and still more recently physics and knowledge of goods, (for housekeeping-purposes.) This division was opened January 12, 1861, with 63 pupils, which number increased from year to year, so that in 1872 it was 177, of whom 96 were younger than 17 and 81 older; 134 were natives of Stuttgart, 32 from other parts of Würtemberg, and 11 from abroad.
Instruction is given during the six winter-months (November to April) every weekday from 9 to 12 a. m. and from 2 to 7 p. m. The fee for the common course is (arithmetic. composition, book-keeping, and penmanship) $2.50, the fee for extra subjects being $1 to $1.50 each.
III. NORMAL SCHOOL FOR FEMALE TEACHERS. The Würtemberg Normal School for Female Teachers is located at Ludwigsburg, not far from Stuttgart. It owes its origin to the indomitable energy of Mr. Buhl. It was opened in 1859 with 9 students; and, up to 1872, 83 students have graduated from the institution, most of whom are now successfully employed as teachers in the primary schools of Würtemberg.
Organization and course of instruction.—The length of course is three years; age of admission, 16 years ; conditions of admission, good moral character, bodily health, and proficiency in all the subjects taught in primary schools. The first half year is considered a time of probation, and those who at the end of this half year do not advance as much as is deemed desirable must leave. In connection with the seminary there is a practice-school of three classes.
The course of instruction embraces: Religion, German, arithmetic, geometry, history, geography, natural history, natural philosophy, penmanship, drawing, vocal music, piano, (sometimes also violin,) needle-work, pedagogics, practical methods of instruction.
Results of ten years' experience in the employment of female teachers, by Rev. E. Hory, president of the normal school at Ludwigsburg.-It has been said that, by her whole organization, woman is not fit for public activity and that, whenever cases occur where women are successful, they must be said to be exceptional and to have crossed the limits which nature in her wisdom has set. At first sight this argument seems very plausible. A young woman, who, with a self-complacent air, stands before the public in the capacity of teacher, is not a very pleasant object to look at. But is the school to such an extent a public place as to justify the above-mentioned objection! It is natural that a woman will feel somewhat nervous in the presence of men at examinations, &c., but this may only be considered as a hint to examiners, urging them to avoid anything in their words or bearing which would tend to increase this natural feeling of shyness.
Another objection is of a much more serious nature, viz, that it may be more diffieult for a female teacher to maintain the proper discipline, especially in a large school and that, even if suceessful, she will be so at the expense of her health and strength. It is true that, as far as our experience goes, this objection has proved unfounded. In this, as in so inany other regards, much depends on the individual character of the teacher. Many a teacher finds no difficulty whatever in maintaining the proper discipline, while others do not succeed in spite of their most earnest and persevering efforts. But this does not exclude the fact that in large classes, especially where boys and girls are together, it will be a difficult and exhausting task for a lady to maintain the proper degree of discipline.
The proper field for female teachers is undoubtedly schools for females.
THE VIENXA EXPOSITION. In August, 1872, Hon. John Jay, American minister at Vienna, wrote as follows to Hon. Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State:
His Excellency Baron Schwarz-Senborn expressed bis earnest desire that the United States Government would present at the Vienna Exposition a perfect representation of the system of common-school-instruction adopted in the United States-a system, the result of whicb, he said, had been a wonderful. * * And he prayed me to believe that an exposition of that system, illustrated by a schoolhouse and its appurtenances, and its statistical results, would be a matter of profound interest and importance, not only to Austro-Hungary, but to the eastern peoples who adjoin this empire. * * * A similar hope has since been expressed to me by tho Count Andrassy and other influential gentlemen connected with this government.
Upon receipt of this letter the Acting Secretary of State wrote to me, as follows:
This Department is anxious that the wishes of the Austrian government in this matter should be gratified, as it would, no doubt, have a very beneficial effect upon the general interests of education and would reflect credit and honor upon those interests as developed in this country; and it is hoped that you will promote the object in view so far as it may be in your power to do so.
Baron Schwarz-Senborn, General Director of the Esposition, also personally addressed mo as follows:
Sir: The Hon. John Jay informs me that you have kindly consented to co-operate with the Hon. General Thomas B. Van Buren, with the view to rendering, at the Universal Exposition of 1873 in Vienna, the representation of the American educational system as complete as possible.
Allow me to tender you my best thanks for the interest you are taking in this allimportant subject, the more so, as I feel confident that, with your able assistance, we shall have a most successful development of the progress and results of your commonschool-system at our great Exhibition next year.
For the furtherance of this object I sought to obtain the co-operation of the various State-authorities, and with this view a circular-letter was sent to all State-superintendents and many superintendents of cities, asking them to meet in conference in the city of Washington on the 13th of November. A number of gentlemen assembled in response to this call, and resolutions were adopted calling upon all State-, county, and city-school-officials to co-operate in this matter, and requesting officers in charge of colleges, professional schools, technical schools, libraries, museums, and reformatory and benevolent institutions to lend their assistance. It was also resolved that the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Education should be forwarded as a summary of the educational statistics of the country, and that there should be forwarded, bound in uniform style, the school-laws and latest school-reports from States, cities, and towns, as well as catalogues of the various educational, reformatory, and benevolent institutions and associations of the country. The following resolutions, reported by the committee on “city-school-systems,” were adopted unanimously :
That the superintendents of cities and the larger towns be requested to make out, in such form as the United States Bureau of Education shall devise, charts showing, for each grade of their school-systems, the subjects of study by topics, the time occupied, the number of teachers, the number of pupils, the average salary of teachers, the average age of pupils, and a statement showing the entire income and expenditure for school-purposes, the income from local taxation only, the average cost per scholar for tuition, and the average total cost per scholar, and of such peculiarities (excellent or otherwise) of the system as they may deem necessary for a thorough understanding of the same; that superintendents be also requested to send to the Bureau of Education samples of writing, drawing, and map-drawing from some entire class or school in each grade, each specimen to be marked with the name, age, and grade of the producer, and to conform with the requirements of the management of the Exposition ; that superintendents be also requested to send to the United States Bureau of Education a model of their best school-building and views and ground-plans of such others as they may deem fit, with items of information as to the cost, date, and material of construction, their size, furniture, method of ventilation, &c.; that superintendents be requested to cooperate with the Bureau of Education in obtaining a full exhibit, by writing and otherwise, of all educational institutions and instrumentalities not comprehended in the public-school-system, including Kindergärten, private schools, academies, business-colleges, &c.; tbat superintendents be also urged to procure a copy of each text-book, map, chart, and other school-publication, and of every article of school-furniture produced in their respective cities; that superintendents be especially recommended, in view of the official character of the United States Bureau of Education and its general utility, to furnish that Office duplicates of the information, plans, &c., contributed to the Exposition, as the nucleus of an educational museum at Washington.
General Van Buren, United States commissioner to Vienna, was present at this meeting, and stated that "he had received a very large number of letters on the subject from Baron Schwarz-Senborn. Without an exception, every communication from him, upon whatever subject connected with the Exposition, contained a clause on the educational subject, and he begged, in the strongest terms, not to omit a full representation of American education, whatever else might be omitted. He said the little exhibition made of it at Paris, in 1867, so interested Europe that he was called upon
by the people of Austria and Hungary, from all quarters, not to fail to have a good, thorough representation of our system there."
With a view to securing the fullest possible representation of the American system of education in all those phases wbich admitted of such representation at Vienna, the following gentlemen were requested to assist the Commissioner of Education: A. R. Spofford, esq., librarian of Congress, in the preparation of material from libraries; Dr. J. M. Toner, in the preparation of material showing the condition and progress of medical education; Prof. Joseph Henry, secretary of the Smithsonian Institute, in the preparation of matter respecting museums and scientific associations; Prof. Fay, acting president of the National Deaf-Mute College, Washington, D. C., and Dr. S. G. Howe, superintendent of the Perkins Institute for the Blind, Boston, Mass., in the preparation of a representation of the instruction of deaf mutes and the blind. The following committee was appointed to assist the Commissioner in the selection and preparation of material for the general representation : State-superintendents, Hon. J. P. Wickersham, Pennsylvania; Hon. M. A. Newell, Maryland; Hon. T. W. Harvey, Ohio; Hon. Newton Bateman, Illinois; Hon. W. H. Ruffner, Virginia. Citysuperintendents, Hon. J. D. Philbrick, Boston, Mass. ; Hon. J. O. Wilson, Washington, D. C.; Hon. Duane Doty, Detroit, Mich.; Hon. W. T. Harris, St. Louis, Mo.; Hon. Henry Kiddle, New York City.
In accordance with the expressed wishes of the Department of State and of the General Director of the Vienna Exposition, this Bureau made such efforts to secure a representation of the school-systems of the several States, cities, and towns of the country as were possible : first, by the preparation of a circular of information, with suggestions for uniform plans and charts, which was extensively circulated ; and, secondly, by taking charge of and forwarding to the Exposition specimens of schoolbooks, charts, school-furniture; models, photographs, and plans of school-buildings; educational reports ; catalogues of libraries, and other appropriate material. There were exbibited in Group XXVI of the Exposition, the group devoted to educational materials, according to the official catalogue, 285 separate entries from the United States. Forty-eight diplomas and medals were distributed to the United States for article in this group, wbile only 30 were given to the United States for its exhibition in all the other groups. Of the 48 awards made to the United States for Group XXVI, there were 4 grand diplomas of honor, 6 medals for progress, 21 medals for merit, and 18 diplomas of merit.
The following list of awards to American educational exhibitors is taken from the published official list of prizes:
Grand diplomas of honor.* — The National Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. for distinguished services in the cause of education and for important contributions to the Exposition; the State of Massachusetts, for valuable reports and documents and for the enterprise shown by its organized personal representation at Vienna; the city of Boston, for its full and complete illustration of its school-system and schools; the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., for its efficient labors in the advancement and diffusion of knowledge.
Medals for progress.—Guyot, Prof., Princeton, N. J., wall-maps; Howe, Dr. S. G., Boston, Mass., publications for the blind; National Educational Association, successful efforts in promoting the advancement of education ; Obio State-department of public instruction, T. W. Harvey, commissioner, Columbus, Ohio, school-reports, statistics &c. ; Prang, L., & Co., Boston, Mass., chromo-lithographs; Washington, D. C., J. O Wilson, superintendent, progress in education and in school-architecture.
Medals for merit.-Appleton, D., & Co., New York,wall-maps; American Printing-House for the Blind, Louisville, Ky., books for the blind ; Astor Library, New York; Barnard, Dr. Henry, Hartford, American Journal of Education; Brewer & Tileston, Boston, Mass., school-publications; Chicago, Ill., public schools, J. L. Pickard, superin
*The diploma of honor was designed to bear the character of a peculiar distinction for eminent mer. its in the domain of science and its applications to the education of the people and the advancement of the intellectual, social, and material welfare of man, and was awarded exclusively by the council of presidents upon the proposition of the international jury.