« 上一頁繼續 »
and iron ores, with plenty of lime and stone for time immemorial loses half its value. This great building, an abundance of running water, and a fine principle is in Turkey like a fire without fuel, or a climate-it attracted the attention of the ancient noble human faculty torpid from inadequate exercise, Romans, who, as long as they held possession of or inefficient from inadequate means. Syria, made Antioch the seat of government.'
We now pass from Asia to Europe, where we find Proceeding northward and westward round the several projects of railway, the most comprehensive coast of Asia Minor, we come to Smyrna, the great of which is no doubt the Grand Trunk Railway from port of this division of the Ottoman Empire, towards Constantinople to Belgrade viâ Adrianople. That the Mediterranean. Formerly, Smyrna was the place this line may ultimately be executed, we look on as of export of caravan-produce, and of the import of highly probable, because it is the ancient Roman | manufactures which found their way to Persia. But line from the eastern capital to Mæsia. Adrianople, the opening up of the trade of Trebizonde caused this Philippopoli, Sophia, and Belgrade, are all very little part of the trade of Smyrna to decline. For many out of the straight line to Vienna. But such a line years, no goods have ever gone from England to Persia can be executed only by a company of colossal capital, by the Smyrna caravans. All find their way by in consequence of its great extent, not only across the Trebizonde and Erzeroum. But there is a very large rich and level plains of Roumelia, but also through local export trade in figs, grain, and dye-stuffs for the gorges of the Taurus and its spurs, that extend manufactures. Aidin is in the interior, the centre of all the way from Tatar-Bazardjik to Niza, on the this large trade; and a railway has been subscribed borders of Servia ; in all which region much tunnel. for, and, we believe, commenced, between the port ling would be requisite. and this important internal entrepôt of western Asia A less expensive project is the line from Rustchuk, Minor. Smyrna itself is a large city, having a con- the large grain-emporium on the Lower Danube, to siderable corps of British merchants, as well as those Enos, on the Mediterranean below the Dardanellesof the other countries bordering the Mediterranean, not going over the Balkan, but round it on the shores particularly French from Marseille, Italians from of the Black Sea; and a still shorter line is from Genoa and Leghorn, and Austrians from Trieste. Rustchuk to Varna. But both these schemes are as
Passing round to the north of Asia Minor, we yet only projects. In the case of the railway from come to Samsoun, and are again reminded that at Kustendji to Czernavoda, which cuts off the great no distant period Asia Minor, rather than Egypt, is tongue formed by Lower Bulgaria or the Dobrudscha, the gate of India; and that when the lines across the capital has already been subscribed, and the Moldavia and Galicia are finished, that by Samsoun preliminary works actually begun. If any one looks to Diarbekir and Bagdad is the shortest of all at the map of this part of Turkey in Europe, it will possible routes to India, not excepting that of the be seen that the Danube, instead of continuing its Euphrates Valley.
easterly course to the Black Sea, makes a great This is no chiniera, for the Porte has just conceded detour to the north, and enters it by several encumto Englishmen of the highest respectability the power bered channels, the entrance to which, from the sea, to construct a railway from Samsoun to Tokat and is practicable only to vessels of small tonnage, and Sivas, the latter town being not very far distant to these only in fair weather. At one time, a depth from Diarbekir, the first important town in the vale of fourteen feet was maintained over the bar by artiof the Tigris, beyond which all is plain to Mosul ficial means, but latterly it has not exceeded eleren and Bagdad; in fact, all the Lower Tigris is a dead feet, the width being five hundred yards. Yet the flat. This line does not go through wastes or regions trade of Galatz and Ibraila, the former the port of desert, but a rich country, with several very large of Moldavia, and the latter of Wallachia, has intowns, where valuable productions are most ndant, creased fifteenfold between 1838 and 1852. Thus, and wanting only carriage to a port, instead of the from the small and uncertain depth of water, and the slow, tedious, and expensive transport on the backs difficulties of the navigation through the channels of of animals. Tokat has inexhaustible copper-mines, the delta, the trade has been confined to vessels of which, for want of transport and other facilities, are very light draught, which is seriously obstructive of not sufficiently utilised. Sivas is the centre of a much direct commerce with the west of Europe, in district which produces in abundance most of those which large vessels only can be profitably employed. articles so extensively exported from Asia Minor to The consequence is that the trade is very much the manufacturing districts of England, in addition to confined to Levantine coasting-vessels of small tonfruits and grains. So that for this first stage of what nage. Captain Spratt has paid especial attention we may call the direct India railway, there cannot to the mouths of the Danube, and has produced new fail to be an enormous local traffic. "But how,' it is charts of the Sulina and St George mouths; and it asked, are we to get to Samsoun most conveniently?' would appear from communications with him, and We answer, by rail from Calais to Galatz. This line study on the spot, that it would take an enormous is already completed across Germany and through sum to establish a depth on the bar of twenty feet, the greater part of Galicia. The Moldavian line so as to enable vessels of 800 tons to cross it at all across a dead flat is all that would be wanting, on times. the completion of the line to Sivas, to make the A very large proportion of the foreign grain imcommunication by rail and steam uninterrupted. ported into England now comes from those Danubian We believe it is not the intention of those who have principalities, which are so much before the public in received this valuable concession, to bring it into the relation to political matters, which we will not now money-market in its present state; but as the Porte touch upon. But although the trade has increased so has guaranteed 7 per cent., and engaged to take up enormously, the internal arrangements for conductone-third of the shares, we look upon the project ing it are still of a very rude character. From the as certain to be carried out. We think Turkey western districts of Wallachia, the grain is sent by has acted wisely in the exercise of this liberality. land to Kalafat, or down the Aluta, which separates The future prosperity of the Ottoman Empire is Great from Little Wallachia, to the mouth of the more likely to be found in the opening up of these river, and thence by barges to Ibraila. From Central productive internal regions, than by any other mea- Wallachia, Moldavia, and the interior of Bulgaria, sures that can possibly be devised.
the grain is brought mostly in carts to the Danube. Until the ports of Turkey are cheaply accessible The merchants employ agents to buy it in the to the mineral and agricultural productions of the country direct from the growers, and bring it to interior, the free trade she has possessed from market at all risks, involving a great deal of loss,
delay, fraud, and wrangling. There is, therefore, a opening ultimately into a few. large valleys rungreat want of a cheap and commodious conveyance ning to the Danube, and to lakes bordering on the to a Black Sea port; and it has been found that by Black Sea. The valleys have no streams to water clearing out the ancient port of Constantia, called them. Powerful springs rise at the head of some; Kustendji, on the Black Sea, and making a rail. but the rivulet thus formed dies almost at its way to Tchernavoda, on the Danube, the tongue source-is absorbed, forms a bit of green marsh, a of the Dobrudscha would be cut off, a great circuit mud-pool, and is lost. Very rarely is it that water saved, and the dangerous, difficult, and inconvenient runs on the face of the country. No ravines, no navigation of the mouths would be avoided.
rocky or pebbly beds, worn by the rush of waters. The main object of the proposed port and railway At most are to be found some deep furrows on the is to open the Black Sea to the products of the steeper parts of the slopes, to shew that water does Danubian provinces more effectually, and thereby fall faster than the soil can absorb it. The porous facilitate the trade with Western Europe. But a substratum of coral rag and chalk absorbs the rain second object is to induce a return of population into not retained by the deep free soil—a soil which Eastern Bulgaria, which is naturally one of the resembles the finest garden-mould-and gives it off richest districts of Europe for the production of grain in springs, which gather in lakes towards the Danube and the rearing of sheep, oxen, and horses.
and the Black Sea, and little above their level, or Kustendji, under the name of Constantia, was an are tapped by the wells of its inhabitants. The soil is important place, and had a large harbour in ancient of amazing depth; and grain-crops and grass of the times. The ruins of ancient temples, the remains finest quality grow on parcels scattered over the of ancient moles and quays still visible, prove this. length and breadth of the land, produced without And, certainly, in whatever point of view it be manure, under the most primitive methods of culture. regarded, there can scarcely be imagined a more Onions, beans, cabbages, seem to grow luxuriantly favourable site for a commercial city. Kustendji is wherever sown. The oak, the wild-pear, the ash, the backed by a vast extent of country, perfectly open, plane, are still to be found, though not of great but with a great depth of the richest soil, producing, dimensions, in natural forests of fine trees. whenever cultivated, crops of the finest grain. The The railway is proposed to be carried along a line burrounding country is high, and peculiarly healthy; of lakes, which are, in fact, back-waters of the fever is rare; and the sheep, horses, and oxen, are fat Danube; and the line will be as much as possible and fine. The curse of the country has been war. The along the margin of these lakes, on an embankment mouths of the Danube being in the hands of the from four to six feet in height; and we learn by the Russians, the Danube below Silistria being undefended report of the company just issued, that accounts have by any fortress of importance, and the coast having been received from their engineers that the banking no safe harbour, this territory has always been over- of the Danube was begun on the 22d of October run by the Russian forces at their first advance last; that Turkish commissioners, appointed for the against Turkey, and made the prey of contending purpose, have marked out the land reserved by governarmies. A promontory running into the sea forms a ment for fortifications. Nearly all the land on the natural protection from the north and north-east line has been ascertained to be imperial property. winds for a large area of water, which may, by Such are the railways now projected, or begun, in dredging and enclosure, be converted, at a moderate the Ottoman Empire. That others will follow, we expense, into a safe and commodious harbour, capable cannot doubt; for the government of that country is of receiving vessels of large tonnage.
most anxious that all the districts of the interior, Captain Spratt has, since the reconnaissance made capable of large production, should be put in comby him for the generals of the allies in July 1854, munication with the coast. From the period of the given much attention to the subject of this port and Greek revolution, down to the termination of the communication with the Danube; and he is of opinion Crimean war, Turkey, owing to innumerable domestic that, with a north-east entrance, it is accessible as a revolts, foreign war, and diplomatic crises, has never harbour of refuge in any wind. A breakwater will been out of hot water. A new period is now opening be carried out four hundred yards. It is therefore up for her; and we look forward to the time when considered that it will have six times the accom- a large amount of British capital will be securely modation of Odessa ; with a deeper entrance than vested in Turkish railways. that port, and a better exit for the despatch of business. The importance of this will appear when SOMETHING ON MY MIND. we mention, that in consequence of the troublesome navigation of the mouths of the Danube, freights to DARK masses of my threatening fellow-creatures, Odessa are generally one-third less than to Galatz. cloaked and cowled; chosen assassins equipped with The position of Kustendji has the advantage over noiseless goloshes and daggers diminishing to a point, Odessa of being at all times free from ice in winter, wherefrom drips a gout of gore; an executioner with a while it is two hundred sea-miles nearer to the half-mask and a chopper, with its edge turned towards Bosphorus, and these two hundred miles are of me; vague and unknown shapes following, following, dangerous navigation. With regard to the country to be passed over, we
with a deadly unswerving purpose, whithersoever I may mention that the Dobrudscha consists of 'five take my frightened way; a thousand strangers with thousand square miles of rich soil, having a porous uplifted armed right hands, exclaiming together, substratum generally of the coral rag and chalk for artistically, and in the pauses of slow music: "We mation. The general elevation of the country is swear, we swear,' and doing it; half-a-dozen of intiabout 300 feet above the level of the sea. At the mate friends striking at my breast with a curious and northern extremity, however, the old formations varied collection of weapons, from an overwhelming appear, and have heaved up the younger formations, sense of duty, and averting their looks for pity's forming a fine range of mountains, rising, towards the sake ; secret conclaves setting down my name in extreme north, to an elevation of about 2500 feet, covered at their base, on the northern slopes, with fine blood, with a variety of other dismal pictures selected forests. This vast extent of country is beautifully, from the haunted chambers of imagination, had been but gently undulating, and is besides intersected and presented to me in dreams for months. I was indented by numerous small valleys and dales, singu- rendered miserable, through having been made a freelarly tortuous and indeterminate in direction, but mason, with the terror of carrying about with me so
tremendous a secret. I felt that I was fated to be held his masonic ladder in one hand, and his trowel the unhappy wretch who should betray that which and pair of compasses in the other; when he had had been held sacred by multitudes for more than a come up with me, he would describe with the cornthousand years. Nor was this idea altogether without passes a magic circle, out of which I could not stir; grounds; for to so great a pitch of nervousness had plant his ladder against my back, as though I were a I arrived, that I was continually whispering the cucumber frame, and mounting upon my shoulders, matter confidentially to myself, and then, in the belief trowel in hand, would mutter some cabalistic words, that I had spoken aloud, looking horror-stricken addressed to surrounding nature, explanatory of the around me; or, not seldom, I would write it down reason of my being sacrificed; at which period I was upon slips of paper, which I afterwards took care to wont to be awaked with the chattering of my teeth. tear up small, or put them into the fire, or devoured Once, I remember throwing myself upon the protection them.
of a policeman, who happened to be patrolling the desert Once, however, when engaged in this practice, a for the greater security of the ostrich-eggs; and he, high wind, coming in at the open window, scattered instead of taking the Provincial Grand into custody, these interesting disclosures in every direction, and pointed to the collar of his own uniform, upon which, drove me as nearly mad as a sane man could go. in place of a number, was emblazoned the fatal There were as many as twenty distinct revelations triangle which proclaimed the Peeler to be a Deputy of the most mysterious fact in the world's history Grand Arch himself. My state of mind became at thus set flying over space, so that any one might length so unsupportable, that I was obliged to take run and read them. Nineteen of these I recovered a friend into my confidence. I did not, of course, conby means of almost superhuman exertions. Two fide to him the secret, but I told him of the anxiety were reclaimed, at peril of life and limb, from a which was continually consuming me regarding it. neighbour's wall with chevaux-de-frise at the top of "Well,' said Jones, after having listened patiently it; three of them had lodged in a very lofty tapering to the sad recital—he was a very well-meaning young tree, which practically demonstrated the dreaded fact man, only rather volatile-'I have a plan which, I of my Sybilline leaves becoming poplar; five were know the whole thing is nonsense_1 am ready to
think, will benefit you: for your sake-although I carried into the river, and had to be rescued by boat; become a freemason myself; then, you see, you will seven had been whirled into the kennel of a proverbi- have a confidant-a being in whom you may repose ally savage dog, which, however, was so impressed by your trouble. We will retire together for an hour or my eager haste and furious vehemence, that he vacated so every day into some lonely spot-down the well, or his quarters at the first summons, and fled, howling, up the chimney, or into the House of Lords while to the utmost extent of his chain. One was brought they are despatching business—and there we will down from a chimney-pot by a very small sweep, who, converse about this secret, if there be a secret, and luckily for me and for himself, proved to my satis
relieve your mind.' faction that he had never been taught to read; one I
This project transported me with joy and gratitude. found the kitten at play with in the garden, which in our lodge for Jones's admission, without, of course,
I made the necessary arrangements with the officials presently I put to death accordingly, without open mentioning my particular reason for getting it done, trial, after the manner of the tribunals of Westphalia; and he came down to my house from London upon the twentieth could nowhere be found. There was lying the evening preceding his installation. I had been somewhere, patent to the first passer-by, an explicit useful to Jones more than once in the way of lendsolution of the whole art of freemasonry in my own ing him a little money when he was hard up, and I peculiar and well-known handwriting. This thought,
was therefore not surprised when, as we were sitting which was of a nature to make the most stolid anxious, together after dinner over our wine, he requested of
me the temporary loan of a ten-pound note. excited me to frenzy. I went about demanding of my
However, as there was a small account already fellow-creatures whether they had seen a small piece between us, I moved as an amendment that the sum of paper in the air lately.
should be decreased by one half, to which, after a "What paper? What was on it?' inquired they. slight discussion, my friend acceded, and retired to What was on it, indeed ? A question not to be rest apparently satisfied, with a five-pound note of
mine in his purse. answered very readily. I did not go to bed for eight
We lay in a double-bedded room, for the convenience and-forty-hours, and then I found the precious missing of conversing upon my all-engrossing topic, and we manuscript neatly deposited between my neckerchief fell asleep while talking of it. I was awaked in the and my false collar; after which I abstained from morning by the entrance into the room of my comwriting out the secret any more. I carried it about panion, ready dressed, and with his hat on, as though with me on my mind, nevertheless, and
he had been out for an early stroll.
very dreadful burden it was. Waking or sleeping, but
Why, I never heard you get up,' said I ; 'I must
have slept very soundly.' especially sleeping, I was always picturing to myself
'You did,' replied Jones in a solemn and unusual the consequences of revealing what I knew, and tone : very, very soundly; and you dreamed. I thereby endured the imaginary pains of half-a-dozen think?' opium-eaters. Methought that the Provincial Grand “I believe you, my boy,' cried I, chuckling with the of our lodge, who, in private life, is a most respectable thought of how soon such things would be all over: grocer, was the individual selected by the society as
'I just did dream.' the avenger of violated faith. He was wont to pursue
* You dreamed of the—the secret, did you not?'
continued he. me in his full official costume, which, however, seemed
Of course I did,' said I; 'I always do dream of to attract no greater attention in the streets of the
the secret.' city than in the deserts (all bearing an absurd likeness
Indeed,' observed Jones, with an unpleasant dryto the back-garden of my private residence), whither ness in his manner; "and do you also always talk is I sometimes, in vain, betook myself for refuge. He your sleep ?'
I felt exactly as if a jug of ice-cold water had been elbows, according to the orthodox manner, so often poured down the nape of my neck.
practised by me in secret-he made, to my astonishWe were both silent for at least a minute, and ment, the freemason's sign. then Jones quietly remarked: 'I think you might “You must know, my dear fellow,' added he, 'that just as well make that five pound a tenner, do you I have been a mason myself these ten years; and as know !'
for your revelations during sleep, they consisted of *Make it twenty,' exclaimed I, with eagerness: nothing beyond snoring.' oblige me by accepting a twenty-pound note.
"Thank you,' replied Jones coolly; 'I think I will. From what you said last night,' added he with a grim AN ASSORTMENT OF SURNAMES. smile, 'I understood that you had not so much money FAMILY nomenclature is a subject of considerable in the house.'
Then I remembered having made use of that little interest beyond the sphere of the etymologist and tarrididdle, or delicate evasion, in order to get rid of antiquary, of whose learned labours, however, we his importunity upon the previous evening. By his wish to speak with the greatest respect. Whence reminding me of it thus boldly, it was evident that existing surnames have been derived, and the changes I must have put myself into his power indeed. they have undergone, are points in the illustration of *Do you know all ?' inquired I hoarsely.
which much pains and patience have been expended. Well,' said he carelessly, there is no need for my To use a comparison well understood in these days being masonified; I know all about the'- He enunciated the awful secret, the mystery of the ages, been carried through the midst of this special ques
of mechanics and engineering, a broad highway has the hidden wonder, as though he were retailing some political tittle-tattle of the clubs. "You see,' he tion; but we prefer just now turning aside into a continued, “you awoke me, and kept me awake by bypath opened up by the registrar-general of England repeating it so very distinctly over and over again, in his last annual Report. That communicative that I have got it quite pat. I could not forget it functionary devotes a whole chapter to this topic; even if I would. Since you seemed to be in such and as probably not one in a thousand of our countryadmirable case for it, I could not help trying that
men will ever see the original, we propose to present, experiment-with which you are doubtless acquainted -of interrogating a sleeping person regarding the in a simplified and reclassified form, the curiosities of subject of his dreams, and your answers
fact which he has placed at our disposal. We are firs astonishingly clear and pertinent. I never was spec- of all informed that in the department over which he tator of anything more interesting and curious. It presides, there is a registration of more than 21,000,000 is positively a contribution to psychological science. names, all collected between the 1st of July 1837 and I think, indeed, that I shall publish an ac'
the end of 1854. From the registration indexes thus At that instant, I made my long contemplated possessed, the surnames at present borne in England spring out of the bedclothes, and placed myself and Wales could be pretty accurately ascertained; between my enemy and the door. In my hand was the life-preserver with which my pillow is always but the trouble involved in such an inquiry is suffifurnished, and in my eyes was the determination to cient to appal the Samson of statistics himself, who use it as a life-preserver. “Jones,' I observed, as I has limited his researches to two quarterly indexes-must save my own life--you must die.'
one of births, and another of deaths-resulting in the •You mean to kill me, then, do you?' said he discovery, that of 275,405 individuals registered, jauntily.
32,818 had different surnames-shewing an average My friend,' replied I, waving the weapon to of 8.4 persons to every surname. It is then 'assumed and fro to give solemnity to my manner, 'I have unfortunately no choice; you have wantonly opened
as a rough estimate, that the whole number of surthe Bluebeard's chamber of my mind, and now you names in England and Wales is between 35,000 and must pay the penalty. I regret the sad necessity, 50,000,'orthographical differences (as Clerk, Clark, believe me, almost as much as you can yourself, Clerke) being allowed to pass for a difference of name. but the thing must be done. I shall hit you between The roots of surnames now in use would be found to the eyes as nearly as I can, so that the whole matter fall considerably short of the above number. Wales will be but the work of an instant, and the pain and Cornwall differ from England in the constantly scarcely appreciable. However, in the meantime, if you have any message or document to leave behind recurring sameness of the nomenclature; in the former, you, intrust it to me, and be sure of its delivery.'
nine-tenths of the people, it is said, could perhaps .be “Yes,” said Jones decisively, there are two docu- mustered under less than 100 different surnames ;' so ments down stairs in the possession of my servant, that 'the primary object of a name, which is to diswith whom I have but just left them. The one is to tinguish an individual from the mass,' is in danger be delivered to your friend the Provincial Grand at of being lost. once if anything should happen to me, and the other
By the aid of a table compiled from 'nine quarterly to the mayor of this town. The law will therefore hang you upon strong circumstantial evidence, unless indexes of births, eight of deaths, and eight of marthe brotherhood put you to death beforehand by riages,' we are enabled to see what the fifty most some more terrible method. You have not given me common surnames are, and the number of times each that twenty-pound note, by the by, old fellow. surname occurs. The Smiths, of course, are at the Where is it?'
head of the poll, their name boasting 33,557 entries; • Here,' said I, tottering to my trousers, and taking but their supremacy is imperiled by the tribe of out my pocket-book with a trembling hand: 'here's Joneses, who stand 33,341 strong. That of Williams a fifty-pound note, which you may keep as a small numbers 21,936. Below 20,000 are arrayed the clans token of my affectionate regard. I love you, Jones ; you know I was only in fun all along.'
Taylor, Davies, Brown, Thomas, Evans, Roberts, and *Thank ye,' said my volatile friend, as he pocketed Johnson. The others have fewer than 10,000 followers, the money ;
These so was I too. I have been playing the lowest figure falling to Griffiths—4639. a trick upon you from the very beginning.'
fifty names embrace nearly eighteen in every 100 of And then - with his nose, and knees, and those registered about one in six; and as the total
entries of the fifty are 440,911, the nine indexes may Cashmere immediately connects in our thoughts the be considered to contain about 2,500,000 entries— looms of that famous valley-kingdom with the spindles certainly a fair number from which to judge.
of our own. Sacred Scripture, as might be supposed, A second table deals with the same fifty surnames has suggested several names, although the selection is with reference to their origin, and furnishes the peculiar enough. Angel and Demon stand in contrast. number of entries in the following order
Eve makes her entry, and, under her protection, her
scapegrace first-born Cain. Noah-the hale old man, Names. Entries,
orphan of the old world, and father of the new'-is Derived from Christian or fore-names, 27 246,032
here; but whence comes Balaain, and stranger still, occupations,
Dives and Pharrisee? As much out of place in locality,
another direction are Calvary and Pentecost. Heaven personal peculiarities
2 22,154 (White and Brown),
and Heavens, Saint and Sanctuary, Priest and Proother circumstances (King), 1 5,661
phet, with Christian itself, have clearly a Biblical
origin; but to a later source we must refer Pagan, with Total, 50 440,911
Lent and Christmas. Church, with its compound
Churchward, and less agreeable companion ChurchReturning to the statistical case of Smith versus yard, belong to a similar period; as do Abbot (cot Jones, the registrar-general informs 18 that the whole mentioned in this list) and Prior. There can be no of the indexes from 1838 to 1854 were searched 'to doubt where Surplice, Spires, and Steeple come from. determine the relative frequency' of these competing The need of the law is vindicated by Lawless, surnames; and the numerical issue is in favour of the Felony, and Felons—its character by Just and Justice Smiths. Of Smiths, the entries were 286,037 ; of -its operations by Sessions and Jury-its pleasures Joneses, 282,900-a Smith majority of 3137. In seven by Fee—and one of its results by Fines. years, the Joneses were more numerous; in eleven The science of medicine is celebrated under the years (including the last seven), the Smiths; and so, homely name of Physick. The Pothecary and bis as there is no reason against our siding with the Pill are not far apart. A Hospital, indeed, leares winning party, we cry–Hurrah for the Smiths! Both the mind free to roam over Collick, Cramp, Fever, tribes, however, are entitled to all the deference which and the painful plural Fevers; but more cheerful numbers can give them, since it is calculated that in thoughts of Balm and Balsam are not absent; while England and Wales they include together not less than Heal and Cure shed a cheerful hue over the sable half a million persons—sufficient of themselves to people four towns as large as Birmingham, Bristol, Military operations for two years have commanded a Leeds, and Hull. With respect to the fifty most large share of public attention ; but previous to these, common surnames,' we are favoured with a further and although we are not a soldier-nation, the list of computation, which makes it appear that in 1853 surnames testifies to the belligerent tendency of our England and Wales contained 3,253,800 persons bear- population. The Warrior and Cavalier issue from their ing these family names ; or, in other words, that about Castle; they have their Arms offensive and defensire: two in every eleven Englishmen and Welshmen are Armour of Mail is provided, with the Shield. Honour known among men by one or other of these ifty is done to the Dart and the Arrow, England's once
formidable and favourite weapon. The Dagger and More of these statistical curiosities are behind. Dirk are in request, with the Lance and the Sword. Descending to the letters of the alphabet, we learn that Thus equipped, the Gauntlett is ready; but besides all, 'the letter B is the most frequent initial of surnames,' we have the Gunner with his Gun; even Cannon of being about 10 per cent. of the whole. H is above, the largest calibre. Then waves the Banner, and then and S and W nearly 9 per cent. N and K are lowest beats the Drum, while Slaughter leads the way to in the scale of proportion, excepting X and Z.
Victory and Conquest. Here we might conclude our ramble, but we are Naval matters are not overlooked. The Ship multitempted to prolong it on account of the singular scene plies into Shipping, and it swells into a Fleet. The which the indefatigable general of registrars lays single vessel has its Keel and Deck, its Helm, its before us.
This is no other than a list of more than Middlemast, and its Tackle; and for the boat there 2000 peculiar surnames selected from the birth-indexes must be the Oar. When launched, it can Float, and of the first quarter of 1851, and the death-indexes with a Chart may set out upon its Cruise, in the of the corresponding quarter of 1853. Very peculiar, course of which it will often have to Tack before the in truth, many of these surnames are, and certain of Gale. Should a Tempest cause a Leak, the sailors affording a delightful feast to the lovers of the droll will look with anxiety for a Harbor or Haven on the and the grotesque. In the book before us, they are Mainland; and failing this, even the most skilful placed in alphabetical order ; but the amusement they Diver will be liable to Drown. offer is best secured by such an arrangement of them Now, turning from the learned professions, and the as will shew the treasures of descriptive phraseology contingencies of land and sea, let us examine Man as a they comprise. The classical deities live again in member of the great creation; and not small is the Bacchus, Mars, and Venus—a well-matched trio; in help which our English surnames will impart to that Flora, Fortuna, Muse, and the Muses; the Phænix compound being in his endeavour to obey the oracle, and the Griffin recall the fables of the East; while and know himself. First, they will inform him that Mabb and Fay speak to us of myths that still linger he has a Bodily structure, a Body, and, not less really, in the villages of our land. Classical history is remem- an indwelling Soul. The former has vital organs, such bered in Damon and Dion; Hector and Troy are not as the Head--in old English a Pate, and in low English yet extinct; neither is Rome nor the Roman name; a Noddle. Within the head is a Brain or Brains, and though Hannibal reappears, the honours of the else it will be of little use to its owner. On the top is Latin name are worthily committed to Cato, Scipio, Hair, consisting of many Hairs, which on the female and Cæsar, who may trace in Dominey a fragment of head fall down in many a Curl. In front is the For(e). the language in which they harangued and wrote. head--beneath it, the Eyes; and beneath them, the Modern nationalities are pointed out by French and Cheek. Tongue and Tooth appertain to the mouth, Gaul, Saxon, Dutch, and Dane. The Spaniard must and so the face tapers down to the Chin. Why the be content with his Don, but the Turk comes in for a nose is omitted in this inventory of the features is a name. North and South Africa are arbitrarily repre- mystery ; so prominent a member must have a keen sented by Barbary and the Caffre; and the sound of sense of the insult, and may be expected to set itself