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3,695 128, 500 716, 073
58, 760 269, 200
5,000 18, 100
........ 451, 177
176, 720 1, 293, 235
58, 760 362, 100
2,875 657, 824 27, 522
8, 743 654, 350
35, 358 334,058
800 59, 993 4,775 1,000
145, 840 11, 226, 977
a Freedmen's schools.
TABLE XXV.-EDUCATIONAL PUBLICATIONS. The table of the appendix presents a list of original and new editions of works on educational and related topics which issued from the press of the country in 1873. It will be found useful to educators for purposes of reference. The annexed is a summary of the works by classes:
Summary of the number of educational publications.
TABLE XXVI.-KINDERGARTEN IN THE UNITED STATES.
The subject of Kindergarten-culture is receiving more general and more intelligent attention than ever before and the number of Kindergärten is rapidly increasing. The number in each State, as reported, is as follows:
2 | New York ...
Others are supposed to be in existence, but no reports have been received from them
A great hinderance to the general establishment of Kindergarten is the difficulty of obtaining properly-trained teachers. The only normal Kindergarten in the country is the one established about five years since, in Boston, by Mrs. Kriege.
Results of the method. It is claimed that, wherever the Kindergarten-idea has been faithfully carried out, the most satisfactory results have been achieved. Prof. Hailman, of Louisville, says:
The effect of the system upon the physical and mental development is more than satisfactory. The children grow strong, vigorous, energetic; they attain full and couscious control of their muscles; become nimble and skillful; the glow of health upon their cheeks, the fire of energy in their eyes, elasticity and decision in their movements. Mentally, they become so far the superiors of children who have not enjoyed Kindergarten-culture that, for the first four years, at least in the elementary school, they accomplish fully twice as much. * * * This is due, not only to their greater physical vigor and to the knowledge and skill imparted by the Kindergarten, but more particularly to the habits of attention, concentration, industry, and free obedience, which they owe to Fröbel's system.
Testimony of teachers. All the reports received from teachers who have taken pupils from the Kindergarten mention the superiority of these childreu over others in their capacity for learning, owing to the careful cultivation of all their capabilities, particularly their observing faculties. They show great quickness of mental perception and advance rapidly in the studies they undertake. The foundations of mathematical science are so well laid in the occupations and lessons of the Kindergarten, that geometry will not be to them the dry, unmeaning study it is to most, but becomes an old, familiar friend when met with in the text-book.
The scope for invention given in the exercises of the Kindergarteu tends to awaken the faculties and develop individual talent. There is no art, science, or industry, which, in its first principles, is not represented in the occupations of the Kindergarten. It may well be said that the method of the Kindergarten gives the starting-point for each science and each profession.
Public Kindergärten in Boston and in St. Louis.—Boston and St. Louis have established public Kindergarten. Of the Boston Kindergarten Miss Elizabeth Peabody says:
The primary teachers who have received the children prepared in this Kindergarten find them so much more intelligent, capable, and well behaved than the ordinary run of children that they express great hope that the city will establish Kindergärten in all the wards.
Hon. William T. Harris, the superintendent of the public schools of St. Louis, says of the public Kindergarten in that city: “The experiment is a remarkably successful one.” The results during the short time this Kindergarten has been in operation have been so satisfactory that the public-school-teachers desire nothing more heartily than to see the Kindergarten-idea prevail in all the primary schools. The testimony of all who have a practical knowledge of the Kindergarten-method is unanimous that as a means to an end nothing can be better and that it will be found a matter of economy to make it a part of the public-school-system.
Plato, in the Laws, speaking of the “divine necessities of knowledge”--the disciplines which lie at the foundation of all true knowledge, “ against which no god contends or ever will contend”--sketches the Egyptian system of training for "every child " -a plan quite analogous to the Kindergarten of our day.
All freemen, I conceive, should learn as much of these various disciplines as every child in Egypt is taught when he learns his alphabet. In that country, systems of calculation have been actually invented for the use of children, which they learn as a pleasure and amusement. They have to distribute apples and garlands, adapting the same number either to a larger or less number of persons : and thev distribute puerilists and wrestlers as they follow one another, or pair together by lot. Another mode of amusing them is by taking vessels of gold, and brass, and silver, and the like, and mingling them or distributing them without iningling. As I was saying, they adapt
n common use, and in this way make more intelligible to their pupils the arrangements and movements of armies and expeditions, and in the management of a household they make people more useful to themselves and more wide-awake; and again, 'n measurements of things which have length and breadth and depth, they free us from that ludicrons and disgraceful ignorance of all these things which is natural to Lian.—Jowelt's Plato's Dialogues, vol. iv, book vii, p. 356.
TABLE XXVII.-PATENTS FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN SCIIOOL-FURNITURE. The material for this statement was kindly furnished by the Commissioner of Patents. The following summary shows for what descriptions of furniture, &c., patents were granted during the year, and the residences, by States, of the patentees : Number of patents. .......
Improvements in desks and seats...
COMPARISON OF RESULTS. Having considered the statistical tables of the appendix in detail, it will be interesting to compare (so far as the classification admits of it) the number of instructors and of pupils in the several classes of institutions as reported to this Office in 1873, with the numbers as given by the census of 1870.
CENSUS OF 1870.
The classification of institutions by the census and the number of instructors and of pupils in each class were as follows:
Colleges, for men and for women.
Grand total .............
73, 844 129, 404
1, 673 6,746 4,095 1, 790 19, 163 10, 498 1, 403 3,552
114 2,052 726, 688
18,592 6, 209, 468 7, 209, 938