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respective topics, and forming an equally valuable and instructive work for the reference library of the scholar, and the pocket of the self-taught mechanic.
There appears to have been a revival of the public interest in lectures recently; whether the present work has had some effect in producing this result we leave our readers to judge. The editor of the Athenæum, when reviewing the first volume of "The Popular Lecturer," observed; "Much information may be dispensed, and much thought rendered active by the honest and intelligent lecturer. This induces us to commend Mr. Pitman's volume, as likely to make lecturers more earnest, and audiences more critical." One of the most popular lecturers of the day, Mr. George Dawson, M. A., has aptly said that, "Lectures like most other things, may be divided into good, bad, and indifferent. That the latter classes should be forgotten quickly is a blessed thing; that the good lectures should not be recorded is a misfortune."
The object of this work is to prevent the loss of good lectures, and give their authors a larger audience than the lecture-room will hold. We shall use every exertion to publish the best lectures, and as soon as possible after their delivery; for the reporting of which we possess a perfect instrument in Phonography. Intimation of lectures to be delivered in any part of Great Britain will be welcome, for by the aid of our numerous phonographic friends, and the wide-spread Phonetic Society, we shall be able to procure verbatim reports. Many valuable lectures are in our possession, and others have been promised by Mr. George Dawson, M. A.; Mr. L. H. Grindon; Rev. Robert Lamb, M. A.; Hon. Joseph Napier, LL. D., M. P.; Professor Owen, F. R. S.; Mr. J. W. Hawkins, F. G. S.; Rev. J. P. Chown; Mr. J. D. Morell, M. A.; Rev. Canon Stowell, M. A.; Mr. J. J. Merriman, editor of the Preston Guardian; Mr. James Clephan, editor of the Gateshead Observer; Mr. Joseph Johnson; Dr. Angus Smith, &c. A lecture on "Phonography will be given early in the coming year, by the editor of "The Popular Lecturer," with a portrait of Mr. Isaac Pitman, the inventor of the art. The publisher of "The Popular Lecturer," encouraged by the success of the work, will continue to issue it at the same low price, and in monthly numbers, each containing two or more lectures. Contributions and suggestions are solicited by
THE VEGETARIAN FALLACY;
MR. JOSEPH JOHNSON.
[Delivered in Manchester.]
VEGETARIANS, in presenting their peculiar views, tell us that we have only to enquire to be convinced; that an appeal to scientific facts will confirm: that personal experience of the system will convert us into apostles-commending and enforcing the vegetarian practice to others. The reasons, on first being presented, are startling; like the national workshop system of France-the arguments seemed right, until experience proved them impracticable. The vegetarian, however, is no niggard in his reasons: he appeals, in support of his system, to the anatomical structure of man; to history; to physiology; to chemistry; to domestic economy; to agriculture; to psychology; to the practical testimony of great and good men; to the appointment of man's food at the creation; and to individual experience. In justice to the vegetarian we are bound to examine his proofs in defence, if we are disposed to present our own arguments in opposition to his system. Briefly, therefore, let us review the evidence. First. On the anatomical structure of man. On this part of the subject the vegetarian asks with considerable confidence if there is anything in the human hand or face
to indicate that man is a preying or carnivorous animal? The answer is, certainly not; no more than man's hands and face indicate that grass, raw potatoes, turnips, carrots, or any other uncooked vegetable substance, was intended to be his food. Man, contradistinguished from every other animal, cooks his food. It is simply absurd, therefore, to say that if man had been intended to live upon animal food, he would have been provided with talons to enable him to tear the flesh of the animals furnishing his meals. It would be equally as logical to say that man ought to go naked, for if it had been intended that he should be clothed, a covering, like that of the sheep or cow, would have been provided for him. When the vegetarian appeals to anatomy he makes a mistake the evidence is all the other way. To take only two illustrations. Dr. Lankester, professor in the London University, says: "The teeth of man are partly adapted for grinding, whilst some of them are supplied with the sharp projections which are characteristic of the carnivora, thus evidently adapting them for the mastication of both vegetable and animal food." Dr. Garnett, formerly professor of natural philosophy in the Royal Institution, in his Zoonomia, says: "Man forms an intermediate link between the animals living upon vegetables, and those animals living only upon animal substances, his teeth, and the structure of his intestines show that he may subsist both on vegetable and animal food; and, in fact, is best nourished by a proper mixture of both." Second. We are next told that vegetarianism is supported by an appeal to history. The names of Pythagoras, of Epicurus, Zeno, Epictetus, Daniel, John, Howard, Franklin, and Lamartine, are freely cited in support. In order to render these names of any value to the movement, it is needful to show some connection between their lives and works, and the system of diet which they might have found it convenient to adopt. If it is argued that their emi