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Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Nevada, Oregon, Tennessee, West Virginia, Dakota, Montana, New Mexico, Washington, and Wyoming do not specifically report expenditure for sites and buildivgs. Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Nevada, New Hampshire, Tennessee, Dakota, District of Columbia, Montana, New Mexico, and Wyoming do not specifically report the expenditure for salaries of teachers. Tennessee and Wyoming do not report total expenditure for schools. Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Lonisiana, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Vermont do not report amount of school-fund. Colorado is the only Territory reporting a school-fund.
The following is a statement of the amount expended in the several States and Territories, (1873,) per capita of population of legal school-age, and also the expense per capita of the estimated population between the ages of 6 and 16. I estimate the population between these ages at 10,103,115, for the thirty-seven States, and 114,710, for the eleven Territories, reporting their scholastic population. It will be observed that the column “estimated expenditure per capita of population between 6 and 16 years old," presents a uniform standard of comparison and brings out more strikingly the actual differences between the educational efforts of the respective States.
Statistical summary of public-school-expenditure in the several States and Territories per
capita of legal school age and per capita of population between 6 and 16.
The following summary shows the average monthly wages of public-school-teachers in the several States and Territories in 1873. (No reports of this item were received froin Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Vermont, New Mexico, Washington, and Idaho.)
$70 00 | Wisconsin .............
88 73 Pennsylvania ...........
South Carolina ........
Tennessee........... 51 32
Virginia............. 49 53
Dakota .............. 24 14 North Carolina ....... 43 70
$97 34 34 92 31 43 29 00 23 84 40 00 39 86 33 80 30 64 29 08 27 68 35 00 15 16 26 89 32 06 32 04 32 00 30 00 25 00
57 Od 55 64 52 92 51 9 51 39 49 53 47 59
SUMMARY OF EDUCATIONAL CONDITION IN THE STATES FOR 1873.-SOUTHERN STATES.
In Alabama, the board of education has labored under great embarrassment, from the difficulty of securing from an impoverished people the needful funds for the support of free schools. As a consequence of this, teachers have in many instances had to wait months for the payment of salaries due them, and a large number of the free schools in country-districts have been closed.
In the large towns, aid from the Peabody fund and the American Missionary Association has kept schools still in successful operation. The lack of funds has of course affected the high schools under the State-system, but a promising State normal school has been established ; the University and State Agricultural College bave continued operations and the condition of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and Blind appears to have improved.
Arkansas bas labored under the same embarrassment as Alabama with respect to funds. The State-certificates, with which taxes and teachers have been too generally paid, having faller to less than half their face-value, school-sessions have had to be cut down to three months, and teachers, unable to secure even half their salaries, have very often abandoned the profession or left the State. Fifteen towns have, however, organized town-school-systems, under a special act, and in these, the schools “are believed to be doing reasonably well.” Interest in the public-school-system seems to increase among the people; the new Industrial University is so well advanced as to give promise of improvement in superior education, the State-institutes for the blind and for deaf mates continue to give good instruction in their special lines, and measures are on foot to give greater advantages for education to the colored people.
Louisiana has struggled throngh the year under kindred financial troubles with the two neighboring States just named, and as, by an unfortunate change in the schoollaw of Texas, the public-school-system in that State has been almost broken up, the outlook for education in the Southwest is not encouraging, except in Mississippi, where opposition to the free-school-system seems to have greatly diminished, where popular interest in it bas obviously much increased, where facilities for normal and secondary
education are enlarging, and where, in the State University and State-School for the Deaf and Dumb, superior and special training shows signs of advancing thoronghness.
The new State-superintendent of instruction in Florida reports an increase of 56 schools in 1873, making, with 113 added in 1872, an addition of 169 to the 331 previously existent. The increase of attendance in two years has been 4,000, while reports from leading schools indicate an advance in methods of instruction as well as in results. A site for the State Agricultural College has at last been agreed upon in Alachua County, (including 20,000 acres,) and $50,000 cash secured by that location, a fair course of collegiate study mapped out by the trustees, and steps towards the organization of a corps of instructors taken. The laying of foundations for a university for colored students is another mark of progress here.
Georgia, after a cessation of public-school-teaching for a year, (except in certain towns,) bas again set her schools in operation, and an earnest superintendent is doivg obviously his best to make the new effort a success. Iu the larger towns, school-systems including all grades have been established, with normal classes every Saturday for the whole body of teachers in eaclı town; 109 academies and high schools report generally fair courses for secondary education; and an effort is on foot to unify throughout the State the whole system of superior instruction by a compact between the uuiversity and the colleges.
South Carolina, in spite of great discouragements, shows an increase o: 98 free schools and 147 new school-houses over 1872, with an additional school-attendance of 7,431 and an additional expenditure of $113,981.37 for public schools, while her üniversity bas been made practically free to all by the remission of professorial fees and room-rent.
North Carolina, thongh embarrassed by a poor school-law and by restrictions on local taxation for sc'.oel-purposes, has increased by about 74 per cent. her receipts for free schools and by lout 190 per cent. the attendance on them.
Kentucky, hampered by financial trials, has friends of education who have presseri forward, under an energetic superintendent, amending her school-law, advancing the qualifications of her teachers, improving her school-louses, and taking steps towards a general education of her colored population. “With rare exceptions," says the Statereport, “the reports from different counties present evidences of an educational rovival pervading almost every section of the State."
In Virginia, though there has been a slight falling-off in receipts and expenditures for school-purposes, as well as in enrollment and average attendance, there are 501 new schools, while a great number of school-houses built during the year and a large increase in the valne of school-property combine with the declarations of both political parties in the last canvass to show that the purpose of the people is to build up the public-school-system solidly and permanently. Institutions for secondary instruction are numerous throughout the State ; provision for scientific training has been made in the new agricultural colleges and the State Military Institute; and, through the fostering influence of two universities and six colleges, superior education is so well ad vanсod that, in proportion to population, Virginia compares favorably with any of the States as respects the number of students in college.
The returns from Tennessee are imperfect, but enough appears to indicate that the organization of the State-system has gone steadily forward under the direction of the superintendent, receiving deservedly the support of the State Teachers' Association and friends of education generally, and the almost unanimous aid of the newspaper-press. All the embarrassments appear to be yielding; in some counties, to be sure, slowly and reluctantly. That greatest difficulty, lack of means, and the consequent depreciation of teachers' orders for pay, appears to be approaching a termination. The effect of the Peabody aid, bestowed tbrough Dr. Sears, in Tennessee, has been particularly conspicuous, and this hardly less in the results of his addresses than from the money bestowed. The attention of the whole South bas been turned to Tennessee by the establishment during the year of the Vanderbilt University at Nashville and of the Methodist Episco
pal University at Knoxville, intended to be institutions representing respectively the great religious interests of the two branches of the Methodist Church in the South and to receive their support.*
MIDDLE AND NORTHERN STATES. In the States north of the Potomac and East of the great lakes, the condition of educational interests has much in it that is encouraging, with but one marked exception.
Maryland, e. g., has lengthened her school-year 16 days; expended for teachers' salaries $14,000 more than in 1872; for school-honses $7,000 more, and for general schoolpurposes $97,083 more; at the same time adding 12,198 to her school-enrollment and making fair beginnings in an effort to give her colored children equal advantages for education with the whites. The feeling in favor of public schools is reported to be * more unanimous and decided than at any previous time," and a serious defect in the sorking of the free system in the State has been amended by the establishment of several new high schools, the change of several pay-academies into public high schools, and the elevation of many graded schools to such a pitch as promises to make them high schools before long. .
Delaware still remains without any State-supervision of schools, and in her two lower counties some improvement is observable. In Wilmington, her chief town, a well-organized school-board reports 1 new school-house, 300 additional sittings for pupils, an increase of 6 teachers, and considerable improvement in methods of instruction and provision for the education of colored children. There is no provision in the State-law for the edacation of these children.
Pennsylvania shows an increase of 22 school-districts, of 306 schools, of 309 more graded schools, of 721 teachers, and of 6 days in the average duration of her schooiterm, with an aggregate of school-property estimated at $21,750,209 and a total expenditure, for school-purposes, of $8,812,969.25. A large new normal school, with capacity for boarding 300 pupils and instructing 800, bas been added to the 6 previously existent, and 3 more are in progress. Numerous institutions for secondary instruction report nearly 9,000 pupils, and full returns would probably largely increase this number. The State-college of agriculture is reported to have much improved and at least 3 of her 17 universities and colleges have much enlarged their means for imparting a high order of instruction. Lehigh University bas been enabled, by its generous founder, to make instruction free.
New Jersey reports 83 new school-houses, with great improvement in the condition of the older ones; an increase of 3 days in the average school-term ; a liberal advance
* Two institutions, the Normal Institute, located at Marysville, and Fisk University, at Nashville, bare received considerable aid from English friends..
A large addition to the means of educating the colored people in this State has been made by the jubi. leesingers of Fisk University. Prompted and trained by the treasurer of the institution, which was wbolly unable to accommodate the multitudes of colored students crowding to it for admission, they set out, two years ago, to raise by concerts the needful funds for buildings which were imperatively demanded. The sweetness of their simple and yet touching melodies immediately awakened interest, shile the good cause to which they sang drew towards them hearty sympathy. A tour through the Taited States secured $40,000 for the university, enabling the trustees to purchaso an extensive sito md begin the erection of the greatly-needed buildings. To finish these, if possible, they went to Eng land, met with an enthusiastic reception from British audiences, as well as from noble families in the Three Kingdoms, and, through the seconding of such influential men as Mr. Spurgeon, Earl Shaftesbury, Hon. W.E. Gladstone, and others, added about $50,000 to their previous earnings for the cause, a gener. eus member of the Society of Friends adding to this, by individual collections, $1,500 for the purchase of spparatus. They have thus, as one of them said in London, capped American greenbacks with British gold; and, as the result of their efforts, the university has, free from debt, twenty-five acres of land. The foundation of Jubilee Hall, a noble building, is laid, and paid for as far as built, its walls now reaching almost to the roof, while, at the laying of the corner-stone, October 21, 1873, there were on hand, above all enrrept bills, about $6,000 towards the completion of the work.
+ Sitee the above was penned, news has come that the legislature has doubled its appropriation for clared schools, making it $100,000 instead of $50,000, at the same time appropriating $100,000 for a new zonnal-school-building and making such addition to the annual allowance for it as to enable the principal to devote noore time to his superintendence of the State-schools.
in teachers' salaries ; $74,244.74 beyond 1872 for building and repairing schools; $233,998.13 beyond, for general school-purposes, and $588,040 beyond, for the estimated value of school-property. In five years nearly $3,000,000 have been expended in this comparatively small State on its public-school-buildings, with at least one-third as much on private academies, scientific schools, and colleges. The new Johu C. Green School of Science at Princeton, the now well-established Stevens Institute of Technol. ogy at Hoboken, and the scientific department of Rutgers College place New Jersey among the most favored of the States in its advantages for scientific training.
New York reports a receipt of $11,556,037.80 for public-school-purposes and an expenditure of $10,416,588 for the same, with a total expenditure of $116,652,930.57 in twelve years past.
Of the grand annual expenditure, nearly $7,000,000 bave gone for the salaries of teachers; nearly $2,000,000 for building and improving school-houses ; $174,339.23 for supporting eight normal schools, and $7,690.94 for supply of school-instruction to the few Indians in the State. Normal-school-training in New York City has the great additional facility of a new normal-college-building, costing $350,000 and accommodating 1,500 pupils. Secondary instruction has been encouraged by an allowance by the State of $41,746.50 * to 218 academies, in which 6,123 pupils out of 31,421 pursue classical or higher English studies; superior is given by 25 universities and colleges, which zumber 3,529 students in college-classes proper and 1,507 in preparatory. Professional is provided for in 14 theological, 14 medical, 6 scientific, and 4 law-schools, with 3,507 students.
The Southern New England States present like encouraging statistics :
Connecticut publishes a decade-table, showing that, though the number of children enumerated has increased only 21,257 in ten years, the increase of interest in public schools has been such as to raise the amount secured for them by district-tax from $96,964 ten years ago to $485,523.56 in 1873, that by town-tax from $75,213 in 1864 to $642,194.11 in 1873, and that from all sources to $1,442,669.01 in 1873 against $390,451.20 in 1864.
Rhode Island shows, too, that in 1863 her towns raised nearly $100,000 for the sunport of schools and that in 1873 the same towns raised over $300,000 for the same purpose, more than three for one, or over 200 per cent, increase; and this, too, without reckoning nearly $200,000 expended in 1873 in the building and repair of school-houses The increase of echools in the same time was 207; of teachers, 98.
The returns from Massachusetts for 1873 are not complete at the time of preparing this report. Those for the school-year of 1871–72 show $5,476,927.65 raised ly taxation for public schools alone, being $19.39 for each child of school-age 15-15) and $3.76 for each member of the population. If to this be added voluntary contributions, income from trust-funds, legislative appropriations for normal schools, expenses of board of education, tuition paid in private schools, academies, colleges, &c., the secretary thinks the whole amount expended during the year for popular education would reach $6,350,000, or $22.85 for each school child and $4.36 for each person in the population. The estimated value of school-houses in the State was over $20,000,000 at the close of 1873 against $13,770,069 at the beginning of 1870; 176 high schools and 58 incorporated academies are returned, while in normal, technical, and art-training there has been a great advance,t a new normal school, a new pormal art-school, and industrial drawing in all the common schools being the signs of this advance. * Increased, at a succeeding session of the legislature, to $125,000 for 1873.
t In January, 1874, the executive committee of the Massachusetts board of education addressed to the State-legislature the following memorial in favor of more thorough supervision of the schools : To the honorable senate and house of representatives in general court convened.
GENTLEMEN: The board of education respectfully represent that the best interests of the public schools of the State require a more extended, intelligent, and critical supervision than at present obtaing, and the fostering care of the Commonwealth in various other ways. They pray, therefore, that your honorable bodies will ordain:
1. That the State be districted by the board of education, for the purpose of supplementing the ex: isting States and municipal supervision of schools.