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The basic idea on which this book is planned is that the object of teaching government is to inspire a respect for organized coöperation through government, and a willingness to do one's part in it. But the pedagogical fact is recognized that the attention of the pupil must be captured, and his interest aroused, before he can be taught any subject. It is believed that his interest can be captured by showing him the practical value of political cooperation through presenting to him the importance of the work the government is expected to do, and the kind of training that is needed by those who must do it. Therefore a large part of the book is devoted to a discussion of the functions of government and the problems presented to those who perform these functions.

There is nothing more true in the field of education than that the child must learn to do by doing. The mind may suffer from indigestion and loss of appetite, just as the body may, if it takes in food in a quantity out of proportion to the exercise taken. The pupil must work with government as well as study it. Such work is suggested in the questions placed at the end of each chapter in the book ; but the questions are in the nature of suggestions. Some teachers will use only a few of them; others may substitute questions of their own, or other tasks calling for observation and inquiry; still others will assign one question to one group of pupils, and another to another, with a view to

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the discussion of all of them in class. It is important above
all things to remember that the object of the work is not
primarily to learn the facts, although a good many of these
must be learned; but to awaken attention and interest. The
pupil must get into the habit of seeing his government about
him, and of feeling his own part in it.

It is doubtful whether pupils in studying government
should be required to read a great deal in books. To
do so is likely to give the impression that it is not a real
and practical subject. The pupil who lives in a city can
find the work of government all about him-in the streets,
in his home, in the school. What he needs is to have his
eyes opened to it, and to have his mind trained to assess
it. A child once went to a library to find a book on
sunsets because he was asked to write an essay on the sub-
ject; yet he had seen sunsets almost every week in his life.
The kind of questions suggested in this book; the reports
the teachers will call for; the maps the pupil will draw of
his neighborhood; the little surveys he will make of the
conditions of travel or service in his city or State: all of
these will open his eyes and concentrate his attention. The
difficulties involved in voluntary coöperation and demo-
cratic control may be brought to his attention through ef-
forts at self-government in his clubs and societies; the ob-
servation of the discipline of the school; and discussion of
other similar phenomena. The teacher is urged to be
patient in dealing with these things. A little reflection on
what is really accomplished by the teachers of other sub-
jects, in addition to the few facts which are soon forgotten,
will encourage the teacher of government in such patience.
How much love of literature does the study of English
promote? How much comprehension of the processes of

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nature results from the elementary study of science! The teachers of those subjects are doing their best; but the teacher of government may well compare the results of our effort with the results of theirs and be hopeful.

But å mere interest in government is not sufficient. Our work must also lay down a few—there are only a few of the accepted principles of sound political coöperation. A half-dozen or so of these principles are woven into the discussion in this book: the short ballot principle, that voters should not be expected to make too many decisions at one election; the principle of civil service reform, that work can be safely entrusted only to those who know how to do it and have had some experience; the principle of the executive budget-that those who spend the money should make an organized statement of their needs once a year in order that their plans may be understood and weighed; the principle of responsible leadershipthat we can be protected from the demagogue only through a government 80 organized that it places power in the hands of our leaders from whom we expect real service. The elements of these principles may be taught to pupils of fourteen years, and our work is aimless unless we do teach them.

The outline of this book is determined by the foregoing notions. There are five parts, each of which is an organic unit, but each of which is a step in the evolution of the course. Part I presents the elementary ideas of voluntary coöperation; the parliamentary law which makes discussion possible, the making of rules which is the basis of a rule of law, the selection of officers to enforce these rules, and the writing of a constitution or the organization of the government. Part II applies these elementary prin

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