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CILAPTER

XVIII.

TIE SEMINOLES.

too, lind I been the victim of doubt. Perhaps, after strength-were moving down from the north; and it all, Maümee had never loved me!

was easy prophecy to say that the red conquerors Many a sore heart had I suffered from this reflec- must in turn yield possession. tion. I could now bear it with more complacency; Once already had they met in conflict with the paleand yet, singular to say, it was this very reflection faced usurpers, led on by that stern soldier who now that often awakened the memory of Maümee; and, sat in the chair of the president. They were defeated, whenever I dwelt upon it, produced the strongest and forced further south, into the heart of the landrevulsions of my now spasmodic love!

the centre of the peninsula. There, however, they Wounded vanity! powerful as passion itself! thy were secured by treaty. A covenant solemnly made, throes are strong as love. Under their influence, the and solemnly sworn to, guaranteed their right to the chandeliers grow dim, and the fair forms flitting soil, and the Seminole was satisfied. beneath lose half their brilliant beauty. My thoughts Alas! the covenants between the strong and the go back to the flowery land to the lake-to the island weak are things of convenience, to be broken whenever -to Maümee.

the former wills it-in this case, shamefully broken.

White adventurers settled along the Indian border; Five years soon fitted past, and the period of my they wandered over Indian ground—not wandered, but cadetship was fulfilled. With some credit, I went went; they looked upon the land; they saw that it through the ordeal of the final examination. A high was good-it would grow rice and cotton, and cane nuinber rewarded my application, and gave me the and indigo, the olive and orange; they desired to choice of whatever arm of the service was most to my possess it, more than desired—they resolved it should liking. I had a penchant for the rifles, though I might be theirs. have pitched higher, into the artillery, the cavalry, There was a treaty, but what cared they for treaties? or engineers. I chose the first, however, and was Adventurers-starved-out planters from Georgia and gazetted brevet-lieutenant, and appointed to a rifle the Carolinas, ‘nigger-traders' from all parts of the regiment, with leave of absence to revisit my native south; what were covenants in their eyes, especially home.

when made with red-skins ? The treaty must be got At this time, my sister had also 'graduated' at the rid of. Ladies' Academy, and carried off her diploma' with The 'Great Father,' scarcely more scrupulous than credit; and together we journeyed home.

they, approved their plan.
There was no father to greet us on our return: a Yes,' said he, it is good—the Seminoles must be
weeping and widowed mother alone spoke the melan- dispossessed; they must remove to another land; we
choly welcome.

shall find them a home in the west, on the great plains;
there they will have wide hunting-grounds, their own
for ever.'

'No,' responded the Seminoles ; 'we do not wish to

move; we are contented here: we love our native On my return to Florida, I found that the cloud of land; we do not wishi to leave it; we shall stay.' war was gathering over my native land. It would * Then you will not go willingly? Be it so.

We are soon burst, and my first essay in military life would strong, you are weak; we shall force you.' be made in the defence of hearth and home. I was Though not the letter, this is the very spirit of the pot unprepared for the news. War is always the theme reply which Jackson made to the Seminoles ! of interest within the walls of a military college; and The world has an eye, and that eye requires to be in no place are its probabilities and prospects so fully satisfied. Even tyrants dislike the open breach of discussed or with so much earnestness.

treaties. In this case, political party was more thought For a period of ten years had the United States of than the world, and a show of justice became been at peace with all the world. The iron hand of necessary. Old Hickory' had awed the savage foe of the fron- The Indians remained obstinate-they liked their tiers. For more than ten years had the latter desisted own land-they were reluctant to leave it—no wonder. from his chronic system of retaliation, and remained Some pretext must be found to dispossess them. silent and still. But the pacific statu quo came to an The old excuse, that they were mere idle hunters, and end. Once more the red man rose to assert his rights, made no profitable use of the soil, would scarcely avail. and in a quarter most unexpected. Not on the fron- It was not true. The Seminole was not exclusively a tier of the far west,' but in the heart of the flowery hunter; he was a husbandman as well, and tilled the land. Yes, Florida was to be the theatre of operations land-rudely, it may be, but was this a reason for —the stage on which this new war-drama was to be dispossessing him ? enacted,

Without this, others were easily found. That A word historical of Florida, for this writing is cunning commissioner which their ‘Great Father'sent in truth a history.

them could soon invent pretexts. He was one who In 1821, the Spanish flag disappeared from the well knew the art of muddying the stream upwards, ramparts of San Augustine and St Marks, and and well did he practise it. Spain yielded up possession of this fair province-one The country was soon filled with rumours of Indian of her last footholds upon the continent of America. outrages-of horses and cattle stolen, of plantations Literally, it was but a foothold that the Spaniards held plundered, of white travellers robbed and murdered— in Florida-a mere nominal possession. Long before all the work of those savage Seminoles. the cession, the Indians had driven them from the field A vile frontier press, ever ready to give tongue into the fortress. Their haciendas lay in ruins—their to the popular furor, did not fail in its duty of horses and cattle ran wild upon the savannas ; and exaggeration. rank weeds usurped the site of their once prosperous But who was to gazette the provocations, the plantations. During a century of dominion, they had retaliations, the wrongs and cruelties inflicted by the made many a fair settlement, and the ruins of build- other side ? All these were carefully concealed. ings-far more massive than aught yet attempted by A sentiment was soon created throughout the their Saxon successors—attest the former glory and country-a sentiment of bitter hostility towards the power of the Spanish nation.

Seminole. It was not destined that the Indians should long "Kill the savage! Hunt him down! Drive him out! hold the country they had thus reconquered. Another Away with him to the west!' Thus was the sentiment race of white men---their equals in courage and I expressed. These became the popular cries. '

CHAPTER XIX.

AN INDIAX IERO.

When the people of the United States has a wish, barbarian pomp or splendour, flattered by no flunkey it is likely soon to seek gratification, particularly courtiers, like the rajahs of the east, or, on

a still when that wish coincides with the views of its govern- more costly scale, the crowned monarchs of the ment; in this case, it did so—the government itself west. On the contrary, his dress was scarcely conhaving created it.

spicuous, often meaner than those around him. Many would be easy, all supposed, to accomplish the a common warrior was far more gaillard than he. popular will, to dispossess the savage, hunt him, drive As with the head-chief, so with the chieftains of him out. Still there was a treaty. The world had tribes; they possessed no power over life or property; an eye, and there was a thinking minority not to be they could not decree punishment. A jury alone despised who opposed this clamorous desire. The could do this; and I make bold to affirm, that the treaty could not be broken under the light of day; punishments among these people were in juster prohow, then, was this obstructive corenant to be got portion to the crimes than those decreed in the rid of?

highest courts of civilisation. Call the head men together, cajole them out of it; It was a system of the purest republican freedom, the chiefs are human, they are poor, some of them without one idea of the levelling principle; for merit drunkards — bribes will go far, fire-water still further; produced distinction and authority. Property was not make a new treaty, with a double construction—the in common, though labour was partially so; but this ignorant savages will not understand it; obtain their community of toil was a mutual arrangement, agreesignatures, the thing is done!

able to all. The ties of family were as sacred and Crafty commissioner! yours is the very plan, and strong as ever existed upon the earth. you the man to execute it.

And these were savages forsooth-red savages, to be It was done. On the 9th of May 1832, on the dispossessed of their rights—to be driven from hearth banks of the Oclawaha, the chiefs of the Seminole and home-to be banished from their beautiful land nation in full council assembled bartered away the to a desert wild, to be shot down and hunted like beasts land of their fathers !

of the field ! The last in its most literal sense, for Such was the report given to the world.

dogs were to be employed in the pursuit ! It was not true.

It was not a full council of chiefs; it was an assembly of traitors bribed and suborned, of weak men flattered and intimidated. No wonder the nation refused to accede to this surreptitious covenant ; no wonder they heeded not its terms; but had to be There were several reasons why the treaty of the summoned to still another council,' for a freer and Oclawaha could not be considered binding on the fuller signification of their consent.

Seminole nation. First, it was not signed by a majority It soon became evident that the great body of the of the chiefs. Sixteen chiefs and sub-chiefs appended Seminole nation repudiated the treaty. Many of the their names to it. There were five times this number chiefs denied having signed it. The head chief, Onopa, in the nation. denied it. Some confessed the act, but declared they Second, it was, after all, no treaty, but a mere had been drawn into it by the influence and advice of conditional contract--the conditions being that a depuothers. It was only the more powerful leaders of tation of Seminoles should first proceed to the lands clans—as the brothers Omatla, Black Clay, and Big allotted in the west (upon White River), examine these Warrior—who openly acknowledged the signing. lands, and bring back a report to their people. The

These last became objects of jealousy throughout very nature of this condition proves that no contract the tribes; they were regarded as traitors, and justly for removal could have been completed, until the

Their lives were in danger; even their own exploration had been first accomplished. retainers disapproved of what they had done.

The examination was made. Seven chiefs, accomTo understand the position, it is necessary to say a panied by an agent, journeyed to the far west, and word of the political status of the Seminoles. Their made a survey of the lands. government was purely republican-a thorough democ- Now, mark the craft of the commissioner! These racy. Perhaps in no other community in the world seven chiefs are nearly all taken from those friendly to did there exist so perfect a condition of freedom: I the removal. We find among them both the Omatlas, might add happiness, for the latter is but the natural and Black Clay. True, there is Hoitle-mattee (jumper), offspring of the former. Their state has been com- a patriot, but this brave warrior is stricken with the pared with that of the clans of Highland Scotland. The Indian curse—he loves the fire-water ; and his proparallel is true only in one respect. Like the Gael, pensity is well known to Phagan, the agent, who the Seminoles were without any common organisation. accompanies them. They lived in 'tribes' far apart, each politically inde- A ruse is contemplated, and is put in practice. pendent of the other; and although in friendly rela- The deputation is hospitably entertained at Fort tionship, there was no power of coercion between them. Gibson, on the Arkansas. Hoitle-mattee is made There was a 'head-chief'-king he could not be merry--the contract for removal is spread before the called-for Mico,' liis Indian title, has not that signi- seven chiefs—they all sign it: the juggle is complete. fication. The proud spirit of the Seminole had never But even this was no fulfilment of the terms of the sold itself to so absurd a condition; they had not Oclawaha covenant. The deputation was to return yet surrendered up the natural rights of man. It is with their report, and ask the will of the nation. only after the state of nature has been perverted and That was yet to be given; and, in order to obtain it, a abased, that the 'kingly' element becomes strong new council of all the chiefs and warriors must be among a people.

summoned. The head .mico' of the Seminoles was only a head It was to be a mere formality. It was well known in name. His authority was purely personal: he had that the nation as a body disapproved of the facile no power over life or property. Though occasionally conduct of the seven chiefs, and would not endorse the wealthiest, he was often one of the poorest of his it. They were not going to 'move.' people. He was more open than any of the others to This was the more evident, since other conditions of the calls of philanthropy, and ever ready to disburse the treaty were daily broken. One of these was the with free hand, what was, in reality, not his people's, restoration of runaway slaves, which the signers of the but his own. Hence he rarely grew rich.

Oclawaha treaty had promised to send back to their He was surrounded by no retinue, girt in by no owners. No blacks were sent back; on the contrary,

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they now found refuge among the Indians more secure We cadets much admired this young man.

He was than ever.

described as possessing all the attributes of a hero-of The commissioner knew all this. He was calling noble aspect, bold, handsome, intelligent. Both his the new council out of mere formality. Perhaps he physical and intellectual qualities were spoken of in might persuade them to sign-if not, he intended to terms of praise—alınost approaching to hyperbole. His awe them into the measure, or force them at the point form was that of an Apollo, his features those of of the bayonet. He had said as much. Troops were Adonis or Endymion. He was first in everything--the concentrating at the agency-Fort King—and others best shot in his nation, the most expert swimmer and were daily arriving in Tampa Bay. The government rider—the swiftest runner, and most successful hunter had taken its measures ; and coercion was resolved upon. -alike eminent in peace or war-in short, a Cyrus.

I was not ignorant of what was going on, nor of all There were Xenophons enough to record his fame. that had happened during my long years of absence. The people of the United States had been long at My comrades, the cadets, were well versed in Indian peace with the red men. The romantic savage was affairs, and took a lively interest in them-especially far away from their borders. It was rare to see an those who expected soon to escape from the college Indian within the settlements, or hear aught of them. walls. * Black Hawk's war,' just terminated in the There had been no late deputations from the tribes to west, had already given some a chance of service and gratify the eyes of gazing citizens; and a real curiodistinction, and young ambition was now bending its sity had grown up in regard to these children of the eyes upon Florida.

forest. An Indian hero was wanted, and this young The idea, however, of obtaining glory in such a war chief appeared to be the man. was ridiculed by all. It would be too easy a war- His name was Oçcola. the foe was not worth considering. A mere bandful of savages,' asserted they ; 'scarcely enough of them to stand before a single company. They would be either

M A M MA'S PET. killed or captured in the first skirmish, one and all of

Women and children !-- what a sight them- there was not the slightest chance of their

Was there when, gathered to her breast making any protracted resistance-unfortunately, there was not.'

After their bloody breathless flight, Such was the belief of my college-companions; Calcutta bade the victims rest! and, indeed, the common belief of the whole country, Strong men, with voices weak and low, at that time. The army, too, shared it. One officer

Stood by to ask their names, their woe. was heard to boast that he could march through the whole Indian territory with only a corporal's Some answered but with choking sighs guard at his back; and another, with like bravado,

And wringing hands; and some stood there wished that the government would give him a charter

Hecdless, with their unconscious eyes of the war, on his own account. He would finish it

Fixed in a blank and ghostlike stare; for 10,000 dollars !

These only expressed the sentiments of the day. Some told their tale in screams, and some No one believed that the Indians would or could

Covered their faces and were dumb.
sustain a conflict with us for any length of time;
indeed, there were few who could be brought to think One of the throng, a little child,
that they would resist at all: they were only holding A fair-haired girl, was all alone;
out for better terms, and would yield before coming to No mother on her darling smiled,
blows.

No brother spoke in cheering tone :
For my part, I thought otherwise. I knew the
Seminoles better than most of those who talked-I

All, all alone, with eyes serene, knew their country better; and, notwithstanding the

She gazed upon that strange sad scene. odds against them—the apparent hopelessness of the struggle-I had my belief that they would neither They came to her, these pitying men, yield to disgraceful terms, nor yet be so easily con

And one beside her knelt, and took quered. Still, it was but a conjecture; and I might The orphan to his breast, and then, be wrong. I might be deserving the ridicule which

With gentle voice, and gentler look, my opposition to the belief of my comrades often

• Dear child, what is your name ?' he cried : brouglıt upon me.

'I'm mamma's pet,' the child replied. The newspapers made us acquainted with every circumstance. Letters, too, were constantly received

The wild moustache, the rough black beard at the ‘Point' from old graduates now serving in Florida. Every detail reached us, and we had become

Quivered : upon her golden head acquainted with the names of many of the Indian

He laid his broad brown hand, and cleared chieftains, as well as the internal politique of the tribe. His husky throat : 'Poor child,' he said, It appeared they were not united. There was a party • You are called something more-say yet in favour of yielding to the demands of our government, Your name.'-'I'm just mamma's sweet pet.' headed by one Omatla. This was the traitor party, and a minority. The patriots were more numerous, O mother in your dismal grave, including the head .mico' himself, and the powerful

O murdered father, hear us vow chiefs Holata, Coa-hajo, and the negro Abram.

Our homage to the fond and brave Among the patriots there was one name that, upon

To lavish on that baby brow, the wings of rumour, began to take precedence of all others. It appeared frequently in the daily prints, To pay in love our sacred debtand in the letters of our friends. It was that of a For yours shall be the Nation's pet! young warrior-or sub-chief, as he was styled — who by

L. R.

EDINBURGHI. some means or other had gained a remarkable ascendency in the tribe. He was one of the most violent opponents of the removal;' in fact, the leading spirit Printed and Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, 47 Paternoster

Row, Loxpox, and 339 High Street, EDINBURGII. Also sold by that opposed it; and chiefs much older and more

WILLIAM ROPERTSOX, 23 Upper Sackville Street, DUBLIN, and all powerful were swayed by his counsel.

Booksellers.

LOPULAR

LITERATURE

Science and Arts.

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS.

No. 214.

SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 6, 1858.

Price 14d.

scene.

Portland is the Chesil Bank,' which in reality unites PORTLAND AND THE BREAKWATER.

it with the mainland ; so that the isle of Portland is NOTWITHSTANDING the proverbial gloom of November, in fact a peninsula. Still, we cannot help holding the sun shone as brightly as though nature did not by its common designation. The bank we have believe the almanac, when, a few days since, we found just mentioned is a mound of shingle, about two ourselves on board a Weymouth steamer, bound for hundred yards in width, and more than ten miles in Portland. The voyage, it is true, was expected to length; nearly, but not quite touching the nearest occupy only half an hour; still, it was a very pleasant point of the opposite shore, and then “running up in the thing to have fair weather.

form of a narrow isthmus along the western seaboard The Bay of Weymouth looked extremely picturesque of Dorsetshire.' This singular formation, which is on that occasion. The long line of white cliffs, with about forty feet above highwater-mark, acts as a their broken headlands, seemed almost to landlock the natural breakwater to the anchorage of Portland bay. It chanced, fortunately, that the incident of Roads, sheltering the east bay against westerly gales. light and colouring was peculiarly beautiful and varied. • The shingle of the Chesil Bank,' says Mr Coode, in The sky was, in truth, heavenly azure, diversified his admirable paper read before the Institution of Civil with soft white clouds, changing every moment under Engineers in May 1853, 'is composed chiefly of chalkthe influence of the plastic wind, which dallied with flints, with a small proportion of pebbles from the red the sky drapery till its fashion was all beautiful. The sandstone. ... A peculiar kind of jasper with fleshblue sea was covered with a tracery of dancing gold coloured red predominating, is not very uncommon. spangles, and the white-crested waves rode cheerily. ... There are also occasionally pebbles which are into the shore, giving life and animation to the whole decidedly porphyritic. . . . As a proof of the solidity of

the mass, it may here be noticed that the water never As we receded from the shore, the different objects percolates from the west bay into the east bay, except of interest in the neighbourhood of Weymouth were in the heaviest gales from the south-west-notwithpointed out to us. The moors, treeless, but green and standing that ordinary tides in moderate weather rise undulating, have here and there oases of luxuriant to two or three inches higher, and fall out two feet verdure; and under shelter of the hillside, villages nine inches lower on the west side than the east.' nestle themselves, as at Preston and Osmington, with The questions which arise respecting this formation a picturesque church for warden of the happy valley. are highly interesting, and are closely followed out in It was very interesting to watch the cloud-shadows, the paper from which we quote. When we come to chasing each other over the wide expanse of down; examine the materials which compose the accumulated now throwing the cliffs into dark and bold relief mass, we are led by geologists to trace back their against the bright sky, and now revealing in intensest origin to strata which would naturally afford this sunlight every detail of broken rock and shelving débris; and, according to the shewing of Mr Coode, shore, every hue of colour, every change of sand and such strata are not to be found save on the west coast, shingle, and far-stretching sunken ledges.

as far down as Lyme-Regis. Accepting this fact, we more like a good water-colour drawing than almost are led to reason on the movements and deposition of anything English we had ever looked upon.

shingle, and to balance probabilities between the effect Ringstead and Lullworth, we were told, are places of tidal currents or wind-waves upon these travelling of interest. St Albans Head was the extreme point masses. discernible. We soon rounded that part of the The theory that the wind-waves are the primary mainland which unfortunately shuts out the view of cause of the transit of debris from distant strata, is Portland from the town of Weymouth, and now we ably supported by Mr Coode. He multiplies instances found ourselves in sight of the island, which rises of shingle borne by the heaviest seas in opposition to rather grandly from the water. Many persons have the prevailing current of the tide. The form of the compared it to Gibraltar; and as it appeared on this bank varies considerably under the influence of severe occasion, its height was exaggerated by a lingering gales of wind; the concussion of the receding meeting mist which veiled its summit.

the on-coming wave is sometimes so great, that an The island has naturally a very warlike look; and enormous body of broken water and spray will somenow a substantial fort, in course of erection, is cresting times rise perpendicularly into the air to a height of the near extremity-a commanding position, and one sixty or seventy feet.' of great importance in guarding the roadstead.

There is a curious anecdote connected with the force One of the most remarkable features connected with of winds and waves, which may not be known to all

It was

canvas.

our readers. On the 23d of November 1824, a ship of Portland afford a ready supply of material. There 100 tons burden, having on board stores and heavy were millions of tons of refuse stone already quarried, guns, í being unable to weather Portland, as a last and available for the foundation of the breakwater, resource,

was run directly on to the Chesil Bank under which, together with the blocks of stone required

She happened to come in on the top of a for the superstructure, might be easily conveyed to the sea, and by her momentum was carried on to the crest works. of the bank, where she remained for some time, and We should here remind our readers that government was ultimately launched into the eastern bay.'

has a prison establishment at Portland, where some We found an hour had already flown in listening to 1500 convicts are kept employed, principally in the local traditions, and in examining this curious shingle- quarries which supply the material for this great beach, which so happily forms a natural breakwater undertaking. just in the right place. We could not, however, leave The stone is being worked at about 300 feet above the place without noticing the local boats, called the level of the sea, and is conveyed by convict lerrets, which are used by the fishermen of this and horse labour to a railway which has been condistrict. They are quite peculiar, and are propelled structed for its transit. This line consists of three by the rowers on one side pulling stroke alternately inclines, which fall one foot in ten. "The loaded trucks with those on the other, thus giving the boat a tor- are let down by wire-rope attached to drums, and in tuous motion through the water.' The fishermen their descent draw up the empty trucks on a parallel consider this method economises power. Certain it line of railway; the speed is regulated by very poweris, they are a hardy race, and manage their barks ful screw-breaks. A self-registering machine weighs most skilfully.

each load. The official report of the year ending the Till lately, the Portlanders have been an isolated 31st of March 1857, from which we quote our statispeople, preserving many

old-world customs, and never tics of the breakwater, informs us that 2,667,907 tons ! marrying out of the island; but their primitive habits of rough stone have been deposited since the commenceand manners have been invaded by the march of ment of the works—this will give us some idea of their physical science and the mechanical arts, which some- magnitude. The proximity of these quarries has contimes drive in civilisation with a sledge-hammer, siderably lessened the expense in the construction of where the soil will not take kindly to the seed. the breakwater. Cherbourg cost the French govern

Apropos of engineering triumphs, we now bend our ment upwards of two millions-five millions have steps to the breakwater, which is being constructed at been expended altogether on that porte. And our own Portland, and is the great object of attraction. Leaving Plymouth Breakwater, though only 1760 yards in the Chesil Bank to the right, the visitor proceeds length, cost nearly if not quite two millions; whereas along the shore for some quarter of a mile, through the original estimate made in 1846 for the Portland a 'Pelion upon Ossa’ of stone, iron, and miscellaneous Breakwater was between five and six hundred thoumaterials, when arriving at the lodge, his name is sand pounds. (This, however, did not include any required, and he is then free to see the works.

masonry except that in the heads.') It has since At present, the whole place is encumbered by a been deemed expedient to extend the structure, and vast wooden staging, over which railway lines inter- also to make it applicable for coaling and watering sect each other; together with the tools and appliances establishments, suitable for the largest ships of the required by engineers, masons, smiths, carpenters, navy; these additions, together with other enlargedivers, and others. Horses tramp along the wooden ments upon the original plan, have brought the net causeway, steam-engines hiss and roar, iron chains estimated expenditure to L.844,125. clank, and wheels revolve with ceaseless noise.

The scaffolding, or, more properly, staging, reaches At first, it is difficult to realise what all this is about, at present about two-thirds of the projected extent of but curiosity soon leads you onward where the tide of the breakwater: on this we walked. About a quarter business seems tending.

of a mile from shore it is intended there should be an Here it may be well to say a few words about the opening large enough to admit vessels into the har. history of the breakwater. About 1794 it occurred to bour. The pier-heads at this point are nearly finished, Mr Hervey of Weymouth, who was evidently a very and present a most resistant appearance. They are, intelligent and far-sighted individual, that it would be for the most part, built of a peculiar kind of stone highly desirable to have a breakwater, for the purpose found in Portland, and called “Roach' by the quarryof sheltering the Portland Roads. It was a fixed idea men; the outside or face of the heads being of large in his mind, and he appears to have pursued the masses of granite from Cornwall. These piers seem subject with an earnestness worthy of the cause. He planted immutably firm in the restless element which memorialised and petitioned all to no use, and died, leaps vainly against this rampart of mechanical skill. leaving his suggestion a legacy to parliament, who The tide was down, so we had an opportunity of very wisely came to the conclusion, some ten years seeing the footing or foundation, which is composed ago, that this coast required a harbour, and that the of rude pieces of rock, intermixed with rubble. For tremendous works of a similar kind at Cherbourg some distance, this is already covered with sea-weed, were a significant hint. The break water was accord- so that it has much the appearance of a natural ledge ingly commenced in 1847; but the ceremony of laying of rock; but as you proceed, you soon discover the the foundation-stone did not take place till the 25th hand of man. You see that the pieces have been of July 1849, when that duty was performed by the recently flung there, and there is evidence of form prince-consort.

growing out of chaos. We remarked a singularly fine The breakwater is designed to be 2500 yards in specimen of an ammonite amongst the débris, nearly length, and will shelter 2107 acres of Portland Bay– the circumference of a cart-wheel, and beautifully 1760 acres of which will have from two to ten fathoms perfect. We looked with longing eyes, and wished it at low-water spring-tides, having excellent anchorage in our provincial museum; and this, though the finest in a strong blue clay, with other advantages of good fossil we saw, was by no means solitary, for scraps of water, and an almost inexhaustible supply of ballast. the ammonite family lay in various directions.

It appears that a great many vessels have been lost, The timber-staging, we should observe, is about 130 and lives sacrificed on this coast, owing to the want feet in width. There are five lines of railway on it, of a harbour of refuge-for none such exists between and a railed way for workmen and visitors. This Plymouth and Spithead, a distance of 140 miles. mass of timber-work is supported at intervals by

There are peculiar facilities in the locality for the enormous wooden piles, which, as we were told, are construction of this great work. The quarries of constructed in the following manner. The piles end

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