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QUICK EXECUTIONER S.

It was no deliberation about our future plans. In the deed was too monstrous and improbable; under the lull, between the volleys of the crackling pines, I what motive could they have committed it? at such could hear their voices. They were those of men a time, too, with their own lives in direst jeopardy ? engaged in deadly dispute-especially the voices of 'Ne'er a bit o' jeppurdy,' exclaimed Hickman, in Hickman and Weatherford, that reached the ear in reply to the interrogatory- ne'er a bit o' jeppurdy. conclamation, both speaking in a tone that betokened Thar hain't been a shot fired at eyther on 'em this hul some desperate feeling of indignation.

day. I tell ye, fellers, thar’s a unnerstaunin' atween At this moment, the smoke drifting aside, dis- | 'em an' the Indyens. Thar no better 'n spies, an' covered a group' still further from the edge of the thar last night's work proves it. 'Twar all bamfoozle pond. There were six men in this group, standing in about thar gittin' lost; 'em fellers git lost adeed! threes; and I perceived that the middle man of each Both on 'em knows these hyar wuds as well as the three was tightly grasped by the others. Two of anymals thet lives in 'em. Thuv both been hyar them, then, were prisoners !

many's the time, an' a wheen too often, I reck'n. Were they Indians ? two of our enemies who, amid Lost! Wagh! did yez iver heer o'a 'coon gittin' lost ?' the confusion of the fire, had strayed into the glade, Some one made reply. I did not hear what was and been captured ?

said, but the voice of the hunter again sounded It was my first thought; but at that instant a jet distinct and clear. of flame, shooting upward among the tree-tops, filled “Ye palaver about thar motive. I s'pose you mean the glade with a flood of brilliant light. The group thar reezuns for sich a bloody bizness? Them, I thus illumined, could be seen as distinctly as by acknulledge, ain't clar, but I hev my sespicions too. the light of day. I was no longer in doubt about I ain't a gwine to say who or what. Thar's some the captives; their faces were before me—white and things as mout be, an' thar's some as moutn't; but ghastly, as if with fear. Even the red light failed to I've seed queer doin's in these last five yeern ; an tinge them with its colour; but, wan as they were, I I've heern o' others, an' if what I've heern bes true had no difficulty in recognising them. They were what I've seed I know to be—then I tell ye, fellers, Spence and Williams.

thar 's a bigger than eyther o' thesen at the bottom o'

the hul bizness-that's what thar be.' CHAPTER LXXXVIII.

'But do you really say you saw them fire in that direction ? Are you sure of that?'

This inquiry was put by a tall man, who stood in I turned to the black for an explanation, but before the midst of the disputing party—a man df advanced he could make reply to my interrogatory, I more age, and of somewhat severe, though venerable aspect. than half comprehended the situation.

I knew him as one of our neighbours in the settleMy own plight admonished me. I remembered my ment-an extensive planter—who had some interwound; I remembered that I had received it from course with my uncle, and out of friendship for our behind.' I remembered that the bullet that struck the family, had joined the pursuit. tree came from the same quarter. I thought we had Sure!' echoed the old hunter, with emphasis, and been indebted to the savages for the shots; but, no; not without some show of indignation. “Didn't me an' worse savages-Spence and Williamswere the men Jim Weatherford see 'em wi' our own two eyes ? an' who had fired them!

thar good enough, I reck’n, to watch sich varmints The reflection was awful; the motive, mysterious. as 'em. We'd been a watchin' 'em all day, for we

And now returned to my thoughts the occurrences know'd thar war somethin' ugly afoot. We seed 'em
of the preceding night: the conduct of these two both fire acrost the gleed, an' sight plum-centre at
fellows in the forest; the suspicious hints thrown out young Randolph. Beside, the black himself sez that
by old Hickman and his comrade; and far beyond the two shots comed that away. What more proof
the preceding night, other circumstances-still well kin you want?'
marked upon my memory-rose freshly before me. At this moment, I heard a voice by my side. It

Here again was the hand of Arens Ringgold. 0 was that of Jake calling out to the crowd.
God! to think that this arch-monster-

'Mass Hickman,' cried he, 'if dey want more *Dar only a tryin' them two daam raskell,' said proof, I b’lieve dis nigga can gib it. One ob de Jake, in reply to the interrogatory I had put; 'dat's bullets miss young massr, an' stuck in tha tree. what they am 'bout, Massr George-dat 's all.' Yonner's tha berry tree itseff we wa behind; it ain't

“Who?' I asked mechanically, for I already knew burn yet; it ain't been afire. Maybe, genl'm'n, you who were meant by the 'two daam raskell.'

mout find tha bullet thar still; you tell whose gunl 'Lor, Massr George, doant you see um ober yonder? he 'longs to ?' Golly! thar as white as peeled punkins-Spence an’ The suggestion was instantly adopted. Several Willims. It war them that shot you, an' no Ind-i-ens men ran towards the tree behind which Jake and arter all. I know'd dat from tha fust, an' I tol' Mass I had held post, and which, with a few others near Hickman de same; but Mass Hickman 'clare he see it, for some reason or other, had escaped the flames, um for hissef, an' so too Mass Weathaford. Boaf and still stood with trunks black and unscathed, in seed um fire tha two shots. Thar a tryin' on 'em for front of the conflagration. Jake went with the rest, tha lives—dat's what tha am adoin'.'

and pointed out the spot.
With strange interest I once more turned my eyes The bark was scrutinised, the shot-hole found, and
outward, and gazed, first at one group, then the other. the leaden witness carefully picked out. It was still

The fire was now making less noise, the sap-wood in its globe shape, slightly torn by the grooves of the
having nearly burnt out; and the detonations, caused barrel. It was a rifle-bullet, and one of the very
by the escaping of the pent air from its cellular cavi- largest size. It was known that Spence carried a
ties, had grown less frequent. Voices could be heard piece of large calibre. The guns of all the party were
over the glade, and to those of the improvised jury I brought forward, and their measure taken: the bullet
listened attentively. I perceived that a dispute was would enter the barrel of no other rifle save that of
going on. The jurors were not agreed upon their Spence.
verdict; some advocating the immediate death of Their guilt was evident; the verdict was no longer
the prisoners; while others, averse to such prompt delayed. It was unanimous that the prisoners should
punishment, were for keeping them until further die.
inquiry should be made into their conduct.

An' let 'em die like dogs, as they are,' cried Hick-
There were some who could not credit their guilt; man, indignantly raising his voice, and at the same

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time bringing his piece to the level. “Now, Jim Weatherford, look to yer sights! Let 'em go thar, fellows, an' take yerselves out o' the way. We'll gie 'em a chance for thar cussed lives. They may take to yonner trees if they like, an' git 'customed to it, for they 'll be in a hotter place than thet afore long. Let 'em go-let 'em go, I say; or, by the 'tarnal, I'll fire into the middle o'ye!'

The men who had hold of the prisoners perceiving the threatening attitude of the hunter, and fearing that he might make good his words, suddenly dropped their charge, and ran back towards the group of jurors.

The two wretches appeared bewildered. Terror seemed to hold them speechless and fast, as if bound to the spot. Neither made an effort to leave the ground. Perhaps the complete impossibility of such a thing was apparent to them, and prostrated all power to make the attempt. They could not have escaped from the glade. Their taking to the trees was only a mockery of the indignant hunter; in ten seconds they would have been roasted among the blazing branches.

It was a moment of breathless suspense. Only one voice was heard that of Hickman.

Now, Jim, you Spence; leave tother to me.'

This was said in a hurried undertone; and the words were scarce uttered as the two rifles cracked simultaneously.

The smoke drifting aside, disclosed the deadly effect of the shot. The execution was over. The worthless renegades had ceased to live.

PEGASUS IN HARNESS.

FROM THE GERMAN

To a horse-fair-Newmarket, say, the name,
Where other wares were interchanged as well,
Once on a time a starving Poet came,
Urged by stern want, his Pegasus to sell.
Loud neighed the hippogriff, and proudly pranced
In splendid style before the astonished crowd;
All stood stock-still to gaze, as if entranced.
'The princely animal!' some cried aloud;
"What thousand pities that that form so slim
Should be disfigured by those odious wings;
The finest carriage else were meet for him
'Tis said that from the noblest race he springs;
But in the air what Whip his seat could hold ?'
So on the venture none would risk his gold.
At length, a country farmer courage found.
'The wings, 'tis true, serve for no use,' quoth he;
‘But we may have them either clipt or bound,
And then for draught the horse would suited be.
Come! I will on him venture twenty pound.'
The owner, overjoyed, the offer heard ;
Eager to sell his goods without delay,
The bargain strikes—I take you at your word.'
So Hodge trots gaily on his prize away.
The noble creature straight in harness placed,
The unaccustomed burden hardly feels,
When off he starts in wildly flying haste,
By noble rage incensed. The carriage reels,
And sudden, on a precipice's brink,
Is overthrown. 'So, ho !' cries Hodge; 'I think
Experience makes men wise; no more I must
Alone this frantic beast with wheel-work trust.
But as to-morrow passengers I take,
The sprightly thing will a fine leader make;
Two other nags he'll spare me, not a doubt,
And this wild frenzy will with years wear out.'
At first all prospers well—the light-winged steed
.Urges his comrades on; the carriage flies
Swiftly as with an arrow's speed,
But soon forsakes the sure and beaten track;
No shouts avail-no rein can hold him back;
Like wildness seizes all, in frantic guise

O'er bog and fen, through hedge and field they dash,
Until the shattered coach, with a loud crash,
Amidst the traveller's cries, stops short at last,
And on a steep ascent the wheels stick fast.
Poor Hodge exclaims, with thoughtful mien :
* We have not yet found out the way;
'Twill never answer thus: but stay,
Another sort of trial shall be seen;
We'll see what meagre fare and work will do,
The foolish creature's spirit to subdue.'
The trial made-ere many days are past,
The beauteous animal declines,
And soon to a mere shadow pines.
Cries Hodge: 'I've found it out at last.
Here, quick! come yoke him for me now,
Joined with my strongest ox in yonder plough.'
No sooner said than done-behold
In ludicrous conjunction by one tether
The Ox and Winged Courser linked together.
Unwilling steps the Griffin bold,
But strains his last remaining might,
Eager to take his wonted flight.
In vain-his neighbour plods with steady pace;
Phæbus' bright steed must to the Ox give place.
With constant opposition worn at length,
And bowed with grief, the steed of godlike birth,
With trembling limbs and failing strength
Sinks, and lies prostrate on the earth.
"Accursèd beast !' breaks forth the angry clown
(By heavy-showering blows his vengeance shewn),
E'en for the plough thou art too weak and thin.
Thy master was a rogue, and took me in.'
While still the swinging lash his wrath betrays,
A joyous youth with light elastic tread
Comes smiling on—a wreath of golden bays,
With his fair locks entwined, adorns his head;
The sounding lyre is in his practised hand.
“Whither with such a wondrous pair, my friend?'
He from a distance to the peasant cries.
“The bird and ox linked in one band,
So strange a team must every one surprise,
I prithee for a space thy poor horse lend,
And for brief trial trust him unto me;
But be prepared—a marvel shalt thou see.'
The hippogriph is speedily unbound-
Upon his back the laughing youngster springs ;
The master's steadfast hand he scarce has found,
When, champing at the bit, he spreads his wings;
With lightnings flashing from his soul-lit eyes,
See him, a thing regenerate, arise
King-like, a very spirit, or a god,
And rushing as a storm, he waves abroad
His pomp of pinion—now in heavenward flight,
Snorting with joy he darts, begins to soar,
And ere the eye can follow, seen no more-
Floating, has reached the empyrean height.

L'Enyor.
The Pegasus that here you view,
Not fed on rich Castalian dew;
But travel-wearied, and foot-lame,
Will prove, I fear, ignobly tame.
And all unlike the noble steed
Of which, in German, you may read
(That scion of immortal race
Poets have ever loved to trace),
This poor, constrained, and awkward creature,
Scarce seems divine in any feature.
Has Schiller's Courser, then, been overrated ?
No; but he verily hath been translated.

B. K. R.

Printed and Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, 47 Paternoster

Row, LONDOx, and 339 High Street, EDINBURGH. Also sold by WILLIAM ROBERTSON, 23 Upper Sackville Street, DUBLIN, and all Booksellers.

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LTERATURE
Science and Arts.

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CII AMB EL S.

No. 233.

SATURDAY, JUNE 19, 1858.

Price 1.}..

paid for it. The working-classes were great sufferers FAVOURS RETURNED.

by this system; and it was a strange but an actual An interesting meeting was lately held in a well- anomaly of our age, that a serious brewer might be known reading-room in the northern part of the subscribing to ragged schools and churches with one metropolis. The persons composing it were all of hand, while cheating the ragged out of their money them working-people, and the object professedly was with the other. To pass from these matters—he to form a society for the purpose of sending mis- would proceed to advert to various delinquencies of sionaries among the middle and upper classes of the middle classes which had been brought to light the community. John Duggin, a sailcloth-worker, within the last two or three years. First came the occupied the chair, and professed his readiness to trial of Paul, Strachan, and Bates for appropriation give all needful explanations. He said it was a of the property of others intrusted to them the notorious fact that, for a number of years past, the first of the trio being a man who had not only been, middle and upper classes had taken a great interest to all outward appearance, a respectable man, but one in the morals of the lower, trying to abate their who took a lead in all religious plans for the benefit habits of intemperance, to introduce knowledge of humbler people. Next, we had the Royal British amongst them, and to get their children trained up Bank directors and the directors of the Eastern in the way they should go. This was a very obliging Banking Corporation establishing and keeping up a thing on the part of the rich towards the poor; and fraudulent system for the reception of poor people's the poor felt duly grateful for it, as would by and by money, in order that they might use it for their own be seen. Now things were so far changed, that those purposes. Still, all these iniquities were insignificant who had once been called the better class of people, in comparison with those which were revealed by the were more in need moral improvement than ever crisis of November 1857. Then did the mercantile their inferiors had been; and it became the duty of community shine forth in what he feared he must their poorer brethren to reciprocate their former good describe as its true colours. Banks were found to deeds. He would not enlarge upon the matter, for he have been kept up for years in good appearances and knew there were abler men than himself prepared to with large dividends, which had in reality lost all address them upon it; he would content himself in their capital. Manufacturing and commercial conthe meantime with calling upon Mr Hobson to move cerns had been started without capital, had been the first resolution.

constantly losing from the beginning, and yet were Mr Hobson, whom we understand to be a coster- kept up in fair show by assistance from banks, till it monger, accordingly rose and said that he was happy was no longer possible, and a crash ensued. Thus to take part in this movement, as le considered it selfish adventurerism had been encouraged, honest pressingly needed. At all times, he observed, the trade had been made nearly impossible, and thousands lying advertisements of shopkeepers, and their many of innocent simple people had been deprived of their tricks to secure custom, had been matter of scandal. all. It was evident that, while the middle classes How to inveigle simple people, especially of the were accustomed to consider themselves as a highly gentler sex—how to pass off inferior goods upon them moral community, as indeed the principal depositaries -how to make them buy more than they wanted or of the virtues in this country, the love of gain had could afford-how, in short, to pillage them, had, from caten into them as a great corruption, and was threatthe earliest ages, been the leading purposes of many ening to swanıp all truth and lionesty amongst them, belonging to that class. But all of these practices unless a remedy were provided. He (Mr Hobson) were innocent in comparison with others which late therefore felt pleased moving the first resolution, years had revealed.

It had been found, by Dr That it has become eminently necessary for the Hassall and others, on strictly scientific grounds, working-classes to adopt measures for checking, as that a great proportion of those dealing in articles of far as possible, the rapid deterioration of morals which food were in the habit of adulterating them to a cupidity is evidently producing amongst those engaged serious extent, careless though they should thus in commerce. The resolution was duly seconded, and derange the stomachs and ruin the health of their carried without a dissentient voice. customers, so that they should be able to put a little Mr Jones, a second-hand bookseller, rising to move more money into their own pockets. To such an the second resolution, told the meeting that he had extent had this system been carried, that it was had some opportunities of observing the domestic impossible to be sure of the genuineness of a single habits of the people who called themselves genteel, as article of food or drink, whatever might be the price he had been a servant in several respectable situations. He had become fully convinced that the prompting moral grandeur of the honest man who is contented cause of that eagerness for riches which the preceding with moderate things, and the high gratifications speaker so much deplored, was the prevalence of which wait upon frugal contentment. There are luxurious habits amongst those in fault. A man was amongst us, I trust, abundance of men both able and thought nothing of unless he lived in a fine house, willing to go forth upon this mission, and it is men, and entertained his friends with rich food and costly and not funds, that are wanting. I therefore with wines. His wife and daughters must dress elegantly, all confidence move, That a society be formed for the and partake of expensive amusements. Doing nothing sending out of missionaries among the upper classes.' whatever, they were a cause of outlay to their husband The motion was carried by acclamation. and father, without contributing anything to the Mr Smith, who described himself as a journeyman general stock. He was thus obliged to devote himself, carpenter, supporting a wife and six children on thirty body and soul, to the making of money Money must shillings a week, moved for the appointment of a combe had by whatever means. Could it be wondered at mittee to carry out the objects of the meeting. He if, in these circumstances, many foul and fraudulent said he had long felt how unsatisfactory was the conthings were done? Sad to say, the luxuries and dition of the upper class of people in this country. fineries on which the money was spent, gave little There were strong moral agencies, or what professed real enjoyment-often none at all-might rather be to be such, at work for the maintenance of sound said to create inconvenience and bring pain, than do morality in the community; but it was only too any real good. They ministered chiefly to vanity. manifest that these had little effect upon the class in He could testify from his own observation, that the question. The universal devotion to vanity amongst dozen people sitting at a superb dinner which lasted that class, and the soul-corrupting chase of riches two hours, were generally very dull and languid. wherewith to gratify their vanity, had been depicted You rarely heard a hearty laugh among them. Such by the preceding speaker. The humbler classes, being a thing would indeed be considered improper. And comparatively exempt from these degrading infiuafter the entertainment was over, and the guests gone ences, might well assume the duty of seeking to place home, the whole affair was forgotten, and the party their neighbours upon a higher moral platform-not, immediately became as much strangers to each other he trusted, in a pharisaic, but in a truly philanthropic

as ever.

The truth is, fineness banishes friendliness, spirit. He could not doubt that, both by their and you had to stay among plain people in the preachings on the meanness of all mere wealthcountry, if you wished that anybody should care for seeking, and by the example they held forth of you. One great object of the ambition of the people contentment with their own humble gains, they he was speaking of was to keep a carriage of their would in time accomplish a reform in their betterown and drive in the parks. But it was not for the housed and better-clad brethren. There was one sake of any enjoyment they had in carriage-driving in consequence of mammon-worship in the middle and those places. Look in their dull inanimate faces, as upper classes which he especially deplored, and that they pass along, and you must see there is no enjoy- was the difficulty they professed to feel in regard ment in it. It was all for the sake of vanity. The to matrimony. Marriage was an institution Dotonly thing relished was the reflection that they must edly favourable to virtue. Working-men generally be looked on as people of some importance ; otherwise married early, and so promoted at once their happithey could not afford to keep the carriage. Now ness and their virtue. But what a working-man it was clear that these were all contemptible objects, could do on one hundred a year or less, a mercantile utterly degrading to those who cherished them; that man or a gentleman professed to be unable to do there could be no true moral dignity, and no true on three! This was of course a confession that his Christian virtue, where the only things thought of class prefers fine outward appearances to the reality were how to make fine shows in the eyes of one's of virtue, and that he, as a member of the class, must neighbours. It appeared that even when these people yield to the rule. The consequences were deplorable. professed to take part in plans for the improvement Every honest working-man must grieve to think that, of the poor, it was in the spirit of vanity, rather while he dares to be poor with honest marriage, there than that of benevolence. They wished to appear are thousands upon thousands of his fellow-men-men in the position of people who could patronise the of perhaps good education—men who go to churchpoor. They professed all the time to be zealous men who are perhaps very good fellows in their hearts supporters of religion, and particularly anxious to -80 far given up to a corrupt idea of life, that they make the poor religious. But true religion was far deliberately reject this good course. If anything more wanting among themselves than among the more than another could demonstrate the pressing poor ; and a mission from the poor among the rich, call there was for a mission to the well-off, it was or those who make riches their idol, was now the surely. this. He trusted in a few years to see some thing needful. When Christianity began, it was telling effects upon this plague-spot of refined society; a preaching by the poor to the rich. Its founder but he believed it could not be till men had been had not whereon to lay his head. Its first apostles brought to see that there are better things in this world were working-men. The voice raised by them than riches, and the shows which riches enable men thrills through society to this hour. Suppose Dives, to make. The whole of these errors, indeed, were Nicodemus, and the rich young man had tried to inwrought with each other as part of one system. make a similar religious impression on their fellow- Men were a bane to women, instead of a blessing, citizens, would they have succeeded? The question almost solely because they prefer riches to honesty, requires no answer. “Now, seeing how given up and show to substance. Whenever we can open their these money-hunting people are to all sorts of vanities, eyes to the true value of money in a just relation to and how in them, owing to that base idolatry, all the wants, we may expect to see the gentler and more nobler traits of humanity are in a manner lost, I helpless portion of our species treated more generally think it becomes us,” said Mr Jones, that we who in å becoming manner, and the happiness of society are unembarrassed with the world's possessions should proportionately advanced. bestir ourselves to go among them and try to recall The meeting now separated, its objects being so far them to a sense of the higher aims of life. Let us accomplished. An operative bookbinder, who reports hold up before them an unflattering account of their it to us, states that there was an appearance of much iniquitous practices. Let us denounce the luxuries good feeling throughout. The people present seemed and the vanities for whose sake they strain to get deeply sensible of the sad case of their brethren of wealth. Let us endeavour to impress upon them the the middle and upper classes, and determined to

make a strenuous effort for the bringing about of a fairly established, the Arabs of the line became reform. The speakers delivered themselves, as may altered men, and instead of their hand being against be seen, in good language, and seemed anxious to avoid every man, and every man's hand against them, their all expressions calculated to raise feelings of irrita- constant anxiety was to get the well-remunerated tion. How far the designed mission will succeed in employment the British agents could give them. checking the corrupting agencies now so conspicuous The first executed of the railways of the Ottoman in operation throughout society, remains to be seen. empire is from Alexandria to Suez; and this reminds The mission, we may say, has our best wishes, and us that Turkish railways are important to us, may reckon upon our steady support.

not merely in relation to the trade of our Turkish merchants with the interior, but in relation to our

connection with India. What may be accomplished TURKISH RAILWAYS.

by large steamers like the Leviathan, in course of It is impossible to doubt that of all the levers of time, we cannot, of course, predict; and it will require modern civilisation, the railway is the greatest. It very extraordinary speed in vessels doubling the Cape has already revolutionised the habits of the old of Good Hope to make up the difference of the more countries of Europe; and although it was once direct overland routes: for it must be remembered supposed to be suitable only for countries already that there are much shorter ways of getting to India densely populated, and having an established goods than by Suez: such, for instance, is the projected line and passenger traffic, we find in the United States of the Euphrates Valley, which proceeds by Antioch that the railway actually precedes population, and to Bagdad and Bassorah. The celebrated Euphrates stretches through forests and prairies, to pioneer the expedition, under General Chesney, did not result in settlements of man. The railway proprietor in introducing the regular navigation of this river for this way becomes a landholder of extraordinary goods and passenger traffic to India ; the Egyptian magnitude. He possesses not merely a line of rail, being found to be the preferable route (although not so and the land it stands on, but a broad band of the direct), in consequence of the easy access to the port earth's surface, which, being intersected by locomotive of Alexandria, the facilities offered by the Mahmoudieh facilities, may be turned at once into farming and canal, the steam-navigation of the Nile, and the building lots of the most valuable description. The security of the land-route from Cairo to Suez. On company buys a waste, having no communication the other hand, by the Euphrates route, there was a with the civilised world, and in a short space of time tedious land-journey, and considerable obstructions re-sells this land at a value enormously enhanced by in the rocks and shallows, except during a few weeks the communication which annually adds thousands to in spring, in consequence of the melting of the snows the population, and takes to market produce that of the Taurus. But since the introduction of railways, increases in a geometrical ratio. It is true that and of vessels constructed by Messrs Laird, of a light in America, through competing lines and financial draught of water, the Euphrates Valley line has jobbing, the results do not always answer the expecta- attracted general attention; and a company has been tions of the projectors. But if we set aside these formed to construct a railway from the mouth of the illegitimate influences, the principle is undoubtedly Orontes to Taber Castle, on the Euphrates, passing sound in the case of a line that goes through a rich very close to the city of Aleppo, and thus providing soil, and is not beset with engineering difficulties. for a considerable local traffic; for Aleppo has 70,000

Turkish railways occupy a middle position between inhabitants, and a large trade of exported produce, the system of Europe, which subserves compact popu- and import of British manufactures, which is at lations, and the system of the western parts of present carried on on mule and camel back. America, which entirely precedes them. In Turkey, When this first short railway is completed, steamers there are towns, and some of considerable size; but of light draught will be introduced for some years, on the intermediate parts of the proposed lines, from in order to carry on the communication to Bassorah, the scanty population, there would be little or at the head of the Persian Gulf, until the whole line no local personal traffic ; recourse, therefore, must of railway is completed. The total line of the railway be had to the American system, of the railway com- from the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf would pany becoming a landholder on a large scale, so as be 1200 miles; it is therefore only to a perhaps to absorb to the credit-side of the enterprise as much distant futurity we may look for the completion of as possible of the prospective rise in the value of the whole line. But once arrived at the Euphrates, the land adjoining the railway. Passenger-traffic will the whole track through Mesopotamia to Bagdad and thus be drawn to the railway by increased settlement Bassorah is a dead flat, traversing the richest part on the line. But the great revenue will be from the of the ancient Babylonian empire. Bagdad itself is a valuable agricultural and mineral products, which at large city, carrying on a considerable trade with the present have no outlet in consequence of the enormous western parts of Persia ; and there can be no doubt price of transport on mule or camel back.

that many light goods would be transported by rail. The political importance of railways to Turkey can When all is completed, the transit from Bombay to scarcely be overestimated. One great cause of the Malta, which, by the Red Sea, takes twenty-one days, oppression and misgovernment of the internal parts of could be accomplished in fourteen. this empire, which are removed from the observation The great anxiety of the company is to complete, of the diplomatic and consular corps, is the distance in as short a space of time as possible, the first portion and inaccessibility of these satrapships. This will all of the railway, beginning with Suédiah. The Bay of be altered under a system of railway reticulation. Antioch is here very spacious, and free from rocks, With the electric wire extending from one country to the holding-ground good; only a small mole is another, it becomes like one town. Everybody is in required, on account of the south-easterly winds. The presence of public opinion, and no population can learned Dr Holt Yates, formerly secretary of the Syroremain semi-barbarous that habitually associates with Egyptian Society, writes of this place as follows: "The others more civilised in a railway-train. We have importance of Suédiah, in a political and commercial seen the effect of the overland transit through Egypt. point of view, cannot be doubted. Situated at the In the beginning of this century, it was dangerous to very gates of Asia Minor, in a fine bay at the mouth go any distance from the walls of an Egyptian town. of a large river, which communicates with an extenEven under the vigorous and intelligent despotism of sive fertile country, abounding in silk, grain, and fruits, Mohammed Ali, a journey to Suez was not unattended flocks and herds, sheltered by lofty mountains, which with danger. But from the moment the transit was are well wooded, and shew indications of coal, copper,

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