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for need of a pilot and one or two other points, had no of more than four flags for one signal is liable to system of signals till 1817, when Captain Marryat, serious objections, and the necessity of this in the R.N., published the code still known by his name. numeral systems was one of their chief faults. This system came into extensive use in Britain, and, Confining the grouping of the flags or the letters they with modifications, was adopted in France, the United symbolise, then, to hoists of two, three, and four, the States, and other countries. It differs little from the total number of distinct signals afforded is 78,642. code of Sir Home Popham, operating by means of A large proportion of these signals requires to be flags representing figures; and the perplexities and appropriated to telegraphing the official numbers of difficulties attending its use increased with increasing the ships composing the mercantile navy of Great commerce, and were more and more felt as other Britain. The present number of registered vessels is means of communication advanced towards perfection. about 35,000, and to provide for increase, and for the Accordingly, in 1855, the Board of Trade appointed a numbers vacant between their lapse, owing to the loss committee of officers and gentlemen connected with or condemnation of the ship, and their appropriation the royal and mercantile marine 'to inquire into and to new vessels, a range of 50,000 numbers must be report upon the subject of a code of signals to be used provided, each with its own signal. These signals for at sea.'

numbers are all composed of four signs; and they One essential step had already been taken, without have a distinctive character given them by being so which no radical reform would have been possible. contrived that the uppermost symbol in the loist is Perhaps the most frequent subject of communication always a square flag. In the Mercantile Navy List, at sea is the name of the vessel. Now we all know containing the name and official number of every how little it does in individualising a man to tell us registered ship, there is joined with the official number that his name is John Smith ; and the case is much its appropriated signal of four letters, corresponding the same with ships. Thus there are endless Marys with four flags, the numbers being arranged successively, in the marine of Great Britain, and sometimes several and the single letters alphabetically, so that either the belonging to the same port. 'In order to identify a number or the letters signifying it are readily found. ship, so as to distinguish her from others of the same In this way, 'if the whole mercantile navy of Great name, it was therefore necessary to make known not Britain were at anchor together, and every vessel only her name, but her port of registry, and number, making her number at the same time, each one might and year of registry. Again, it often happened that be individualised by the four distinguishing flags ships, when sold, changed their port of registry, composing her special signal.' obtained a new number, and even a new name, in their After providing for signaling the numbers of vessels, new port, and so their characters were altogether the system leaves upwards of 20,000 distinct signals for changed.' Thus to individualise a vessel required general subjects. In the Commercial Code of Signals repeated hoists of a variety of signals; and the opera- for the Use of All Nations,' drawn up by the committee tion, being tedious and troublesome, was often omitted already spoken of, and published by authority of the when the communication would have been desirable. Board of Trade, these subjects are classified, and each This evil was effectually remedied by the Merchant word or sentence has its appropriate symbol or group Shipping Act of 1854, which provides that every of letters prefixed. The ingenious arrangements by registered British vessel shall have a distinct number, which simplicity in the act of signaling and ease of in addition to her local number in a particular port. reference and interpretation are secured, could not This official number' is permanently marked on the be made intelligible unless the reader had the book vessel's mainbeam, and remains invariable through all in his hand. But one feature of the system deserves changes of port or ownership; and in the Mercantile special notice-namely, that it is calculated to be Navy List, now published by authority annually, and international. The letters corresponding to the flags, with monthly supplements, the official numbers are not being used to spell words, but to signify things, placed in order against the vessels to which they belong. their meaning is the same whether displayed from an If such an official number, then, is signaled by symbols English or from a French ship ; in the French signalagreed upon, whoever has a copy of the shipping list book, the meaning of the symbols would of course be can know, without a risk of mistake, what ship is expressed in French. This is a real step towards a meant.

universal language; and it is earnestly to be hoped This preliminary matter being settled, the committee that before long the system will be in general use above named resolved to reject the numeral system all over the world. The commercial code has been of signals, and have recourse to letters. In the code strongly recommended by the committee of Lloyd's, of signals contrived by them, eighteen flags are used, and by the ship-owners' associations of London and all readily distinguishable from one another by means Liverpool; and active means are being taken to provide of shape and colour, and each flag is made to represent vessels with the necessary signals and books, and to one of the eighteen consonants of the English alphabet. secure its speedy and general adoption. It appears that The letters, be it remembered, are not used as letters the flags used in Marryat's code can, with the addition to represent sounds, but as signs, to which arbitrary of four new ones, be applied to the commercial code, meanings are affixed. Let us see now how many and that in the present state, captains of ships may, distinct signals can be made with these eighteen without much difficulty, avail themselves of either, as flags. To begin with signals of two flags, single signs necessity requires.* It ought also to be mentioned, not being reckoned. The pair of flags, B and C, will that a book of tables has been published, called the form two signals, meaning one thing when B is upper- Companion to the Commercial Code of Signals, and hencemost, and another when C is uppermost; the same forth to form part of the library of every ship-captain ; is the case with the pair B and D; and thus by ringing by means of which, one ship may communicate to the changes on all the possible pairs, any one that will another, in one signal of three flags, the latitude or take the pains to try will find that no fewer than 306 longitude, a matter often of vital moment. Who will permutations or distinct signals can be formed. In like say now that mariners have not their telegraph, as manner, by hoisting three flags at a time, we get 4896 well as landsmen? different permutations; and with hoists of four flags at a time, the permutations amount to 73,440. If it were

* See Sea-signals Assimilated (Charles Wilson, London): a tract, convenient to use five flags at once, as many as price 1s., containing a full account of the whole subject. It is 1,028,160 would be got; but as it is practically found drawn up, we presume, under the auspices of Mr J. H. Brown, essential that a signal be made at one hoist, with the Registrar-general of Seamen, who has been a prime mover

in this

and other recent measures for the improvement of our mercantile flags all in a row, one above another, the employment marine.

VICTORIA BRIDGE AT MONTREAL.

A LAY OF LUCKNOW. IMAGINE a bridge seven times and a half longer than

ASLEEP !-amid the awful thunder Waterloo Bridge, or not a great deal less (176 feet) than

That speaks of coming doom, two miles; imagine the span between the central piers to

While swarming hosts of fiendish foes be 330 feet wide, and the other spans-twenty-four of

Round Lucknow's fortress loom. them—242 feet; imagine this bridge to be a tube, like the

Worn out by toil and sufferingone over the Menai Strait; and you will have a general

Death closing darkly roundidea of a work now actually in progress-the Victoria

The daughters of the island-race Bridge at Montreal. But the idea will be a very vague

Lay on the hard, cold ground. one; and to bring it more into shape, you must imagine that the river spanned by the monster tube runs fre

The Englishwoman's troubled rest quently at the rate of ten miles an hour, and that it

Is broken fitfully; brings down the ice of 2000 miles of lakes and upper

But hushed in motionless repose, rivers with numerous tributaries, and piles it at Mon

The head upon her knee, treal to the height of thirty-forty-fifty feet. You will

A Scottish woman pillowed there, now obtain a notion of the necessary thickness and solidity

Dreams of the far-off home, of the work, and be able to suppose piers or supports,

Where her old father from the plough containing some 6000, and some 8000 tons of masonry.

At eventide will come. The whole weight of masonry in the bridge, when completed, will be about 220,000 tons, and the bulk three

What sudden sound 'mid that wild roar million cubic feet. The faces of the piers looking towards

The charmed vision breaks, the current, terminate in a sharp-pointed edge, while the

As springing from her kindly couch, sides present to the avalanches of ice only smooth, bevelled

The Highland woman wakes ? off surfaces. The stone is a dense blue limestone;

The Scottish ear-the Scottish heart scarcely a block of which,' says the Canadian News, from

'Mid that stern din of war, which we obtain these particulars, ‘is less than seven tons

Hears the shrill Highland bagpipe speakweight, and many of those exposed to the force of the

The slogan sound afar ! breaking-up ice weigh fully ten tons. The blocks are bound together, not only by the use of the best water

“We're saved! I hear Macgregor's peal, cement, but each stone is clamped to its neighbours in

Aye foremost in the frayseveral places by massive iron rivets, bored several inches

Oh, Highland hearts and hands are true; into each block, and the interstices between the rivet and

We're saved this blessed day! the block are made one solid mass by means of molten

She stands amid the hero band lead.' The tubes will be from nineteen feet high to twenty

Who wage the hopeless strife, two and a half feet in the centre, and their uniform width will

The harbinger of coming aid, be sixteen feet, the rail-track being five feet six inches,

Of rescued love and life. the national railway-gauge of Canada. The total weight of iron in the tube will be 10,400 tons. The bridge, it is cal

They listen !- But that distant sound culated, will cost altogether about L.1,250,000. Mr Robert

Reaches no Saxon ear; Stephenson and Mr M. A. Ross are the architects of this

For them no Highland pibroch tells great work, and Messrs Peto, Brassey, and Betts the

That Scotland's aid is near, contractors. There can be no doubt,' says the Canadian

Again the voice of war sends forth News, 'that without the Victoria Bridge, the large and

Defiance stern and high; comprehensive traffic-system involved in the construction

Despairing, though undaunted still, of the Grand Trunk Railway could only be partially, and, by

Are England's chivalry. comparison, ineffectually carried out at a very great cost. Montreal is the terminal point of the ocean-navigation,

Once more that cry: 'The Campbells come! and is connected with the Lower St Lawrence and the

We're saved !'-_They pause again. ocean on one side, and with the great Canadian and

O blessed Heaven! she speaketh sooth! American lakes-extending 2000 miles into the heart of

They hear the bagpipe's strain. the continent-on the other. It is also the centre from

High 'mid the roar of deadly strife which lines of railway now radiate to Portland, Boston,

The Highland music swells; and New York, and to which lines will converge from the

And of the God-sent aid, at hand, Ottawa and the other rich, though as yet only partially

The mountain slogan tells. developed districts of Canada.'

Down—as one man the leaguered force

Fall lowly on their knees, A RICHMOND DINNER THREE HUNDRED YEARS AGO.

And tears, and prayers, and bursting sighs We find, in the Lansdowne manuscripts, that about

Float on the eastern breeze. Christmas 1509, certain officials of the court of King

Full-fuller-swells the changing strain, Henry VIII. dined together at the village of Shene, now

Borne through the rending line called Richmond; and that at the end of the entertainment,

Of conquered foes, They hear it now! my host of the Star and Garter, with many salutations,

The sound of Auld Lang Syne.' handed to them the following bill: For brede, 12d.; ale, 3s. 4d. ; wyne, 10d. ; two leynes moton, 8d. ; maribones,

Oh! blessed be His holy name 60.; powdred beef, 5d. ; two capons, 2s.; two geese, 14d. ;

Who, in our direst need, five conyes, 15d. ; one legge moton, 5 lb, weight, 4d. ; six

Can thus, through swarthy myriads, plovers, 18d. ; six pegions, 5d. ; two dozen larkes, 12d.;

Our faithful comrades lead. salt and sauce, 6d. ; buter and eggs, 10d. ; wardens and

Yet even with the memory quynces, 12d. ; herbes, 1d. ; spices, 2s. 4d. ; floure, 4d.;

Of mercy all divine, whight cuppes and cruses, 6d. : which, summed up,

Will come a ling'ring echo, too, gives exactly L1 sterling as the total expenses of this

Of Scotland's Auld Lang Syne.' aldermanic feast. Many a party, gentle and simple, has

L. V. since that time dined at the Star and Garter, but none ever got so many substantial things for their twenty Printed and Published by W. & A. CHAMBERS, 47 Paternoster shillings as the subjects of young King Henry VIII.- The

Row, London, and 339 High Street, EDINBURGI. Also sold by

WILLIAM ROBERTSON, 23 Upper Sackville Street, Dublin, and all Statesman.

Booksellers.

[graphic]

Science a ord Arts.

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBER S.

No. 213.

SATURDAY, JANUARY 30, 1858.

PRICE 11d.

officials on revenue or judicial tours of inspection, all THE ZE MIND A R.

is deep deference to the English name, and for the time At the present time, the landed aristocracy of India it is highly convenient to allow the fiction to pass are invested with a more than common interest, and current; but, once out of sight, all idea of British deserve something more than a mere passing notice. supremacy vanishes, and the reign of the native recomThey hold in their hands the power of good and evil to mences—the zemindar is again all-powerful for good an extent scarcely dreamed of in Europe, and for the or for evil. Alas, how seldom for the former! reason, that in Asia all real power is highly despotic, The zemindar owns the land on which tens of thouespecially in the provinces. If the petty trader, the sands of his fellow-men have their being, dwell, toil, writer, the agent, the broker, with a score of others of and die; but not only does he claim the soil by which various grades and occupations, are constantly in the they live—he insists on his right to everything it habit of tyrannising over those beneath them, how produces over and above their most pressing wants much more must we expect oppression from the all- for the support of life; nay, he even sets up a claim to powerful zemindar—the dispenser of life and property their liberty and their life. All are his, according to

- the owner of not only all the broad acres within his the popular reading of the Indian Rights of Man. Wo zemindary, but of all the men, women, and children to the Bengalee who dares to think otherwise! Sad existing thereon.

and certain, indeed, would be his fate. In the northwest, it was long popularly supposed Of course, all of this class are not precisely similar that civilisation had made great strides

, that European in their characters, dispositions, and mode of managing ideas were fast triumphing over Asiatic prejudices their zemindaries. There are well-defined varieties of and eastern habits, and that, in fact, the people the species. I have known men of rather enlarged were comparatively free, enlightened, and happy. views upon general matters, who have had an English Never was error more complete. Doubtless, more education, mixed much with European society, were had been done by the government of the northwest au fait at European politics, and whom one might have towards preparing the people for better things, but expected to have governed their ryots not only with a in reality as little had been accomplished there as else- lenient, generous rule, but in an enlightened manner : where. None but those who have laboured in an these men would have scorned any personal acts of eastern climate know what it is to bear the heat of oppression, yet they could never be brought to recogthe day ; none but those who have striven against the nise the ryot's claim to anything beyond a mere animal darkness and corruption of the Asiatic mind know existence, and often, by their indifference to their affairs, how sadly slow the work progresses. Even the men permitted the grossest acts of extortion and tyranny. for whom you are striving, the poor ryot, the oppressed Short-sighted as their policy undoubtedly is, inastrader, the poverty-stricken villager, all are dead much as the ryot labours no more than he can possibly against you. So strange are they to any generous senti- avoid under this exacting system, they cannot be ment, so shut out from sympathy with the rest of the brought to believe in the possibility of liberality world, that they cannot, they will not, place belief in the inducing greater exertion, or in the European theory labours of the European in their behalf. They spurn of a prosperous tenantry making a fat landlord. The the proffered aid ; they turn away from protection, con- screw is placed on wherever it is deemed expedient; vinced in the dark recesses of their own diseased minds, and unfortunately for both landlord and tenant, it is that behind all the fair language and pleasant promises generally thought to be expedient. When we speak of the white man, there lurks some secret plot for their of the screw,' we do so in no figurative language, but more complete bondage and destruction.

as having reference to the actual thing done and In reality, then, the tyrannical zemindar possesses performed; not always, though frequently, by the fully as much power in the northwest as in Upper zemindar personally, or of his own knowledge, but by or Lower Bengal. We have said that he holds the the subordinates and middle-men of the estate, whose power of life and property. This is not a mere figure name is closely resembling that of legion.' The of speech, but a stern, everyday matter of fact. The zemindar is feared rather than loved. British authority is supposed to reign paramount over Sreenath Deb Chunder Roy, a zemindar of large every other power within the limits of the Honourable possessions in Lower Bengal, and personally known to Company's territories. Outwardly, this is indeed the me, may be very fairly taken as a sample of the genecase; but in reality it is a mere fiction. When the ral run of these landed aristocrats of British India. collector or the magistrate of the district passes of commanding figure, noble features, and graceful through with a small army of retainers and native easy manners, he is undoubtedly far above the majority

none.

of his fellow-zemindars, in personal appearance. In and patched with old tawdry relics of bygone splenactivity and mental energy, he is perhaps superior to dour. One might well imagine his state-apartments many of the class; but in the daily routine of his to be the property-rooms of a tlıird. rate London zemindary, and in the treatment of his ryots, he is theatre. His own private rooms are small and filthy the true type of the Bengal landlord.

enough for any back-slums of old Edinburgh or Chunder Roy's zemindary lies in the rich valley of ancient London, where the fresh air and the glorious the Ganges : his own family resting-place is on the light of day enter but through wooden traps and banks of that sacred stream. His castle stands amidst accidental slits in the wall, diluted with all kinds of lofty trees and spacious meadows, commanding a view effluvia and dimnesses. O the intolerable heat of that far up and down the stream. Within a short ride of inner sanctuary of Chunder Roy! How tantalising the district town of Luckypore, his mansion is well the mimic punkahıs, how aggravating the sight of the placed both for purposes of his own zemindary and waving branches of huge green trees outside, bending for general business ; for Luckypore is an important gracefully to the noonday breeze! town, to which vast numbers of bạboos resort for As for his zenana, the rooms of the female portion trading, and where the zemindar can turn the various of his family are never approached by man, unless he produce of his land and his ryots to the best account: be a younger brother. What they are like, I once where he can dispose of the sweat of their brows at had an opportunity of judging during a very brief the highest price per factory maund, and obtain the period when they were cleared out for some repairs. utmost marketable value for every seer, maund, and ms an Englishman would scarcely call them: beegah of their bones and sinews squeezed out in the cribs or dens for tame beasts would approach more shape of jute, hemp, linseed, cotton, indigo, and sugar, to nearly to their description. Furniture they have say nothing of saltpetre and a few common dye-stuffs. A few dowdy mats, some resayes or padded

Viewed at some little distance, the castle and cotton quilts, a hookah or two, and a miserable, dimly grounds of the zemindar wear a most imposing burning lamp—these constitute the essentials of a appearance. The building does not perhaps strike Hindoo lady's apartment. I could not wonder the one as belonging to any particular order of house fever had compelled the zemindar to remove his architecture, either eastern or western; but then it is family, and make some changes in the economy of his extensive; there are large porticos, and no end of private rooms. The only marvel to my mind was windows. The lofty trees, dotted about the grounds, that any member of the family had escaped the give a park-like appearance to the place, while its pestilence cooped up in those vile dungeons. general exterior is improved by the stately landing- To behold our friend the zemindar cast off the daily place from the river-bank to the grounds, and the dingy rag which scantily encircles his waist, don the round white building, whatever it may chance to be, ample flowing robes of white, the rich silken vest, the which abuts upon the river from one side of the gay, many-folded head-dress, and sally forth from the ghât, with a flagstaff peering high above its walls, like in most recesses of his dusty, reeking crib, and spring a willow-wand against the deep azure of the sky. into his carriage, surrounded by armed and many

The zeinindar's grounds and house were planned vestured retainers, to behold this would appear almost by a first-rate English architect, and, if report speaks as marvellous as Cinderella's transformation. Certainly true, the work cost several lacs of rupees. Native- Chunder Roy leaves behind him fully as much dirt as like, however, Chunder Roy could not persuade him- the young lady of the fairy tale. self to abide by the Englishman's plans, and accord- The life of a zemindar in the mid districts of Bengal ingly clipped the verandahs of their fair proportions, may fairly be set down as one of almost daily excitestuck in loopholes instead of windows, allowed the ment. With as many cases to decide as any ordinary gravel-walks and terraces to become overgrown and justice of the peace-with as many clients to see and ruinous, so that what wears a very magnificent exterior converse with as a solicitor of fair reputation-with as at a mile distant, becomes a sort of deserted palatial many broils, lawsuits, and actual downright fights as prison at a closer inspection.

an Irish tenant or an English blackleg, the Hindoo In the round white house by the gliât with the zemindar must necessarily lead a pretty active life, if flagstaff, our zemindar holds daily court, to hear he wishes to hold his own, to say nothing of holding complaints, to decide petty disputes between his ryots, his neighbour's, which, unfortunately, a considerable and, above all, to arraign defaulting cultivators for number of them have a national weakness for their shortcomings. This is a terribly busy place at aiming at. certain seasons of the year; many an aching desperate One day's work will suffice for a sample of most of heart enters the narrow portal in the rear, some to the three hundred and odd days which--knocking off return only after dreadful sufferings, some never, half of the Indian festivals--make up his year of alive. In the dark, damp chambers beneath that business. A few disputes amongst his ryots about a terrible audience-room, more horrors are enacted than brass totalı, or somebody's wife, or a bullock, are soon are dreamed of in Merrie England. Slaves of the soil, disposed of; then come some land and tithe questions creatures of the zemindar, who from sickness or acci- -terrible affairs in themselves, and still more so in dent, or bad weather, or a dozen other causes, have their consequences, as the ryots find to their cost; disappointed his lomashta, or bailiff, of the expected then some question in which the government is quantity of grain or other produce, are incarcerated mixed up has to be discusscử, and the result is that within those loathsome walls, until, rendered desper Honourable John' is done, as completely as though ate, they obtain liberty under some promise of impos- he were a ryot. sible returns, which ends in imprisonment to death, or It is rare, indeed, that a day passes without some perhaps flight, or starvation, or suicide.

plotting or scheming about land. This, indeed, is the But amidst all this, the zemindar is a happy, great source of material wealth in India; and it is conprosperous man. He dresses in the most approved sequently the origin of half the lawsuits, and threefashion, drives horses of the best breed, feeds on the fourths of the assaults, affrays, and murders in Upper dainties of the land, and is housed, if not in courtly and Lower Bengal. A neighbouring indigo-planter, style and comfort, according to western ideas, at any one of the Company's European 'interlopers,' has rate in eastern palatial splendour. His suites of rooms perhaps made advances to some villagers to cultivate are most extensive, though they are rather dimly lit indigo for him on their lands, bringing him the plant by poor wooden casements, and entered by low door when ripe, to be manufactured into indigo, which is the ways; his furniture and fittings were once of the most common method followed throughout India. The most costly description; now they are faded, tattered, zemindar fancies or believes that these ryots and their

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land own him as their lord and master, consequently silence, like Sancho Panza,' said my father. 'If you that they must not toil for the planter though he really are such a victim to want of rest, you had should pay them double or treble the price obtainable better take yourself off, and make up for lost time.' from the zemindar. Here, then, is one most fertile

*Harry was using the words in their conventional source of deliberation and schemes. The growth of the enemy's plant has to be watched and reported sense,' said Mr Brunton. 'If you had really ever upon; and as the time for culling and carrying it known what it was to pass a night utterly without approaches, the zemindar has to prepare his lattials sleep, you would not think much of being kept awake or fighting-men, to protect the party who are to

or disturbed by a noise. The nearest approach to remove this produce of the European foe.

what the French call une nuit blanche that I ever The planter gets intelligence of what is going on, passed, is marked by anything rather than a white and he too musters his lattials in full force, armed stone in my memory.' not merely with sticks and clubs, but with spears, swords, and firearms. The mustering is not a mere about it?' we all said ; headed by Harry, whom this

What was it?' 'Where were you?' 'Do tell us matter of form : never were any men so desperately attack on his fit of drowsiness had roused into full bent on mischief as the instigators of these lattials; never was life so ruthlessly flung away in acts of open animation. daring as on these occasions. Neither the planter

Before I let Mr Brunton tell his story, I had better nor the zemindar appears in person, though on the day explain who he is, and how it happens that we are all of strife they will be sure to be within sight of the glad to listen when he speaks. skirmishing-ground. Perhaps the magistrate of the district hears of the intended breach of the peace, and and frequently visits us, partly in that capacity, and

Mr Brunton is an old college-friend of my father's ; despatches a strong party of armed Burkemdazes to repress the riot. But wo betide the police officials partly that my father, who farms his own estate of should they dare to shew their faces on the ground! Uplands on an extensive scale, may profit by his The contending parties, forgetting their strife for the valuable advice in many, matters connected with moment, unite in a common attack upon the general modern scientific husbandry. Mr Brunton is an foe, who of course are quickly defeated, and leave the eminent agricultural chemist, and his services in this contending parties to fight it out. It is not easy to capacity are sought by many landed proprietors and say why, but it is quite certain that on these occasions large farmers throughout Great Britain. His skill is nine encounters out of ten end in favour of the European party, though perhaps inferior in numbers, and great in offering to nature the necessary compensation, in no ways of a better class of lattials.

in the shape of chemical compounds, strange to the But the fight does not end with the field of indigo eye and repulsive to the nose, for the drain upon her which occasioned it: the defeated party seeks revenge constitution which is required to produce the abundant either by destroying other crops of his adversary, or grain and root crops expected by high farmers' as by burning a village or two on his land. It matters the reward of their expenditure of skill and capital ; not who suffers, provided it can in any way reach the and in this useful branch of modern science, Mr enemy; and herein is the greatest evil of these affrays. Brunton has few, if any rivals.

The Indian zemindar passes a considerable portion of his life in open or secret warfare with his species,

But his active and enlightened mind is not satisfied like any other untamed beast of prey. With the

to work only in this, its legitimate field of action; he government, with planters, with traders, with ryots, has considerable skill in many kindred sciences, and he is ever at strife. During the recent mutiny and has dabbled in most of the ‘ologies ;' and, above all, he rebellion, he has had ample scope for his belligerent possesses from nature the valuable gift of making his qualities; and in many instances has not failed to avail mental resources available in an easy and pleasant himself of them. Where he lias not done so, it has manner, for the amusement and instruction of others. arisen from no inherent love of peace, order, or justice, It would be difficult to find a more agreeable combut simply from the conviction wliich, in the breast of the Hindoo, is ever present, that discretion is the panion; and accordingly, whenever he makes his better part of valour.'' Where numbers triumphed for appearance at Uplands, the entrance of the gentlemen the time, he has proved that, despite the press, the into the library after dinner is the signal for us all steam-engine, and the telegraph, India has not felt to take up our station near the lamp, beside the fire, much internal social change. We have clipped the or in the shady nooks between the chimney-piece and tiger's claws, but not washed out his spots.

the book-cases on each side of it, and prepare for a long pleasant evening of amusing conversation.

It was this, the family custom of some years' AN UNCOMFORTABLE NIGHT.

standing, which drew so much attention to Harry's ‘My dear Harry,' exclaimed my mother, as one winter's unbecoming state of drowsiness; and caused a general evening we all sat together in the library at Uplands- futter in the party, when Mr Brunton, in reply to our ‘My dear Harry, if you must positively yawn in that inquiries, promised to give us an account of the most outrageous manner, I think your own room is the uncomfortable night lie ever had passed.

The fire was stirred, the moderator-lamp wound up; proper place to do it in.'

my mother's spectacles were rescued from impending *Was I yawning ?' said Harry, starting up from his destruction, and dexterously fished from under the nook near the fireplace. 'I beg everybody's pardon ; table by little Marion, and we all declared ourselves but we had a long day after the cocks, as you ready to listen. Mr Brunton began thus : know, Kenneth ; and besides, the wind made such a It is about ten years, since I was proceeding noise in the trees near my window last night, that I from London to Glasgow, to attend a meeting there positively did not close my eyes.'

of the Highland Agricultural Society; and by some Harry looked apologetically at our guest, Mr stupid oversight of my own, or mistake of the railBrunton, a shrewd, sensible-looking man of about fifty line, and rapidly approaching Liverpool, before I dis

way authorities, found myself sent off the main years old, who glanced at him with a quaintly amused covered the error. It was late and dark, and I have a air as he spoke.

particular objection to any unnecessary degree of dis* Harry leaves to others the dignity of suffering in comfort; therefore, as there would still be time enough

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