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There should be a class in drawing and one for instruction in methods of teaching vocal music.
Changes in text-books.-The school-law passed by the State-legislature, 1868–69, required San Francisco to conform to a uniform series of text-books. The city-board of education has carried into effect the changes made compulsory by the action of the State-board of education and by State-law.
Some changes were also made in the high-school text-books in order to conform to the series used in the State University, and a few changes were made in scientific books to secure the benefits of inodern scientific researches. These changes, however, were comparatively unimportant, on account of the small number of pupils affected by them.
Changes in the course of study.-Several amendments to the course of study were made by the committee on classification and submitted to the board of education for adoption. Some of the features of the revised course, as finally adopted, are as follows:
On account of the time given to industrial drawing, music, and phonography, and in the cosmopolitan schools to the French and German languages, there had been, during the year, a standing complaint of too much work for pupils. For the purpose of simplifying the course it was decided to cut off McGuffey's Sixth Reader in the firstgrade-classes, supplying its place by a review of the Fifth Reader used in the second grade, thus saving the cost of one large text-book.
Change in method of teaching geography. It was the opinion of many teachers, after a trial of several years in the use of these text-books on geography, that too much time was devoted to memorizing lessons from the text-books. Changes have been made to obviate this. In many eastern cities a reduction has been made in the number of textbooks on geography, on account of the growing conviction that memorizing hundreds of pages of map-questions and descriptive text is not the best method of acquiring a practical knowledge of the subject. But if, at the end of the year, the teachers think that the method of teaching physical geography by means of relief-globes, maps, charts, and oral lessons, is too difficult or is impracticable, the course will, doubtless, be modified so as to allow the Monteith's Physical Geography to be continued in the two higher grades. Grammar is to be commenced in the second grade, instead of the third, the elements of grammar taught orally in connection with reading-lessons and practical exercises, in writing English being held more useful to beginners than the memorized definitions of the text-book.
Similar changes have been made in the matter of spelling, distributing the work of two years through four years, and so diminishing the amount of work to be done each year.
Pupils fail in English composition.—The examination-papers from our schools for several years past have shown conclusively that, while many pupils are well up in definitions, parsing, and analysis, comparatively few are able to write English with even a tolerable degree of accuracy or elegance.
Introduction of the Grube system of teaching arithmetic.-In arithmetic, the new course, in addition to the former text-book-work, includes a course of oral instruction in the various combinations of small numbers, according to what is known as the “Grube system.” During the year one or two low-grade-classes in each of the large primary schools were trained according to this method, with the most unqualified success. The main object of this method is to teach the four elementary rules by keeping the pupils limited to small numbers within the range of their comprehension. It requires the use of no text-book by either teacher or pupil, but does require some effort and origimality on the part of the teacher. Provision is also made in the primary grades for instruction in the use of decimal and common fractions, limited to small numbers.
Greater attention given to English composition.-Exercises in writing English are introduced at an early. age and are continued throughout the whole course. The necessity for greater attention to composition will be evident from reference to the examination-questions on grammar and composition, in which specimen-sentences, selected from compositions written at trial-examinations, are given to be corrected.
These changes have been made after a careful examination of the revised courses of study for eastern cities, and, if carried out in the right spirit, will unquestionably result in pleasanter and more profitable work, both for pupils and teachers.
School directors.—The method of choosing school-directors has been a notable improvement during the past year upon the old plan. The new law provides for their election at large from the whole city, instead of choosing them from each separato district or ward. This reform is in consonance with the idea that each school-director owes his allegiance and service primarily and pre-eminently to all the public schools of the city, rather than to the particular schools that constitute his own district. It is a safeguard, too, against unjust political control, which works injury to the publicschool-system.
Co-cducation of the sexes.—There is a perceptible movement of public opinion toward the natural association of the sexes in the different grades of all the schools. Pres. ent appearances indicate the gradual extension of mixed schools, and, at no remote day, it is confidently hoped they will include all the departments.
Salaries.-Daring the year, the pay of primary as well as grammar-assistants, after four years' approved service, has been increased from $67.50 to $70 a month, an advance of $30 a year upon previous rates. This exceeds the salaries paid to similar positions in any other city of the Union.
Could the requirements for admission to the teachers' corps.be correspondingly raised and the time of probation proportionally extended, the raising of the salaries of the lady teachers would become still more equitable in itself and profitable to the public, whose money pays such salaries.
New course of study.-The features of the new course are fewer topics in each principal branch and more thorough work upon each. It steadily progresses with increasing satisfaction.
In connection with this, President Gilman, of the State University, with the anxiety for thorough foundation-work which ever characterizes the true educator, has conferred with the principals of the public schools, with a view to secure a still more progressive and symmetric arrangement of the course of study in all the public schools, that it may become more harmonious and practical, from the lowest primary grade to the highest department in the university-course.
Prirate elucational institutions.—The total number of colleges and private schools in the city of San Francisco is about 75. Of these 17 are under the control of the Roman Catholics. Many of these schools are in a very flourishing condition. Total number of children between 6 and 15 years of age that have attended private schools for tho year. 5,005. The number attending public schools for the same period, 20,202. There are also about 1,100 under 6 years of age at the different infant-schools and about 900 at the bigher private schools and colleges.
SACRAMENTO. The value of school-lots, furniture, and fixtures is estimated at $118,000. Tbeschools consist of one high, one grammar, four intermediate, two ungraded, (one of them for colored children,) and nine primary. The schools are kept open ten months in the year, at an annual cost of $53,215. Total number of children under 15 years of age, 6.099. Total number of scholars enrolled, 2,421. Average daily attendance, 1,949. Number of scholars studying German, 149.
Prirate schools.-Tbe German-Lutheran school, Rev. Matthias Göthe, principal, is in a most flourishing condition. It numbers some 160 scholars between the ages of 6 and 15.
The Sacramento Seminary is a school for young ladies, established in 1863, Mr. and Mrs. Hermon Perry, principals and proprietors. It is well patronized and flourishing.
OAKLAND. The school-department has grown very rapidly within the last year. Children between 5 and 15, entitled to State apportionment, 2,292. Children under 5 years, 1,110. Attending public schools, 1,241; attending private schools, 289; attending no sclivol, 410.
There are one high school, two grammar-schools, four primary schools, one cosmopolitan school, and one upgraded school, with a total of 35 classes. The average monthly enrollment is 1,462; average number belonging to the schools, 1,359; average daily at. tendance, 1,266. Number of pupils examined, 1,263; rumber promoted, 737.
(1) The Mills Seminary, Brooklyn, Alameda County, opened in 1871, with pupils from three-fourths of the States of the Union, with some from Mexico, the Sandwich Islands, England, Germany, and France. Twenty-three instructors have had here under their training inore than 400 pupils in the last two years and a class of 36 young ladies has been graduated. It has recently received from W. H. Raymond, esq., $5,000 for the endowment of two free scholarships.
(2) Young Ladies' Seminary, Benicia, established in 1852. It has been the pioneerschool of Protestant California and still prospers. Number of instructors, 8, and of students, 72, of whom 30 are in a preparatory and 42 in a collegiate course.
(3) San José Institute and Business-College. This is mainly a day- and boardingschool for both sexes, having an academic department and business-college in addition to primary, intermediate, and grammar-schools. Number of teachers, 8; of pupils in the academic department, not given. The business-college is conducted on the now established plan of actual business-transactions and is said to rank in efficiency with the best in the State.
(4) The Golden Gate Academy, Oakland, especially intended as a training-school for those who wish to enter first-class colleges or the University of California, as well as for those who propose to enter, without collegiate instruction, the Pacific Theological Seminary, near which it is located. Although in operation but two years, it bas 90 students, ander the care of 4 resident teachers, besides supplementary instructors in drawing, music, and modern languages. It is the aim of the trustees to make this an
academy of the same high grade as the Phillips Academy at Andover, Massachusetts, or the Williston Serninary at East Hampton.
(5) Urbau Academy, San Francisco. In operation for 9 years. A preparatory school for college; much attention is also given to modern languages. Teachers, 5; number of scholars, not given. .
(0) Napá Collegiate Institute, Napa City, with 4 male and 4 female teachers, 3 years in its course, and 130 pupils. Drawing and music are taught; 30 pupils in the classical course; 10 in that of modern languages. There is a small chemic laboratory and cabinet of philosophic apparatus, with a library of 300 volumes.
(7) Notre Dame Academy, Mission Dolores, San Francisco, with 11 female teachers and an average of 300 scholars. Nine years in course; (rawing, music, and modern languages embraced in it. Library, 1,000 volumes.
(8) Laurel Hall, San Mateo, with 2 inale and 5 female teachers and 35 female pupils. Course, 4 years, embracing English, French, and German, of which last two languages 30 of the pupils are students; drawing and music taught; there is a small collection of philosophic apparatuses and a library of 250 volumes.
(9) Grass Valley High School, with 2 male and 2 female teachers and 70 male and 50 feinale scholars. Three years course, embracing the classical and modern languages, 15 being engaged in the study of the former and 5 of the latter. A chemic and philosophic apparatus and a library of about 300 volumes.
(10) The Vallejo High School, with 2 male teachers, 16 male and 24 female pupils. Course, 3 years, embracing classical and modern languages, 25 students being in the former. Library, 50 books of reference.
PREPARATORY INSTITUTIONS. For the preparation of students for colleges, universities, or scientific schools, there are the California Military Academy at Oakland and the Oakland High School, with an aggregate of 258 students, 182 in scientific and 76 in classical studies. The 133 students in the military academy all pursue a scientific course, the first (or highest) class numbering 10, the second 42, the third 53, and the fourth 28. There are 10 instructors. The value of grounds and buildings is $85,000; the school has a library, a chemic laboratory, a cabinet of natural history, a pliilosophic cabinet and apparatus, and a gymnasium. Oakland High School bas 125 pupils, 49 in scientific and 76 in classical studies; there are 3 years in course; the advanced class numbers 22; in the senior grade are also 22; in the junior, 28; and in the third, 53. There are 3 regular and 3 special instructors. Tbe library numbers 400 volumes; there is a small cabinet of natural history and a philosophic apparatus.
CALIFORNIA INSTITUTION FOR EDUCATION OF THE DEAF, DUMB, AND BLIND. The receipts here from all sources to August, 1873, bave been $89,389.38; the expenditures, $89,190.62. The deaf and dumb pupils received bave been 13; the blind, 17; discharged, of the former, 8; of the latter, 7; died, 1; remaining number, 93. The inmates are now clothed, as well as fed and taught, at State-expense; an organ has been put up in the chapel from a fund contributed by private persons and efforts are in progress to beautify the grounds and improve the entrance to the building. Mechanical and musical training are added to the literary, the musical lietug of course for the blind alone; and it is said that there is every reason to be satisfied with the progress of the pupils in their studies, the deaf and duib having gone from Peet's Elementary Lessons up to algebra and natural theology through the various intermediate books and the blind through written and mental arithinetic to algebra and geometry, with history, · physiology, political economy, mental philosophy, &c.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.* This institution entered upon its fifth annual session September 23, 1873, in the occupancy of the halls erected for it by legislative grants, on the hills at Berkeley, overlooking San Francisco.
The courses of stady at Berkeley are divided between two faculties, closely co-operative with one another and usually meeting as a single body.
I. The College of Letters.---This includes the usnal classical course, with instruction in Greek, Latin, German, French, mathematics, and the elements of natural science. The degree to which it leads is that of bachelor of arts. A modification may be made in this course, substituting for one or both of the ancient languages certain other studies in modern literature and science, and the degree for this course will be bachelor of philosophy.
II. - The Colleges of Science and the Arts.—These include colleges of agriculture, engineering, and chemistry. They provide an introductory course of two years in mathematics and the elements of natural science, and in German, French, and English, with advanced courses of two years each, in which the studies are chiefly in the spe
* A larger space than can usually be given to a single institution is bestowed on this, (1) because of its importance as the university of the chief Pacific State and (2) because it seems likely to become a pattern of the highest style of training for the whole group of tho Pacific States.
cialties first named. Other specialties, such as mining and mechanical engineering, will from time to time be added. The degree in the colleges of science and the arts is bachelor of philosophy. The students in the several courses are required to obtain knowledge of other subjects than those which distinctively pertain to their specialty, the object being to provide a liberal culture, adapted to the various callings of modern society. .
Special students, properly qualified, may pursue the study of particular branches without following in full any prescribed course; but this permission is accorded only to those who have already attained to a considerable proficiency in knowledge. When sneh students give all their time to study in the university, they are distinguished by the designation of students-at-large" and are subject to all the regulations of the university,
Courses of instruction.—The courses of instruction may be grouped briefly as foilows:
Vilitary science, including tactical instruction in the field and lectures on the art of war.
Physics and mechanics, by means of lectures and recitations, accompanied by exper- ! iniental demonstrations and the solution of practical problems.
Geology and natural history, commencing in the sophomore-class with botany, followed by the physiology of vegetable growth and reproduction, zoology, and geology.
Mathematics, which includes algebra, geometry, trigonometry and mensuration, analytic geometry, differential and integral calculus.
Agriculture and agricultural chemistry, by experimental and illustrated lectures, recitations, essays, and class-discussions, and in the practical application of principles upon the university-grounds. The university-domain is being developed, with a view to illustrate every capability of the State for special culture, whether of forests, fruits, or field-crops. It will be the station where new plants and processes will be tested, and the results made known to the public.
Lalin and Greek, in which Professor Kellogg, with aid from Professor Bunnell, will aim to bring out the relations of those languages to our own, prominence being given in the classical course to such works, preceptive or illustrativo, as bear on the art of public speaking.
Modern languages, in which the study of French and German is required of all the candidates for a bachelor's degree, while the study of Spanish and Italian is optional.
English language, rhetoric, and history, including the Anglo-Saxon tongue and the history of English literature, the science of rhetoric, the practice of composition, and the study of ancient and modern history.
Civil engineering and astronomy, by means of recitations, lectures, and the use of text-books, globes, charts, and works of reference, instruction in the engineering department being strongly re-enforced by the employment of valuable models of bridges, trusses, arches, topography, &c., and numerous diagrams and photographs of the most important and celebrated engineering structures throughout this country and Europe.
Chemistry and metallurgy, the course in chemistry extending through three years, students of the junior and senior classes pursuing the general principles of the science and their application to analytic and metallurgic chemistry and to mineralogy, and spending fifteen to twenty hours a week in the laboratory.
Geodesy and astronomy, including the theory and use of astronomic instruments and the solution of the various problems arising in practical astronomy.
College of law.—Professor Field will have charge of this department when the full organization of the university shall have been completed.
Fine arts, (optional studies.)-Students already proficient in the studies laid down in the general scheme, who have extra time at their disposal, may, with the permission of the faculty, pursue, under competent instructors, a further course in drawing, German, Spanish, and Hebrew
Lectures.—During the winter, a special course of lectures is annually given by the president and professors of the university, under the auspices of the Mechanics' Institute of San Francisco.
Library, collections, and gifts.-The library of the university numbers over eleven thousand volumes. It has been largely increased by generous donations during the past year.
President Gilman.-To the indefatigable efforts of its laborious president the university is largely indebted for its success. A recent article in the Overland Montbly, wbich has been from the beginning the exponent of whatever was best in the literary influences of the Pacific coast, says of him:
" There are some men who have a talent for turning everything touched by them into gold. All ventures turn out fortunately There is a better gift than this: it is the half-unconscious power of influencing other men to bestow their wealth wisely and beneficently, the faculty of enlisting the interest of others in a good cause. When the University of California found such a man, it was started on a new career of prosperity. There was no perfuuctory begging to be done, no preachments
about the value of a liberal education, and no poor face to be made up. Busy men lent a willing ear when there were a few quiet utterances from a full and geuerous mind. It never before seemed so good and grand a thing to put broad shoulders to this and that plan for helping the university, and to push these plans up to a successful termination. A suggestion dropped here and there wisely was enough. A strong man, who puts his soul into the work, carries with him the inspiration of hopefulness. Every body else is made hopeful, and out of this spring plans, suggestions, and quiet benefactions. The hearts of many have hence warmed toward the university as never previously and a growing interest has been manifested by a large increase of gifts. When Agassiz wanted money for his museum, he had only to name the necessary sum to find it at his disposal; so President Gilman asks for nothing in vain."
SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE. This institution was organized in 1869. It contains a school for both sexes. Special attention is given to physical culture, as it has an excellent gymnasium, fitted up with all the apparatus necessary for practicing both heavy and light gymnastics. Modern languages, music, natural sciences, philosophy, history, Latin, Greek, and mathematics are taught by the best instructors.
FRANCISCAN COLLEGE. Location, Santa Barbara. Opened for students 1868. Affords a good English and classical education at the lowest possible cost. Library of 2,500 volumes. Expenses for session of ten months, $200.
COLLEGE OF ST. AUGUSTINE. Located at Benicia. The aim of the college is to give a thorough physical, mental, and religious training: health, learning, and a Christian character. Military instruction is given daily, and all cadets are required to participate in the drill. Number of students, 124; number of instructors, 10. Two terms of twenty weeks each; $175 per term.
COLLEGE OF NOTRE DAME. It is located at San José, with 2 male and 21 female teachers; 350 students in a preparatory course and 36 in a collegiate, which latter includes music, drawing, painting, French, German, and Spanish. A philosophic cabinet, natural-history-niuseum and gymnasium are possessed, and a library of 2,000 volumes.
PACIFIC METHODIST COLLEGE. Location, Santa Rosa. In a prosperous condition ; 259 students in attendance the past year. The faculty consists of six professors and four instructors. A. L. Fitzgerald, principal. The following table embodies the latest returns for 1873:
Statistical summary of universities and colleges.
St. Augustine .......
500 3,000 1,000 12,000 10,500 2,000
*No report for 1873..