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CHAPTER III.

THE

TWO

JAK ES.

quadroons. Of the latter are several that are more latter were ever set in smiles: the former smiled only than good-looking-some even beautiful.

when under the influence of some malicious prompting. The men

are in their work-dresses: loose cotton Black Jake was a Virginian. He was one of those trousers, with coarse coloured shirts, and hats of belonging to the old plantation-had 'moved' along with palmetto-leaf. A few display dandyism in their attire. his master ; and felt those ties of attachment which in Some are naked from the waist upwards, their black many cases exist strongly between master and slave. skins glistening under the sun like ebony. The women He regarded himself as one of our family, and gloried are more gaily arrayed in striped prints, and heads in bearing our name. Like all negroes born in the 'toqued' with Madras kerchiefs of brilliant check. old dominion,' he was proud of his nativity. In The dresses of some are tasteful and pretty. The caste, a Vaginny nigger' takes precedence of all turban-like coiffure renders them picturesque.

others. Both men and women are alike employed in the Apart from his complexion, Black Jake was not business of the plantation—the manufacture of the ill-looking. His features were as good as those of the indigo. Some cut down the plants with reaping-hooks, mulatto. He had neither the thick lips, flat nose, nor and tie them in bundles ; others carry the bundles in retreating forehead of his race-for these characteristics from the fields to the great shed; a few are employed are not universal. I have known negroes of pure in throwing them into the upper trough, the steeper;' | African blood with features perfectly regular, and while another few are drawing off and beating.' Some such a one was Black Jake. In form, he might shovel the sediment into the draining-bags, while have passed for the Ethiopian Apollo. others superintend the drying and cutting out. All There was one who thought him handsome-handhave their respective tasks, and all seein alike cheerful somer than his yellow namesake. This was the in the performance of them. They laugh, and chatter, quadroon Viola, the belle of the plantation. For and sing; they give back jest for jest; and scarcely a Viola's hand, the two Jakes had long time been rival moment passes that merry voices are not ringing upon suitors. Both had assiduously courted her smilesthe ear.

somewhat capricious they were, for Viola was not And yet these are all slaves—the slaves of my without coquetry—but she had at length exhibited a father. He treats them well; seldom is the lash marked preference for the black. I need not add that uplifted : hence the happy mood and cheerful aspect. there was jealousy between the negro and mulatto

Such pleasant pictures are graven on my memory, on the part of the latter, rank hatred of his rivalsweetly and deeply impressed. They formed the which Viola's preference had kindled into fierce mise-en-scène of my early life.

resentment.

More than once had the two measured their strength, and on each occasion had the black been victorious. Perhaps to this cause, more than to his personal appearance, was he indebted for the smiles of Viola.

Throughout all the world, throughout all time, beauty Every plantation has its "bad fellow'-often more has bowed down before courage and strength. than one, but always one who holds pre-eminence in Yellow Jake was our woodman ; Black Jake, the evil. Yellow Jake' was the fiend of ours.

curator of the horses, the driver of white massa's * He was a young mulatto, in person not ill-looking, barouche. but of sullen habit and morose disposition. On The story of the two Jakes-their loves and their occasions, he had shewn himself capable of fierce jealousies—is but a common affair in the petite politique resentment and cruelty.

of plantation-life. I have singled it out, not from any Instances of such character are more common among separate interest it may possess, but as leading to a mulattoes than negroes. Pride of colour on the part series of events that exercised an important influence of the yellow man-confidence in a higher organism, on my own subsequent history. both intellectual and physical, and consequently a The first of these events was as follows: Yellow keener sense of the injustice of his degraded position, Jake, burning with jealousy at the success of his rival, explain this psychological difference.

had grown spiteful with Viola. Meeting her by some As for the pure negro, he rarely enacts the unfeeling chance in the woods, and far from the house, he had savage. In the drama of human life, he is the victim, offered her a dire insult. Resentment had rendered not the villain. No matter where lies the scene-in him reckless. The opportune arrival of my sister had his own land, or elsewhere-he has been used to play prevented him from using violence, but the intent the role of the sufferer ; yet his soul is still free from could not be overlooked ; and chiefly through my resentment or ferocity In all the world, there is no sister's influence, the mulatto was brought to punishkinder heart than that which beats within the bosom ment. of the African black.

It was the first time that Yellow Jake had received Yellow Jake was wicked without provocation. chastisement, though not the first time he had Cruelty was innate in his disposition — no doubt deserved it. My father had been indulgent with him; inherited. He was a Spanish mulatto; that is, pater- too indulgent, all said. He had often pardoned him nally of Spanish blood-maternally, negro. His father when guilty of faults-of crimes. My father was of had sold him to mine!

an easy temper, and had an exceeding dislike to proA slave-mother, a slave-son. The father's freedom ceed to the extremity of the lash; but in this case my affects not the offspring. Among the black and red sister had urged, with some spirit, the necessity of the races of America, the child follows the fortunes of the punishment. Viola was her maid ; and the wicked mother. Only she of Caucasian race can be the conduct of the mulatto could not be overlooked. mother of white men.

The castigation did not cure him of his propensity There was another Jacob' upon the plantation, to evil. An event occurred shortly after, that proved hence the distinctive sobriquet of Yellow Jake.' he was vindictive. My sister's pretty fawn was found This other was ‘Black Jake;' and only in age and dead by the shore of the lake. It could not have died size was there any similarity between the two. In dis- from any natural cause--for it was seen alive, and position they differed even more than in complexion. skipping over the lawn but the hour before. No If Yellow Jake had the brighter skin, Black Jake had alligator could have done it, nor yet a wolf. There the lighter heart. Their countenances exhibited a was neither scratch nor tear upon it; no signs of complete contrast—the contrast between a sullen blood! It must have been strangled. frown and a cheerful smile. The white teeth of the It was strangled, as proved in the sequel. Yellow

THE HOMMOCK.

Jake had done it, and Black Jake had seen him. From forests of cypress and white cedar—a sort of impenethe orange grove, where the latter chanced to be at trable morass that covered the country for miles work, he had been witness of the tragic scene; and beyond. his testimony procured a second flogging for the On one side of the plantation-fields was a wide plain, mulatto.

covered with grassy turf, and without enclosure of any A third event followed close upon the heels of this — kind. This was the savanna, a natural meadow where a quarrel between negro and mulatto, that came to the horses and cattle of the plantation were freely blows. It had been sought by the latter to revenge pastured. Deer often appeared upon this plain, and himself, at once upon his rival in love, and the witness flocks of the wild turkey. of his late crime.

I was just of that age to be enamoured of the chase. The conflict did not end in mere blows. Yellow Like most youth of the southern states who have little Jake, with an instinct derived from his Spanish else to do, hunting was my chief occupation; and I paternity, drew his knife, and inflicted a severe wound was passionately fond of it. My father had procured upon his unarmed antagonist.

for me a brace of splendid greyhounds; and it was a This time his punishment was more severe. I was favourite pastime with me to conceal myself in the myself enraged, for Black Jake was my body-guard'hommock, wait for the deer and turkeys as they and favourite. Though his skin was black, and his approached, and then course them across the savanna. intellect but little cultivated, his cheerful disposition In this manner I made many a capture of both species rendered him a pleasant companion; he was, in fact, of game; for the wild turkey can easily be run down the chosen associate of my boyish days—my comrade with fleet dogs. upon the water and in the woods.

The hour at which I was accustomed to enjoy this Justice required satisfaction, and Yellow Jake caught amusement was early in the morning, before any of it in earnest.

the family were astir. That was the best time to find The punishment proved of no avail. He was incor- the game upon the savanna. rigible. The demon spirit was too strong within him : One morning, as usual, I repaired to my stand in it was part of his nature.

the covert. I climbed upon a rock, whose flat top

afforded footing both to myself and my dogs. From CHAPTER IV.

this elevated position I had the whole plain under view, and could observe any object that might be

moving upon it, while I was myself secure from Just outside the orangery was one of those singular observation. The broad leaves of the magnolia formed formations-peculiar, I believe, to Florida.

a bower around me, leaving a break in the foliage, A circular basin, like a vast sugar-pan, opens into through which I could make my reconnaissance. the earth, to the depth of many feet, and having a On this particular morning I had arrived before diameter of forty yards or more. In the bottom of sunrise. The horses were still in their stables, and this, several cavities are seen, about the size and of the cattle in the enclosure. Even by the deer, the the appearance of dug wells, regularly cylindrical – savanna was untenanted, as I could perceive at the except where their sides have fallen in, or the rocky first glance. Over all its wide extent not an antler partition between them has given way-in which case was to be seen. they resemble a vast honeycomb with broken cells. I was somewhat disappointed on observing this.

The wells are sometimes found dry; but more com- My mother expected a party upon that day. She monly there is water in the bottom, and often filling had expressed a wish to have venison at dinner: I the great tank itself.

had promised her she should have it; and on seeing Such natural reservoirs, although occurring in the the savanna empty, I felt disappointment. midst of level plains, are always partially surrounded I was a little surprised, too; the sight was unusual. by eminences-knolls, and detached masses of testaceous Almost every morning, there were deer upon this wide rocks; all of which are covered by an evergreen thicket pasture, at one point or another. of native trees, as magnolia grandiflora, red bay, Had some early stalker been before me? Probable zanthoxylon, live-oak, mulberry, and several species of enough. Perhaps young Ringgold, from the next fan-palms (palmettoes). Sometimes these shadowy plantation; or maybe one of the Indian hunters, who coverts are found among the trees of the pine-forests, seemed never to sleep? Certainly, some

one had and sometimes they appear in the midst of green been over the ground, and frighted off the game? savannas, like islets in the ocean.

The savanna was a free range, and all who chose They constitute the 'hommocks' of Florida—famed might hunt or pasture upon it. It was a tract of comin the story of its Indian wars.

mon ground, belonging to no one of the plantations One of these, then, was situated just outside the government land not yet purchased. orangery; with groups of testaceous rocks forming a Certainly Ringgold had been there? or old Hickman, half-circle around its edge; and draped with the dark the alligator-hunter, who lived upon the skirt of our foliage of evergreen trees, of the species already men plantation? or it might be an Indian from the other tioned. The water contained in the basin was sweet side of the river ? and limpid; and far down in its crystal depths might With such conjectures did I account for the absence be seen gold and red fish, with yellow bream, spotted of the game. bass, and many other beautiful varieties of the finny I felt chagrin. I should not be able to keep my tribe, disporting themselves all day long. The tank promise ; there would be no venison for dinner. A was in reality a natural fishpond ; and, moreover, it turkey I might obtain; the hour for chasing them was used as the family bathing-place-for, under the had not yet arrived. I could hear them calling from hot sun of Florida, the bath is a necessity as well as the tall tree-tops—their loud 'gobbling' borne far and luxury.

clear upon the still air of the morning. I did not care From the house, it was approached by a sanded for these—the larder was already stocked with them; walk that led across the orangery, and some large I had killed a brace on the preceding day. I did not stone-flags enabled the bather to descend conveniently want more-I wanted venison. into the water. Of course, only the white members of To procure it, I must needs try some other mode the family were allowed the freedom of this charming than coursing. I had my rifle with me; I could try sanctuary.

a 'still-hunt' in the woods. Better still, I should go Outside the hommock extended the fields under in the direction of old Hickman's cabin ; he might cultivation, until bounded in the distance by tall | help me in my dilemma. Perhaps he had been out already ? if so, he would be sure to bring home animal; that he had caught it in the woods, and was venison. I could procure a supply from him, and leading it along in a string. keep my promise.

There was nothing remarkable or improbable in all The sun was just shewing his disc above the hori- this behaviour. The mulatto' may have discovered an zon; his rays were tinging the tops of the distant opossum-cave the day before, and set a trap for the cypresses, whose light-green leaves shone with the animal. It may have been caught in the night, and hues of gold.

he was now on his way home with it. The only point I gave one more glance over the savanna, before that surprised me was, that the fellow had turned descending from my elevated position; in that glance hunter; but I explained this upon another hypothesis. I saw what caused me to change my resolution, and I remembered how fond the negroes are of the flesh remain upon the rock.

of the opossum, and Yellow Jake was no exception A herd of deer was trooping out from the edge of to the rule. Perhaps he had seen the day before, that the cypress woods--at that corner where the rail-fence this one could be easily obtained, and had resolved separated the savanna from the cultivated fields.

upon having a roast ? *Ha!' thought I, 'they have been poaching upon But why was he not carrying it in a proper the young maize-plants.'

manner? He appeared to be leading or dragging it I bent my eyes towards the point whence, as I rather-for I knew the creature would not be ledsupposed, they had issued from the fields. I knew and every now and then I observed him stoop towards there was a gap near the corner, with movable bars. it, as if caressing it! I could see it from where I stood, but I now perceived I was puzzled; it could not be an opossum. that the bars were in their places !

I watched the man narrowly till he arrived opposite The deer could not have been in the fields then ? the gap in the fence. I expected to see him step over It was not likely they had leaped either the bars or the bars—since through the maize-field was the nearest the fence. It was a high rail-fence, with “stakes and way to the house. Certainly he entered the field; riders.' The bars were as high as the fence. The but, to my astonislıment, instead of climbing over in deer must have come out of the woods ?

the usual manner, I saw him take out bar after bar, This observation was instantly followed by another. down to the very lowest. I observed, moreover, that The animals were running rapidly, as if alarmed by he flung the bars to one side, leaving the gap quite the presence of some enemy.

open! A hunter is behind them? Old Hickman? Ringgold? He then passed through, and entering among the Who?

corn, in the same crouching attitude, disappeared I gazed eagerly, sweeping my eyes along the edge behind the broad blades of the young maize-plants. of the timber, but for a while saw no one.

For a while I saw no more of him, or the white A lynx or a bear may have startled them? If so, object that he 'toated' along with him in such a they will not go far: I shall have a chance with my singular fashion. greyhounds yet. Perhaps '

I turned my attention to the deer: they had got My reflections were brought to a sudden termina- over their alarm, and had halted near the middle of tion, on perceiving what had caused the stampede of the savanna, where they were now quietly browsing. the deer. It was neither bear nor lynx, but a human But I could rot help pondering upon the eccentric being.

manœuvres I had just been witness of; and once more A man was just emerging from out the dark shadow I bent my eyes toward the place, where I had last seen of the cypresses. The sun as yet only touched the the mulatto. tops of the trees; but there was light enough below He was still among the maize-plants. I could see to enable me to make out the figure of a man-still nothing of him; but at that moment my eyes rested more to recognise the individual. It was neither upon an object that filled me with fresh surprise. Ringgold nor Hickman, nor yet an Indian. The dress Just at the point where Yellow Jake had emerged I knew well—the blue cottonade trousers, the striped from the woods, something else appeared in motionshirt, and palmetto hat. The dress was that worn also coming out into the open savanna. It was a dark by our woodman. The man was Yellow Jake. object, and from its prostrate attitude, resembled a

man crawling forward upon his hands, and dragging his limbs after him.

For a moment or two, I believed it to be a man

not a white man-but a negro or an Indian. The Not without some surprise did I make this dis- tactics were Indian, but we were at peace with these covery. What was the mulatto doing in the woods at people, and why should one of them be thus trailing such an hour? It was not his habit to be so thrifty; the mulatto? I say 'trailing,' for the attitude and on the contrary, it was difficult to rouse him to his motions, of whatever creature I saw, plainly indicated daily work. He was not a hunter-had no taste for that it was following upon the track which Yellow it. I never saw him go after game-though, from being Jake had just passed over. always in the woods, he was well acquainted with the Was it Black Jake who was after him? haunts and habits of every animal that dwelt there. This idea came suddenly into my mind: I rememWhat was he doing abroad on this particular morning? bered the vendetta that existed between them; I

I remained on my perch to watch him, at the same remembered the conflict in which Yellow Jake had time keeping an eye upon the deer.

used his knife. True, he had been punished, but not It soon became evident that the mulatto was not by Black Jake himself. Was the latter now seeking after these; for, on coming out of the timber, he to revenge himself in person ? turned along its edge, in a direction opposite to that This might have appeared the easiest explanation of in which the deer had gone. He went straight the scene that was mystifying me; had it not been towards the gap that led into the maize-field.

for the improbability of the black acting in such a I noticed that he moved slowly and in a crouching manner. I could not think that the noble fellow attitude. I thought there was some object near his would seek any mean mode of retaliation, however feet: it appeared to be a dog, but a very small one. revengeful he might feel against one who had so Perhaps an opossum, thought I. It was of whitish basely attacked him. It was not in keeping with colour, as these creatures are ; but in the distance I his character. No. It could not be he who was could not distinguish between an opossum and a crawling out of the bushes. puppy. I fancied, however, that it was the pouched Nor he, nor any one.

CHAPTER V.

THE MULATTO AND HIS FOLLOWER.

savanna.

At that moment, the golden sun flashed over the asked leave to busy himself gratuitously on melting

His beams glanced along the green-sward, days; nevertheless, most men, provided they had ample lighting the trees to their bases. The dark form means, and were not habituate to a certain routine, emerged out of the shadow, and turned head towards would decline to follow that or any other calling in the maize-field. The long prostrate body glittered the beaten road of life. Without, then, meaning anyunder the sun with a sheen like scaled armour. It thing derogatory to honest work, rather rememberwas easily recognised. It was not negro—not Indian ing the laborare est orare of the monks, I assert it to -not human: it was the hideous form of an alligator! be literally true, that the ordinary callings of men are

mercenary in their aim : wages are the inducement to

toil. THE LABOURER AND HIS HIRE.

When, however, we pass to those occupations the My friend, Beaudesert, has detected a vein of poesy object of which is to gratify sensuous tastes, we find in the depths of his soul, and undoubtedly possesses they are taken up very much in obedience to natural considerable talent for mooning and reverie. He bias. It is of course impossible, in the present comopines that the votaries of song are inadequately plicated state of society, to draw sharp lines of demarcaremunerated by an ungrateful public. The case of tion between the different provinces of human labour. mankind, according to his account, is desperate; for The sensuous wants of man, however, comprise music, how can they become regenerated in the face of the dancing, theatrical amusements, and in some part fact, that an epic of high merit does not pay its poetry, together with the ornamental arts generally. expenses of production ? Although Mr Beaudesert Since the professors of these arts cultivate them from usually expresses this sentiment in general terms, he natural liking, and in a great many cases would is supposed to allude to a certain poem in the Spen- pursue them without substantial reward if they were serian stanza, by Aubrey BM, which has not reached possessed of independent means of living, it is clearly a second edition. On the other hand, Robert Short, not necessary, in order to secure a sufficient number Esq., another friend of mine, conversant with cotton of recruits, that they should be rewarded according fabrics and hosiery goods, observes that B - is not to the rates of purely mercenary callings. Hence, obliged to write epics unless he likes; that if such and such of this class as possess no more talent than such a thing is wanted, such and such a thing will many who have adopted more homely callings, receive be paid for according to its market value; and that less remuneration than they might have received in he sees no reason why people should make more fuss other walks of life. Those, again, who are gifted with about a knack for rhyming, than about thorough brilliant talents, succeed in obtaining no insignificant acquaintance with useful goods, which hold their reward; for the arts they cultivate are patronised by colours and wear well. I am bappy to find that both a large and increasing portion of the community, and gentlemen are agreed upon one point-namely, that afford pleasure and profit to the individuals composing musical talent is often exorbitantly overrated ; and the it. Adam Smith points out that a butcher is remunerwhole circle of our acquaintance, with the exception of ated at a higher rate than other artisans, because his a gentleman whose son is in the Foreign Office, is of occupation is none of the pleasantest. This principle opinion that the salaries of some public servants applies to the case we are discussing, and still more cannot be reasonably complained of by those fortunate forcibly to the case which we will next considerofficials. Of course, the expression of these sentiments namely, that of the class which supplies the spiritual has given rise to discussion; and it seems a pretty needs of man-spiritual needs as opposed to his physical prevalent doctrine relative to the wages of head-work, and sensuous wants. that “it's all luck. For my own part, I do not shut This class of labourers also adopt their several my eyes to the importance of being born with a spoon professions from personal bent of mind. Indeed, these made of one of the nobler metals in one's mouth; pursuits are apparently so opposite in aim to those but after making allowance for caprice of fortune, which are practical, that it is considered almost disgeneral laws are manifest; and it certainly appears graceful to follow them from mere mercenary motives. that labour of different kinds is remunerated at very Professors of thinking, therefore, who possess only different rates, and not always in proportion to its little more than the average ability of cultivated men, absolute importance. The point of view from which receive less remuneration than the corresponding class, this fact is contemplated varies with temperament. who devote themselves to sensuous arts. Yet, in this Some are apt to estimate the absolute value of a thing case too, if the wants supplied are popular and general, by its market-price; others seek to adjust the market the reward is by no means niggardly. Popular men price to the absolute value. The one class sneers at of genius are successful even in point of earnings, for the thinker; the other underrates the practical man. the amount of their profits has been greatly augmented

The greater part of labour and capital are employed, by the spread of popular refinement, and where fordirectly or indirectly, in satisfying physical require- merly chief reliance was placed on some wealthy or ments; and the usual wages of labour and profits of influential patron, the patronage of the public has capital are accordingly determined by the extent of been found amply sufficient. There still remains, those requirements, and the means which the com- however, a large class of intellectual pursuits which munity possesses of giving quid pro quo. Trade and appeal to only a small portion of the community, productive industry, or labour having for its end the chiefly to those engaged in kindred labours. In these practically useful, is of all labour most widely and cases, it becomes a question whether the patronage of steadily appreciated. In fact, although 'what we are government can be entirely withdrawn with security imports us more than what we eat,' the lower wants of and propriety. Professors of science, learning, and man's nature are prior to the higher. Amongst prac. philosophy are generally dependent for their means of tical pursuits, therefore, and the professions which living on that part of their occupation which is imdepend on them, every citizen has a certain power of mediately beneficial. They are not enabled to devote selection ; and choosing a career' is always an import- their whole time to exploring the remote regions of ant topic of discussion in family circles. It may be thought, but are expected to make themselves useful remarked, however, generally, that ordinary occupations in education or practical life. Nor, perhaps, is this are adopted from the sheer necessity of earning bread to be complained of, for it frequently happens that and cheese, and not from irrepressible bent of mind those are best fitted to bring into practical bearing the urging men to activity in a given direction. Although results of science and learning, who have penetrated a certain retired tallow-chandler, impelled by force of their furthest depths. habit, and the strong necessity of occupying himself, Several circumstances combine to render abstract

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studies unremunerative in a pecuniary sense. In all life useful and happy according to the measure of original investigations, a great deal of labour is un human happiness. And though the healthy desire to avoidably lost, and the public will not pay for abortive raise a family well and usefully, and provide for labour if it can possibly avoid the outlay. In the declining years, too often degenerates into a morbid next place, from the very nature of those pursuits, thirst for riches, the general beneficence of the law is their essential value cannot become recognised and manifest in the industrial progress of mankind. Nor notorious until an extremely high point of popular would it be becoming in those who are permitted to cultivation is attained. The demand comes after the exercise their highest faculties, and devote their best supply. The public cannot generally appreciate the energies to working out and unravelling the beautiful, inception of a science or discovery of an abstract good, and true, to grudge to life's more homely waytruth. To most men, a bale of goods is an object of farers such solace and satisfaction as wealth can afford. greater interest than a new theorem. It is, more | We all know that a pittance granted in love is better over, unfortunately too true that people do not set than a liberal allowance grudgingly bestowed. And it themselves rigorously to inquire whence a useful is equally certain that we individually benefit strangers invention derived its origin. They pay for it just as in a pecuniary point of view more than those nearest to much as they are compelled to by those who furnish our hearts. Among eminent persons, those who are its practical application ; and the system of patents most dear to men are not of the class which the can only partially remedy this unavoidable injustice. economist calls producers; they have nothing in their The necessary. stringency of patent and copyright hands; they have not cultivated corn, nor made bread; laws, shews how little the public can be depended on they have not led out a colony, nor invented a loom.' for å just distribution of reward. We esteem it a We should be wrong, too, if we permitted ourselves to very praiseworthy exhibition of charity, when an estimate the happiness and wellbeing of the different original discoverer, out of whose hands an invention classes of men by their affluence. After Sir Humphry has been taken, is recompensed by a purse, or his Davy became famous, he contemplated resuming the poverty-stricken descendants are redeemed from utter medical profession; his better genius prevailed, and he destitution.

remained a philosopher in moderate circumstances, As human nature is constituted, it is in vain to instead of becoming a wealthy physician. When urged expect the highest interests of humanity to take up by a friend to take out a patent for his safety-lamps, their true relative position. We might as well expect he declined to do so, saying: 'I could then only put a sehoolboy to pay his master out of his pocket-money, four horses to my carriage; and what would it avail as that mankind should labour in order to remunerate me that people should say: Sir Humphry drives a those who devote themselves to their instruction. The carriage-and-four.' professors of religion may seem, on a superficial view, Whether or not we patiently acquiesce in the to be an exception to this rule. The annual revenues appointed order of things, is a matter for our own devoted to their support are indeed enormous in the consideration. Certainly, the great laws which have aggregate, and a successful career in the church is not made the history of man will remain in force; there to be sneered at by a prosperous cotton-spinner, or is no sign or token that a day of change is near. The counsel learned in the law; but a little reflection will highest developments of character belong to a scanty shew that, in truth, this is no exception. Wherever minority. The great poets, scholars, or philosophers what is called the voluntary principle' is working, must still be content with fit audience, though few, the salaries of ministers of religion are less than those and reap a scanty harvest of material prosperity. And of confidential clerks or expert salesmen. With respect yet the world need not despair of great men that will to established churches, the greater part of their do its work, develop its resources, and reform its life. revenues were devoted to their service in times when If there is no demand for calicoes, calicoes will cease superstitious fear and frantic fanaticism mingled to be; the trade of coach-building goes down as the largely with healthy faith, and placed men in an lines of rail lengthen. Not so with the intellectual and abnormal position. Much is thus accounted for, and imaginative arts. Poets will sing, though none should when we add to these considerations the fact, that of listen; astronomers would point their glasses heavenall instincts in man, religion is perhaps the strongest, ward, though it were a penal offence; some few will the whole phenomenon is adequately explained. speak of the great realities of life and the soul, though

Thinkers of the highest class will readily acknow- death should be their guerdon. Genius will serve ledge, that even the strictest justice and most enlight- mankind in spite of itself. Such is the ordained ened reverence for their vocation, do not require their strength of the spiritual element in the human race, remuneration in pounds, shillings, and pence to equal that no obstacle which human ignorance may raise that of_merchants, manufacturers, and professional can stay human advancement. If it were not so, men. They would readily admit that competency, philanthropists might well be dismayed. There is a not wealth, is all they have a claim to. To render the divine event, whereto all things tend, and nothing can vocations of the poet, scholar, and philosopher so many render it uncertain. Men may yet come to acknowmodes of accumulating fortunes, would be to degrade ledge that money-value is not a universal standard ; them. After all, honour, respect, and affection are no and the representatives of Alexander and Diogenes mean rewards when they are added to suitable means may learn mutually to acknowledge the work of life. of livelihood. Beyond a certain point-dependent, of course, on social position and habitual mode of lifewealth, to the low-minded, is mere display, and to the

BREAKING-UP À LA FRANÇAISE. high-minded, is full of responsibility. It is always rash to complain of the necessary nature of things. MADAME BIDAMONT DE St Maur présente ses compli. The adaptation of different modes of life to the exi- ments à Monsieur et Madame Smith, et les prie de gencies of society, is better than the human intellect, vouloir bien lui faire l'honneur d'assister à la distribuguided by the best social virtues, could à priori invent. tion des prix, qui aura lieu chez elle le Jeudi 21 Août, There is room for improvement, as there is in every- à sept heures et demie du soir. thing partially human; and for praise, as there is in 8 bis, Avenue des Demoiselles, Champs Elysées.' everything partially divine.

Such, as nearly as I can remember, were the contents Labour is the honourable lot of man, and by a of a slim little note, addressed "Monsieur Smith, beautiful adaptation of his nature, idleness is irksome Esquire, Avocat, Hôtel des Bouledogues Britanniques, to him. Each in his station, without the aid of bril- which Mrs Smith and I found on our breakfast-table liant gifts or accidental advantages, may render his at the above-mentioned comfortable establishment, the

Ce 19 Aout 184-.

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