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for me to reach Glasgow before the opening of the good-sized roon, the walls of which were hung all meeting, if I took a forenoon train the next day from round with curtains of green stuff, concealing shelves Liverpool, I resolved to profit by the accident, to loaded with various chemical preparations and studies visit an old acquaintance of mine who resided in one in anatomy and natural history. of the suburbs of the city, and from whoin I had Blackburn was a retired physician of considerable frequently received, and as often been obliged to local celebrity; but being in independent circumstances, decline, a warmly hospitable invitation.
he had for some time relinquished the duties of his I knew his house was not large, and his establish- profession, and devoted himself to the sciences that are ment I presumed to be on a strictly bachelor scale; more immediately in connection with it. Chemistry but having lived a good deal about the world for many and anatomy had led him, on to mineralogy and years, I can accommodate myself with ease to any geology; and entering warmly into the controversy circumstances into which I find myself thrown; and excited in the scientific world about that time by the I own that I thought more of the pleasure of seeing appearance of a very remarkable work on the lastand conversing with my old friend, than of the named science, he had been devoting his leisure for slight disturbance which my unexpected arrival might some months before the time I am now speaking of, cause in his household. On arriving at the station, to the composition of a pamphlet, to be entitled therefore, I engaged a fly, and set out at once for Comparative Anatomy in the Paleozoic Ages, which was Dr Blackburn's house. The way was long, and dark, to give the world some ideas of his own on the subject. and dreary'-if Miss Rosie will forgive me a parody It was thus he accounted to me for various uncouth on her favourite poet-we rattled through innumer- forms, models in miniature of the gigantic plesiosauri able streets, and wandered along a devious course in a and pterodactyles of geology, which dangled from the wilderness of semi-detached dwellings and .suburban ceiling, and cast grotesque shadows on the whitevillas,' which seemed to have no end. At length we washed upper part of the walls. A large table liad reached a small, but substantial house, standing some- been hastily cleared to receive my dressing apparatus ; what back from the high road in a garden, which was and Blackburn handled with something of regretful surrounded by a high brick-wall; and on sending in tenderness a number of human skulls, collected to my card, Dr Blackburn at once appeared at the furnish evidence in support of some theory regarding entrance-door, with a hearty greeting, and a warm the origin of the varieties in the human race, which invitation to me to enter. The first few minutes were had been disrespectfully cast by Stevens, in the course occupied by my explanation of the circumstances which of his hospitable preparations for my comfort, iuto a led to my unexpected intrusion; and it was not till corner of the room, where they lay grinning upon a my portmanteau was deposited in the hall, and the heap of other bones, both fossil and recent, which were flyman had driven away, that Dr Blackburn's old awaiting the collector's leisure to be classified and servant was able, after sundry mysterious winks and arranged in order on the shelves. We fell into connudges, to attract his master's attention, and draw him versation on the subjects suggested by these evidences to one side.
of my friend's favourite studies, and some time elapsed After a few words spoken in a low tone, Blackburn before he left me for the night, promising to send his turned to me with a laughi, in which, however, there servant to call me at an early hour in the morning. was a shade of embarrassment. Why, Brunton,' he I locked the door as soon as my friend retired, said, “here is Stevens reminding me, with a face of and then made a fresh examination of the somewhat horror, that there is positively not a vacant corner in singular apartment which had been hastily prepared the house. There is a trial for poisoning, of great for my reception : and in order to make what I am professional interest, going on at the assizes, and A- going to relate more intelligible, I will describe the and G-, whom you must remember, are staying room as it then appeared to me. It was nearly square, with me to attend it, and they occupy the only two and, as I have said before, of considerable size. One of spare rooms which the house contains- I inter- the sides was formed by the high brick-wall of which I rupted him by saying that it was of no consequence, have spoken as surrounding my friend's house; and I would spend the evening with him, and return to the from this wall, which may have been about fifteen railway hotel for the night. 'Impossible,' he exclaimed. feet high, the roof sloped gradually, till, at the opposite "You are fully two miles from the station; and low side of the apartment, the space between the roof and could you convey your impedimenta ? We are far the floor was not more than nine feet. The room was beyond the region of perpetual cabs here. No, no; we not ceiled, but the rafters and beams were whitewashed, shall manage a shake-down for you; though I shall as well as the space left at each end between the green not be able to make you as comfortable as I should curtains which covered the walls all round, and came like to see a friend whom I have so long wished to close to the roof, where it was lowest, and the gradually have under my roof.'
increasing height of the walls. The door was in the A few instructions in a stage-aside to Stevens--in centre of one end of the room; opposite to it was a which I heard the words 'camp-bed,” “a large tub, and large open chimney, with a raised slab of stone suplaboratory'-and Blackburn turned, and ushered me porting dogs for burning wood, on which was now into the large, low, but comfortable and well-ligiited heaped a brightly glowing pile. At one side of this dining-room, where his two guests were still sitting at cheerful fireplace stood a large tin-bath full of water; the table. A portion of the well-cooked dinner was and on the other, a small camp-bed was spread with soon heated anā set before me, and we sat conversing the freshest and whitest of linen. My portmantenu, on many subjects of interest to us all, till a late hour. and the table spread with my dressing - apparatus, When we rose to separate for the night, Blackburn occupied a third corner; and the fourth contained the recommenced a series of apologies for the rough heap of bones and skulls already mentioned. A large lodging he was obliged to give me, which I with leather-covered arm-chair, and an old-fashioned spiderdifficulty cut short by assuring him of my indifference legged table before the fire, completed the furniture. on the subject. He then took a lantern from the After making my preparations for the night, the fire servant, and opening a side-door, led the way across looked so temptingly cheerful, that, my mind being a paved yard surrounded by outhouses, and through occupied with the subjects we had discussed during a small shrubbery beyond, to a detached building; the evening, I could not resist seating myself in the which, from having been an apple-room or some arm-chair, and indulging in a little half-drowsy medidependency of the garden, he had converted into a tation. By and bye, however, the atmosphere of the laboratory and museum. He unlocked the door with a room became rather oppressive; the fire, heaped up by key which he carried in his hand, and we entered a hospitable hands, gradually drew from the bones and other animal products in the surrounding shelves, I now gave myself up for lost, and endeavoured to odours which were neither pleasant nor healthful; prepare for a horrible death by summoning to my aid and remembering that I had not seen a window in all the support of religion. While I strove to fix my my first survey of the room, I rose to look for it. thoughts on the subjects which should occupy the mind Under the green curtains, on the side opposite to my of man in his last extremity, I fixed my eyes with the bed, I discovered two square windows, such as are fascination of terror on my fearful companion; and to often seen in stables, opening outwardly from the top, my inexpressible relief and thankfulness, I found that and kept from slipping by a curved bar of iron cut he grew restless and uneasy under my steady gaze, and into notches. I opened one of these to its utmost turned his head in another direction. All at once stretch, and, after looking for a few minutes at the flashed into my mind the stories I had read, and only brilliant sky of a frosty autumn night, closed the half believed, of the power of the human eye over the curtain again, and betook myself to the camp-bed. brute creation, and I redoubled the intensity of my
I lay for some time watching the wildly grotesque stare, looking fixedly into the creature's eyes. It forms assumed by the shadows of the antediluvian grinned and jabbered, and moved its arms about restmonsters I mentioned as dangling from the rafters, lessly; and, mindful of my only remaining chance, in while the embers flashed and grew dull, and again the event of its springing towards me, I got my hands brightened into a transient blaze ; and sleep was quietly under the bed-clothes, resolved to make an gradually stealing over me, when I was startled by a effort to throw them over its head before it could slight sound, as though something had fallen from seize me in a gripe which, I well knew, would not one of the shelves. I raised my head and looked relax till it left me a mangled corpse. round, but could see nothing; and my eyes were Gradually, however, the creature drooped its hideous closing again, when suddenly it appeared to me as head on its breast, and was on the point of falling though a hideous face were painted on the very spot asleep, when a brand from the nearly extinct fire fell at which I was looking. It was visible but for a with a slight noise, and roused it again to full activity. moment, and then vanished. I rubbed my eyes and The flame which suddenly leaped up, for a moment shook my head, and even felt my pulse to try and diverted the attention of my jailer ; and the uncouth detect some symptom of incipient fever; but except creature rose from its squatting position on my bed, that I plead guilty to one bounding throb, there was and approached the fire, holding out its mis-shapen no sign of any abnormal state of the circulation; and hands, and cowering over the warmth with a horrible I was trying to fancy that I had been gazing at the resemblance to human action. skulls in the corner, and transferred the image of one I now resolved to slip, if possible, unseen from my of them to the next object on which I fixed my eyes, bed, and either gain the door, or, if I could do no when the appearance returned in the same spot. more, conceal myself between the bed and the wall,
This time there could be no mistake : I clearly saw and trust to the brute's forgetting my presence. the flashing eyes, the glittering teetli, the frightful | When I attempted to move, however, I found my grin of a demoniac countenance. A bright blaze shot right foot, which had been under the creature as it from the expiring embers, and in a second the vision sat on the bed, was so completely numbed or twisted disappeared. I own that now a cold sweat burst out as to be altogether useless; and the attempt to move from every pore. Either I was seized with sudden only served to draw on me the wrathful notice of my insanity, or I was the victim of some supernatural enemy. Uttering a kind of hissing sound between delusion. I lay for a few minutes a prey to the its teeth, it darted to the further corner of the room, horrible sensations of one struggling with the night and seizing a large bone from the heap that lay there, mare. I would have given the world to have risen, again took up its quarters on the bed, and threatened and endeavoured to discover some natural cause for to strike me with the bone in a manner evidently the frightful appearance; but my good-fortune, or, copied from that to which it was accustomed from its let me say more reverently, the watchful mercy of a keeper. kind Providence, kept me still.
Thus situated, I had no alternative but to trust I could almost hear the beating of my heart in the again to the power of the eye. The fire had now died profound silence. Gradually the light faded, the embers completely out, and one white ray of moonlight fell, crackled more faintly, the shadows flickered and disap- through an opening in the curtain, right upon the peared in the general gloom; but still I lay motionless, creature's hideous face. I fixed my gaze upon it till my eyes riveted on the spot so full of mystery. 1 I began to feel a strange effect produced upon myself: should think that at least a quarter of an hour passed first the grotesque mask seemed to approach nearer and in this manner.
pearer, till it appeared as if it were about to touch me; Then the curtains waved, parted; a bright beam and then, while everything grew dark around it, it of moonlight fell on the floor, and, directly inter- seemed to shine with a pale ghastly light, as if seen far cepting its rays, stood a frightful figure—the satyr off, at the end of an immeasurable cave. I felt all the of heathen mythology, the origin of our Christian sensations which I have heard described by persons who superstitious portraiture of the arch-enemy, a huge have been mesmerised, and I have no doubt that my living specimen of that strongest and fiercest of the nerves, highly wrought upon and excited as they were ape tribe, the Simia satyrus, or wild man of the woods. by the circumstances in which I was placed, were This, then, explained the mystery. The creature peculiarly sensitive to the subtle influence. As the must have escaped from some menagerie, and found thought crossed my mind, together with the dread of its way in by the open window, and, with the cunning becoming insensible, and thus being completely at the of its' race, had concealed itself till the growing creature's mercy, I made an involuntary movement, as darkness gave it increased boldness.
if to free myself from the spell. I knew enough of the animal's wicked and malig- The fierce brute aimed a sudden and violent blow nant nature to feel convinced that my only chance of at me with the bone which it still held in its grasp. safety lay in eluding its observation ; while, therefore, Mechanically, I moved my head to elude the stroke, it stood at the further end of the room, still grasping the full force of which was thus spent on the pillow, the curtain, and surveying its new quarters with a or I should probably then and there have ended my horribly grotesque curiosity, I endeavoured to draw earthly career. As it was, the bone glanced off the the sheet quietly before my face; but my slight corner of my temple. I felt an acute pain, a gush of movement at once arrested the creature's suspicious warm blood down my cheek and throat, and for a few glance, and, with a single bound, it squatted itself, moments I became insensible. grinning and gnashing its teeth, on the foot of my bed. The instinct of self-preservation restored me to life. I seemed almost by force to recall my scattered history, and that I have a small collection in the garsenses ; and the room being now perfectly dark, I den here, gave me the brute a few days ago. I had him succeeded by slow degrees in gliding from the bed to chained in an empty stable; and last night, after shewthe floor, while my tormentor, apparently satisfied ing him to A- and G-, I must have missed the with the revenge it had taken, curled itself up in the lock of the door, and turned the key without slutting very place I had just quitted, and slept-- at least so it. The man who feeds and attends to my animals came I conjectured from the cessation of its restless move- as usual about six o'clock this morning; and finding ments, and now and then a heavy grunt, or snort, the stable empty, at once gave the alarm. We traced which bore a humiliating likeness to a human snore. his footsteps across the mould of the garden, to the
The hours which followed were among the longest window of this room, which to our consternation we I ever remember to have passed. In slipping from my found open. You may fancy to what a pitch my fears bed, I had so entangled myself with the sheet, that I increased, when on knocking at the door the fierce found it would be impossible to move without dis- brute flew out of the window, and, catching its foot on turbing my horrible neighbour: the wound in my the iron stanchion, fell to the ground. It was overtemple smarted, and my head ached severely, and I powered, not without some ugly bites and scratches; could not repress an occasional shudder, half of cold, and we then forced open the door of this room, fully and half of nervous excitement, which ran through prepared to find your mangled body. Nothing was to me like a convulsion. Every time this occurred, I be seen but the empty bed, and a large stain of blood expected my enemy to wake; but the long, dark, on the pillow ; but we soon found you, insensible, and weary hours dragged on, and he still appeared wrapped as I at first thought dead; though a little examination in slumber.
sufficed to shew that you had received no mortal At length, with joy and thankfulness which I will injury. I cannot express my thankfulness. But your not attempt to describe, I perceived a faint light, like escape is a perfect marvel to me; and as soon as you a gray mist, steal over the black darkness around me. are rested and refreshed, you must give me an account It was near the end of October, and I remembered of what happened.' that the sun did not rise much before seven o'clock- Before long, I was seated at a cheerful breakfastconsequently, that it was probably now not far from table, and making up as best I could for the wear and six, and I might reasonably expect before long to be tear of my constitution during the last few hours. By released from a situation which was all but intolerable. the time I reached Glasgow, there remained little out
I was summoning my best energies to my aid, and ward trace of my night's adventure, except a very disconsidering what means I could adopt to get the door reputable black eye, which, for my character's sake, I was open before I should be overpowered by the creature, forced to cover with a patch ; but I will own that many which I felt sure would spring at me as soon as I nights elapsed before my sleep ceased to be disturbed moved, when I heard voices in the garden, and in with friglitful visions, or I could get rid of the sight of another moment some one loudly knocked at the door, a grinning, fiendish face, which always started out of and implored me to open, for God's sake, if I was the darkness when I closed my eyes. Indeed, to alive.
this day I do not think I ever hear mention made of The creature started up at the sound, made one Liverpool without remembering the very uncomfurious rush at the opening of the curtain, which now fortable night I passed, in my first and last visit there, let in a streak of decided daylight; and at the same more than ten years ago. moment the crash of broken glass, and a succession of wild piercing cries announced that it had missed its leap, and fallen into the hands of its captors. I con- PROGRESS OF CO-OPERATION. fess that at this moment of release from the horrible TAEORETICALLY, the mode in which we are supplied fate which had been impending over me for so many with food and other articles of necessity and comfort is hours, I felt my strength of mind and body at once give way, and became completely insensible.
faultless. Private individuals, without any view to When I revived, I found myself stretched on the bed, the convenience of the public, but actuated solely by the chill morning air blowing in from the open door- interested motives, undertake the supply of the articles way--the door having been wrenched from its hinges in constant demand; merely adding to the cost-price -and poor Blackburn, with a face of the deepest the remuneration they demand for their trouble, and a anxiety, bending over me with some powerful stimu- fair proportion of the expense they are at, in shops, lant. Oh, thank God, thank God !'he exclaimed, as I endeavoured to rise and speak to him. “Keep quiet, individuals being numerous, act as a check upon each
assistants, &c., in conducting their business. These my dear fellow ; do not move or speak; only look at me, if you are in your senses.' In a few minutes, 1 other; for their competition must necessarily be in could not only look, but speak, and assure him that I excellence of quality, in moderation of price, in all was practically but little the worse for the unpleasant things that can make services of the kind acceptable; night I had passed ; but he would scarcely listen to me, and so the public are supplied with the best of and kept on repeating: "The satyrus! the wild man of everything at the lowest price, and with no more the woods! the most fierce and relentless of animals ! trouble than that of selecting their tradesmen. -how can you have escaped with life?' 'I thank God that it is so,' I replied earnestly; 'for
This is the theoretical view of the subject: the truly it has been only the hand of His protection that practical one is a little different. We find in practice has guarded me. But where did the creature come
that the competition is not in regard to realities but from, and how did you discover that it had paid me a appearances; and when this is the case, of course the visit?'
palm is achieved by those who can deceive best. The Oh, that is the worst of all,' said poor Blackburn. gracious public must be made to imagine that they * It was through my abominable carelessness that the obtain a good article at a low price; and as these two accident occurred; and if anything had befallen you, things are incompatible, the article must be so skilI never could have forgiven myself. It is bad enough fully adulterated as to seem good while it can be as it is.
But has the beast escaped from a menagerie, or how profitably sold cheap. Whether this is the fault of did it come here?'
the dealers or the public is of no consequence: the 'It is mine,' snid Blackburn ruefully. The captain fact stands all the same, and it throws discredit upon of a merchant-ship, knowing my turn for natural | the whole competitive system.
Another system, our readers are aware, has been up to July 1, 1857, your capital amounts to the sum tried by various bodies of the working-classes_a of L.9083, 58. 3d, above the said bonuses.' system in which the motive-power is co-operation
The other experiment of the kind has been tried instead of competition; and there is now before us a
at Rochdale, and with a result quite as satisfactory, paper which was partially read before the Social It commenced in 1844, from the same causes, and Science meeting at Birmingham, giving the results of it began with groceries, and extended seriatim to
with the same object, as the one at Leeds; but here the experiments of two of these co-operative bodies.* butcher's meat, flour, coal and potatoes, clothing,
One of these, the People's Co-operative Flour-mill, drapery, shoes, clogs, hats, &c. "Wages being generally we described at large on a former occasion. We paid at Rochdale on Friday and Saturday evenings mentioned that the proximate cause of its estab- about seven o'clock, it is a perfect wonder to see the lishment at Leeds in 1847 was the high price of numbers of well-dressed working-men and their wives flour and its excessive adulteration ; the millers walking quietly into the grocers' shops, where, begincombining to keep up the price of their manufacture ning at the left-hand counter in No. 1 department, they without regard to the rises and falls of grain in the senting the money, and then move on to No. 2, and so
are supplied with goods, pay, get their tickets repremarket. Under these circumstances, the working- on to the eighth or ninth shopman; then into the classes of the locality determined, at a public meeting, butcher's shop, the flour, the potato, and the clothing to purchase and manufacture for themselves, and thus rooms. On Friday, the 27th September, at half-past to obtain “pure flour at as near prime cost as possible.' seven in the evening, I stood and counted sixty-five It is interesting to observe the course of the experi- people in the grocery store, twelve in the meat and ment since then, which in fact has been so uniformly dour, and five or six in the clothing shops; and I was and triumphantly successful as to go a great way of itself people purchasing at one time, who take their turns in
informed they have sometimes more than one hundred in demonstrating the soundness of the principle. The the order of attendance. The purchases average fifteen shares were at first a guinea each, but were afterwards to sixteen shillings per week per member, clothing being raised to nearly fifty shillings. The flour was sold about one to twelve in amount, as compared to food.' at first at cost-price, but a profit is now added; From the net profits of this Society-called the the advantages were at first confined to the members, Rochdale Pioneers' Co-operative Store-21 per cent. is but the public is now admitted to share: the business set aside for the means of intellectual improvement. for the first five years never exceeded L.27,000 in the They have a library of 1600 or 1700 volumes, free to
the members, and a news-room partially free. They year, and has since then increased to L.72,000.
have purchased a considerable part of the property The existing trade could not stand unmoved before they occupy. They make no display in their shopthis new competitor. The price of flour was reduced, windows, spend nothing in advertising, buy and sell and adulteration, before excessive, became unknown in for ready money, and instead of being in want of Leeds. In order to judge of the price of so fluctuating funds, have more than they know what to do with. an article, this rule will suffice: that when grain is sold In 1844, the amount of the society's funds was L.28; at so many shillings per quarter, flour will remunerate in 1856, it had increased to L.13,000. In 1845, the at the same number of half-pence per stone of fourteen In 1845, the profit was L.33; and in 1856, it was
business done was L.710; in 1856, it was L.63,197. pounds. Thus, when corn is 60s. per quarter, flour can L.3922, 'or 35 per cent. on the capital. be sold with a profit at sixty half-pence, or half-a-crown per stone. When the Society's flour was sold at about
The advantages of the co-operative system are cost-price, it was still 14d. below the reduced market- numerous. It gives its members better goods for their price, and saved the purchasers L.2000 a year. Even money, because, instead of having any inducement to now, when it is sold at a remunerating price, governed adulterate, or manufacture superficially, its interest is by the markets, it is never above the half-penny per
quite the other way. Its customers being ready, stone to the shilling per quarter, but often below that waiting for supply, there is no risk of overstocking; rate.
it has no need, therefore, of publishing that it will get The following are the general results of this interest- rid of its winter goods at any sacrifice to make room ing experiment as given in the pamphlet in an address for its spring stock; and being under no necessity of to the members :
laying baits for patrons, it spends nothing in plate * 1st. Flour was abominably adulterated in Leeds glass, gilding, chandeliers, or puffing advertisements. before we began, and you know we have been supplied Dealing for ready money, it has no bad debts, and no
All who know intimately,' says the with a perfectly pure article from our mill, no adulteration being ever permitted.
pamphlet, the habits of the working-classes, know '2d. You know that the price of flour often bore no
what a fearful evil the practice is of purchasing their natural ratio to the price of corn, but that dealers food and clothing on credit. Once tied fast to the advanced the price of four at their pleasure ; and you bad articles; the food is adulterated, and the clothing
shopkeeper, then follows, as a rule, high prices for know that since our operations we have steadied the inferior ; poverty is thus made poorer, and to debt is markets, and reduced the scale-charge for flour at often added law, and pauperism naturally follows, a least 1d. to 2d. per stone below the millers' previous canker and a curse. What, then, must be the benefits charges. *3d. You know that the original members never paid well by the poor to be so great an evil, and yet felt to
of a complete change of the habit of credit ? known more than 21s. each, so that 3270 members' subscrip- be so hard to get rid of when once formed. And yet tions would come to L.3433, 10s.; and you know this change has been effected by these societies. The that you have withdrawn bonuses to the amount of transactions of the managers of the Leeds and RochL.5937, 11s. 8d., or L.2508, 10s. 8d. more than was ever paid in; and your directors now hereby declare dale societies are all, both buying and selling, on readyto you, that by valuation of mill, fixtures, and stock, money principles. As a consequence, those who were
never out of debt, who crouched to the shopkeeper, and
dreaded the bailiff, are now fearless and clear of all * The Economic and Moral Advantages of Co-operation in the incumbrance: they are consequently independent, and Provision of Food, instanced in the People's Flour-mill Society at feel morally as well as socially elevated. Able to lay Leeds, and in the Rochdale Co-operative Pioneers' Store. Leeds : out their money to the best advantage, their houses + See Journal, No. 51, for December 1854.
become better furnished, and cleaner; their food is
more plentiful, and more wholesome; education for the societies we have described, however, shew what can children, and all other moral benefits follow: to visit be done, and with such examples before us, it would the Green Board becomes now almost impossible; be folly to despair. and not a few have a deposit at the bank, their own savings, upon which they may fall back in case of
ELEGANT EXTRACTS. need. To enter the Society induces saving, and the savings thus accumulated, by the very condition of Next, we believe, to Captain Toot's Voyages-for thus mind leading thereto, prevents their being wasted away our infant tongue pronounced the name of that great in either drink or dissipation-those sad, sore evils navigator-not very much below the illustrated edition which swallow up so much of the hard earnings of of Tiger-hunting in India in the Eighteenth Century, and at the operative.'
no immeasurable distance from Robinson Crusoe himself, What is to prevent the working-classes throughout we were wont, in our early boyhood, to hold in favour the kingdom from following the example of these the Elegant Extracts. They consisted of four enormous two societies? Ignorance. Even at Leeds, with the volumes, one of which was denominated 'Epistles,' one advantage of the flour-mill before their eyes, and its • Prose, one · Verse,' and one ‘Poetry;' but these two handsome dividends in their pockets, a grocery store last were absolutely identical, duplicates, and, like commenced with their own consent is on the point of some twins who are only distinguishable by the failure from sheer want of custom! In our former paper variation of a strawberry-mark between their shoulwe gave the complaint of the managers touching the ders, differed in nothing save in the name at the back supineness of their fellow-workmen in refusing to of their bindings. sanction the establishment of grocery and meat stores, We are at this time residing for a little time among instead of pocketing the bonus of the flour-mill-insig. the scenes of that far-back, thoughtless epoch of youth, nificant, of course, to each. It appears, however, that which has long since become sacred and solemn enough their sanction was at length obtained ; that a grocery- to us, and we have found the same old volumes as store was actually commenced, and that it does not interesting—though we ourselves have suffered such pay, in consequence of its proprietors, the working- change-as ever. Much of this interest, indeed, arises classes, with comparatively few exceptions, refusing to from the comparison-involuntary, and yet the most deal at their own store, and thus obtain better and odious of all comparisons-of our two selves-between cheaper goods, and a money-profit besides. The pam- Philip drunk with youth, and Philip sobered with all phlet is silent as to the cause of what might seem, the cares of a Paterfamilias; but the books have got without explanation, a very extraordinary mental much intrinsic treasure of their own, which no time blindness; but the probability is, that it merely offers can rust. We confess to never having had any great one more illustration of the misery of the credit fondness for the volume of Epistles, although we system—that the people are tied to the grocers, and always identified ourselves so fully with the young cannot readily get away. Whether this is the fact or gentleman in knee-breeches and a rumed shirt, whose not, the Rochdale men would seem at first sight to attention is being directed, in the frontispiece, by the be greatly in advance of those of Leeds in point of muse of epistolary correspondence, to the effigy of Lord intelligence, either in keeping out of debt, and 80 Bacon: she cannot, at least, be the muse of history, securing to themselves the power to act as they please, or she would not be setting him up for a model. Much or in choosing, from two courses before them, the one of our dislike may be, we fancy, attributed to our that obviously leads to advantage. It is difficult, how. having been made to retranslate Mr Melmoth's letters ever, to reason on the case without better information to Papirius Pætus into Latin, such as M. T. Cicero than we possess on the circumstances of the two towns. would have been astonished to have found his own.
Upon the whole, the experiments we have thus This volume is divided into five books, the last of glanced over prove, in the first place, that contrary to which is appropriated to 'Recent Letters,' which begin the commonly expressed opinion, it is perfectly pos- with those of William Shenstone, Esq., and end with sible for men of the working-classes to conduct their those of Mr Edward Gibbon — by this time, alas! own business, even when of a complicated nature, to seeming hardly to be more recent than those in the a successful issue; but, in the second place, that the first book by Mr.Pliny the Consul to several of his body is not generally so far advanced as this in intelli- friends.' • The Prose,' as a deceased wit, who was gence. Their own best friends take the unfavourable scarcely born when these volumes were first published, view of their character, and without always giving has observed, 'was even worse.' Moral and Religious, them the credit of the per contra.
Classical and Historical Prose, Orations, Sermons, and 'I have worked with the working-classes,” said Mr (especially) Characters of Departed Sovereigns. CharCharles Bray at Birmingham, ‘at all measures for im- acter of Charles I., by Macaulay, Character of James proving their condition for a quarter of a century, but II., ibid. How strange these titles read to us, and yet have never yet found them capable of conducting their how familiar! The female historian only lives in own affairs. If their affairs were of a trading kind, they Elegant Extracts such as these, and another Macaulay were jealous and niggardly of the pay of those who were reigneth in her stead, who has drawn for us the same principally instrumental in making them succeed, and characters with a far more skilful touch, though with what was ordered by a committee one week or month, not less violent colouring. Among the slightly verbose was too frequently undone the next. There was no accounts treating of “The affected strangeness of some permanency or persistency. If their affairs were of men of quality, or of 'A citizen's family setting out other kinds, they fell out among themselves, and could for Brighthelmstone, there are a number of pieces not long be kept together. The worst feature of ignor- which were wont to give us the most unmixed delight. ance is intolerance, and the worst of the working- How fond we grew of the little Nurse Glumdalclitch, classes is that they cannot agree to differ.' This is who was but forty feet high; and of the mighty king from a note to the pamphlet, and in the text the same who was, by the breadth of a finger-nail, taller than thing is repeated. “Many object to work out their the tallest of his court! But then were Brobdingown social elevation, preferring poverty to inde- nag and Lilliput but pleasant fairy tales, which have pendence; and thousands act so as to be a dead log now become wicked satires; whereas, upon the other upon the more thoughtful and prudent. Others who hand, that pious and exemplary 'Explanation of wish to get out of the trammels of poverty, ignorant the Fifth Commandment,' by Corporal Trim, used of the natural relations of things, hope for the impos- somewliat to shock the well-regulated mind of our sible, and not getting their wishes, become discontented young days as being slightly blasphemous. What a with real benefits, and quarrel therewith. The two charming woodcut heralded this volume also! A bee