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rotatory motion must be to produce rotation in every direction. For the radiation taking place over a spherical surface, and this radiation generating vortices to be forced on the centre-from every angle of the sphere lines or waves of vortical whorls will be passing towards the centre, each produced by the same power of condensation and impelled by it on the centre with equal momentum. If then you show that one line of whorls will terminate in rotatory motion so will another, so will another, so will another, and you have not a sun moving upon an axis but upon every conceivable or inconceivable axis. Thirdly, in the cooling of this mass the portions of the gas which were not easily condensable would not leave rings at its outer surface, which rings would be composed of such less condensable materials, but they would leave hollow spheres which if they had a movement at all corresponding with the vortex generated movement of the general mass, would likewise move not upon one axis, but upon every axis. In short we should have hollow globes every point on whose surface according to the breadth of these vor'tices would be an axis of rotation, a conception as contrary to facts as contradictory of the grand simplicity of the solar movements as an absurdity can possibly be. But fourthly the nature of a vortical movement is against the conception that the rotation of the sun hasbeen generated by gases of different points of condensation moving amongst each other. There can be no centripetal vortical movement without an escape for the mass impelled on a centre, either up. wards or downwards. If you draw off water by the bottom from a vessel you will observe a centri. petal vortical movement take place whenever the water falls so low as to bear a certain proportion to the width of the opening, this point varying from four times to twice the diameter of such orifice, according to the pressure indicated by the width of the orifice. In general a small opening begins to
generate a vortex only at twice its diameter; while a large orifice, because the pressure increases sensibly at twice the depth of its breadth, begins to operate vortically often times at four times, and I have seen it at six times the diameter of the orifice. I am not aware that there is any rule given by mechanicians on the subject, but am inclined to think that many disturbing causes have prevented the construction of dependable tables. I have never seen a vortical movement where the escape of compressed matter was upwards, but can easily conceive of such a thing possible by powerful pumping. But a centripetal vortex without central issue no man ever saw. Any one may produce a centrifugal vortex by stirring a tub of water with a piece of wood. But these will bear no resemblance to a vortex generated by the condensation of gas in a nebulous sphere. Here we have no central outlet by which the vortical movement may be generated, nor any possibility of applying a rod of wood to stir it from the centre. Not a solitary portion of free space which may be filled by the revolved matter, no relieved pressure at any part which might allow the disturbance of equilibrium, nothing but condensing gas which, as every chemist knows, settles quietly into liquid or adheres in little pearly drops to the sides of its retaining vessel. But if you walk out into the fields on a dewy morning you will see the very case presented to us, viz. a more condensable body quietly distilling through one less condensable, and ask yourself and apply the most delicate tests to convince yourself whether you can detect any vestige of a vortical movement. Look at it again and see whether if there be the ghost of a movement you could ever bring yourself to believe that it would become a movement in a single plane,-as you wander through the fields if your delicate sensibilities detect a series of movements you must be satisfied that they come at all angles to the earth,
the nucleus of this nebulous gas aggregated into a mass and operated upon by gravation and composed of gases of different points of condensation, and when you have completed your survey tell us whether you can see in this dewy morning and its calm distillation any thing like the germ of that movement by which yon sun, planets, and satellites are impelled in their courses. But fifthly, this view 'does not harmonize with the mode in which spherical gaseous bodies condense. In every such sphere only the outer surface comes in contact with the radiating or cooling medium, and when the outer surface has been cooled and condensed it in turn and to a certain extent operates upon that next to it and so on. But the condensed portion of the body like the dew falls at the same time, and for some period towards the centre, and the part immediately below it takes its place next the radiating medium-but no sooner has the part which was first cooled reached a certain distance inwards than it acquires a great part of the heat it has lost and returns again to the surface, and this process goes on as every one may test by experiment until we have a solid crust over a gaseous or liquid mass beneath. The outer and more condensable gases in this nebulous sphere should by the hypothesis reach the centre, and there produce a rotatory motion, but experiment has proved that on the contrary the outside particles may be mingled with each other to a certain depth, and replace each other at the surface as they regain their heat from paying a short visit to the interior, and ultimately when they have gained a certain consistency they settle down at the surface in one solid band. Look at the crust of this solid earth on which we tread, a planet of the nature conceived by this hypothesis, does this earth give any indication that the exterior matter has run to the interior and by vortical whorls produced a flattened plane with separate bands of differentially condensing gases, arranged in rings at
certain distances within it, leaving blank spaces un. filled up, the interstices which permit the collapsing of the exterior rings left in liquid state for that purpose? You know we tread upon a solid crust, not a ring but a sphere, and that if philosophical de ductions can be depended on, for every 65 feet descent we have an additional degree of heat, and ultimately arrive at a molten mass of fused matter below. Now we have no experience of any other globular condensations of the kind involved, and this one is in point, for here we have a rotating mass, which by its energy is said to have thrown off a moon, and yet itself has settled into the very unatheistically produced state in which we find it. We do not then admit the first items of this scheme for constructing our solar system, on the contrary we most unhesitatingly declare it to be absurd in toto, and contrary to facts, but still further to evolve its conditions we will again suppose that by a vortical movement, rotatory motion may be generated, and that this motion may be in a plane, not a sphere, and that the theorists get it all their own way for so far-now we have to determine whether the remaining parts of the hypothesis tally with the facts of our solar system. According to the hypothesis the axis of the sun and all the planets should be parrallel the orbits or paths of the planets should be in the same plane-the axes of the satellites and the planes of the orbits of the satellites should also be in the same relationship to their primaries, and all should move in the same direction; we should. further find from the different degrees of condensability that the planets should according to their mass have a greater specific gravity as we near the. centre, and that the bodies as we advance from the sun should be larger, rotate more rapidly on their axes, and more slowly in their courses, and our next point of inquiry will be whether these members of our solar system fulfil these conditions. We are
most familiar with the little planet on which we dwell, and will I dare say find it to be most satisfactory to commence our examination with its arrangements. According to this theory then the axis of the earth ought to be perpendicular to the plane of its orbit, but it forms an angle with this perpendicular line of 23 degrees. This inclination it is which is the source of our variety of seasons, and difference in the length of our days and nights. Instead of our days being all twelve hours long, and our nights of equal length, you know that they are often much longer and shorter; and instead of our seasons being all alike, you know that we have spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The earth then on which we tread contradicts the theory in the most decisive manner, but there is another matter connected with it, as the generator of the moon which is still more striking. We are told by the hypothesis that the rotation of the earth threw off a ring which became consolidated into the moon; we have now to ascertain whether the moon obeys this hypothesis, or has chalked out a course for itself. Now if the moon were generated by the rotation of the earth, it should move in the plane of the generating nucleus, and we should find the moon's orbit inclined at an angle of 23° to the earth's orbit, or at the same angle as the earth's axis is inclined to the line due to the plane of its orbit; but instead of this, we find that the moon's orbit is only inclined to the earth's orbit 5'9'. Now if some accident had altered the earth's axis before throwing off the moon, why does the moon not sustain the hypothesis by maintaining the angle of inclination? and if some accident had caused the axis of the earth to alter after the moon was struck off, why does not the moon harmonize with the hypothesis by revolving in the plane of the earth's orbit? Not to go farther then, than our little system of planet and satellite, we find an anomaly which contradicts the theory most flaty.