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a reproach to Scotchmen that our national hospital in our guide is turning up stairs, and presently we are Edinburgh should belong to the latter class. But that ushered into a ward full of invalids. A ward, it may the general indifference we complain of is in some be necessary to state, is an oblong apartment, with measure culpable, is evident from contrasting the a lofty ceiling, bare white walls, and an uncarpeted different enthusiasm excited by military and by civil floor. The patients lie upon iron bedsteads, without, hospitals. For the humblest duties in connection of course, any curtains, at considerable distances with the former, a countless number of devoted apart. This is an ordinary medical ward we have applicants immediately present themselves, ready to entered-devoted to general diseases, as of the lungs, incur the risk of infection and the chances of war. heart, and other internal organs. The number Must we suppose that the éclat and distinction attend- of patients may be about twenty. They are in all ant upon such services have to do with the crowd of stages of disease, some under acute affections, tremeager volunteers that flocked, for example, to the bling, as it were, between life and death; in one or east during the Crimean war? It ought always to two perhaps the fatal change is too clearly visible be borpe in mind, that the one great name associated but the majority are out of danger, and present the with Scutari had acquired the practical knowledge unmistakable hue of health returning to their wasted which rendered her so eminently useful by the cheeks. We observe that over every bedstead is bedsides of hospitals in her own country.
affixed a slate, on which are inscribed the patient's Instead, however, of a further discussion of such name, age, birthplace, and the character of his diet, causes, let us content ourselves by stating that a whether it is to be low or stimulant. At either end little more active sympathy in behalf of our hospital of the ward are wide grates, in which huge fires coninmates is urgently called for; and, as we do not stantly blaze; these are intended as much for ventiknow a better way of promoting so desirable an end, lation as for warmth. A group of more advanced we shall offer to our readers a plain uncoloured convalescents, dressed in the plain livery of the account of their mode of life. The lot of such per- hospital, are gathered round the fire. These are all sons is not so hopeless as it is often represented, nor impatiently waiting the order for dismissal; for, free is it, at any time, so agreeable as to be independent though admission be, the gate cerberus permits no of many little comforts that ampler means could one to pass him without a formal medical discharge. furnish them with. There are indeed many delicacies
Two small apartments adjoining the ward attract
our attention, and upon inquiring, we are informed agreeable to the capricious appetite of invalids, that that one of these is a withdrawing-room, for the use the wealthiest hospitals grudge. One benefit, we of the physician at his daily visit ; while the other is trust, may result from a truthful description of occupied by a patient requiring more quiet than the hospital-life, and that is a removal of a dangerous wards, noiseless as they are, permit. The former is and far too prevalent prejudice entertained by those furnished in strict accordance with the prevailing for whose relief such institutions were founded and economical spirit of the house. A table, supporting are maintained. As the main features of all are
a microscope and some test-tubes, occupies the centre
of the room. alike, we may add that we have no particular one stand with basin and towel, and a hat-peg, include
A couple of chairs, a wash-hand in view.
the remaining articles. We are next shewn into a Suppose we set off to visit a hospital. On arriv- similarly sized and adjoining room, as neatly, but ing at the gate, we present our order to the porter, somewhat more liberally furnished. In the open who, if satisfied with its authenticity, directs us cupboard we see a row of plates, cups, and saucers ; towards the hall. There we are met by the door- while a bright kettle sings merrily on the hob. A keeper, a person who generally combines two or three small shelf near the bed is appropriated to a dozen or
two of volumes. These, we are informed, are often subordinate offices in his own person, and is now to in great demand in the ward. There are a few act as our guide. In looking round the hall, our pictures on the wall, of doubtful excellence, in an attention is attracted by a number of doors alternating artistic point of view, but probably representing the with narrow passages. These doors lead, we are lineaments of the favourite divine of the occupant, told, to the apartments of the different officers of side by side with her defunct husband. For it is the the establishment; as the chaplain, matron, secre- sanctum of one of the nurses we have invaded, and tary, and resident physicians and surgeons. The
these persons are nearly all widows. We ought to passages, again, lead to the dining-room, where those add, that instead of being, as they are often reprefunctionaries meet at meals; to the laboratory, class, are very sympathising, and cheerfully manage
sented, hard-hearted and ill-tempered, nurses, as & where the prescriptions are made up, and to a more the correspondence of such patients as require to pleasant quarter, the kitchen, as well as to wash communicate with tleir homes through the post, and houses, laundries, and similar rooms. In our visit are unable to write. to these respective places, we are struck alike with We have now finished our survey of one ward and their great cleanliness , the tidiness of the servants, thirty, fifty other wards, but as they are all alike, we
its adjoining apartments. There may be twenty, and the quiet manner in which the discipline of so large an establishment is maintained. Not a corner
may content ourselves with that just visited. The
same bare walls and high roofs, the same rows of little do we come upon but we are met with a current of phials by every bedside, and the same tin tumblers in fresh air ; indeed, the ventilating arrangements are the windows, are found alike in all. We have still, 80 complete, that in any other place we should be however, to be made acquainted with the internal inclined to find fault with them.
management of the institution. Now, thus far, we have seen nothing to indicate
In the morning, an hour or so before breakfast, the the peculiar character of the institution. We might great bell rings, for the first time, to awaken cooks have been inspecting the ground-door of a wealthy the baker's, butcher's, and milkman's carts with the
and to relieve night-nurses. Soon afterwards arrive college or a great monastery, so complete is the order provision for the day. Meanwhile, up stairs the and so extensive are the culinary preparations. But nurses are busy in the different wards, assisting such patients as are able to rise and dress, and washing is dearest to him. We may well believe that the the hands and faces of weaker invalids. The resident greetings there exchanged are often very sad. The medical officer now comes round to hear how the patient may have changed for the worse since yesterpatients have slept, and if there have been any fresh day, and the mournful question presents itself, what admissions through the night. When the great bell may not happen by to-morrow? The majority of rings again, the nurses learn that breakfast is ready, patients, however, are glad and hopeful, listening and repair to the kitchen. In a short time they fondly to all stories from home, and now impatient to return, bearing trays laden with tea and coffee, eggs, get away. After their visitors retire, a sober supper, rolls, and toast. It is not unpleasant, we are told, about eight o'clock, is the sole interruption to the to watch the general excitement created by the monotony of a long, long night. arrival of these good things in the ward. Almost Before concluding this simple sketch of hospitalevery patient addresses himself with a keener relish to life, we must not omit a notice of that part of the his morning meal than to any other. Breakfast over, institution devoted to surgical cases.
There is more the ward speedily regains its usual quiet; now and liveliness generally apparent among the occupants of then there is a little gossip going on between two surgical than of medical wards, unless the unhappy or three patients at the fireside; but in general they subject of an incurable injury happen to be present. are silent, not only from the presence of some sufferers Many of these patients are recovering from an ampuwho must not be annoyed by any noise, but from tation, and are often, by their exuberant spirits, led their being strangers to one another, and from all into musical and lyrical excesses not strictly in having cares, and possibly heavy hearts, of their own. accordance with the laws of the establishment. These Many of them are aware that it must go hard with fellows on their return home will talk of their operathe dear ones at home, now that they are unable to tion as a soldier does of his first fire, and, indeed, will do anything for their support. Some perhaps have all their lives be fond of surgical gossip. There was come from great distances, seeking for labour, and wont to be a part of hospital-life never named withhave suddenly been laid low. Towards eleven o'clock out a shudder but which now-a-days inspires no such the house-physician pays another visit, and the nurse, feeling. In former times, men of the strongest nerves at the same time, makes a most careful survey of every shrunk appalled from the scenes in the operating bedside, seeing that everything under her charge is room of a hospital. Such scenes are no longer neat and clean. She then withdraws, to make her own painful to patient, surgeon, or to spectator. Under toilet, for at noon comes off the great event of the day the blessed sleep of chloroform, the knife passes unfelt ---namely, the visit of the physician. As soon as the through the most sensitive textures. When we conhall-clock strikes twelve, the nurse reappears with sider that this drug, which has already saved such an her whitest apron and most capacious cap. Carriage- incalculable amount of pain, should only have been wheels are now heard pulling up tightly at the gate, applied to the treatment of disease eleven winters ago, and in a minute more, the doctor enters. The great are we not justified in hoping that there are other man is immediately surrounded with a crowd of provisions in nature equally beneficent which we students, and the inspection of the patients com- may have the good-fortune some day to discover ? mences. Here, it should be mentioned, that hospitals, Let us conclude by pointing out a defect in all our besides serving as places of reception for the sick, are hospitals, as buildings, that miglit be easily remedied. at the same time medical schools ; indeed, the celebrity At present, the walls of both medical and surgical of a university teaching medicine has always depended wards—with the exception of those devoted to ophthalmuch more upon the practice of its hospitals than on mic affections--are of an unvarying white colour, prethe elegance of its lectures. At the same time, no senting no object whatever for the tired eyes of the notion can be more mistaken than that the care of poor sufferers to rest upon. The commonest housepatients is made subordinate to the purposes of medi- paper bearing the similitude of a tree, a flower, or a cal education. The physicians and surgeons of public river, would surely be more suggestive of pleasure hospitals are all men of professional eminence, who than a blank wall
. It is true that many liospital know it is sound sense as well as humanity to treat inmates are not persons of cultivated taste, but the rich and poor with equal tenderness. To return-the eye of the least educated individual would not fail to physician, as he passes from bed to bed, is always turn to any object that suggested ideas different from attended by the nurse and by the resident medical those which long confinement to a sick-bed tends to officer, to whom he communicates his instructions, produce. and any change in diet or medicine he may think proper. The concourse of students depends upon the popularity of the teacher. The more eminent clinical
O ÇEOLA: professors at Edinburgh, London, and Paris count
A ROMANCE. their followers by hundreds. At two o'clock the great bell rings again for dinner;
CHAPTER LXIV.A BANQUET WITH A BAD ENDING. this meal varies according to the condition of the As by duty bound, I delivered a report of the scene patient. Boiled and roast beef and mutton, steak I had involuntarily been witness to. It produced a and chops, rice and potatoes, are for convalescents ; lively excitement within the fort, and an expedition while others more sickly are restricted to light soups, Bago, tapioca, and the like. After dinner, the day
was instantly ordered forth, with myself to act as passes as quietly as the forenoon did, but towards guide. evening there is a good deal of excitement apparent
A bit of sheer folly. The search proved bootlegs, in the wards. Once a day, for a single hour, the as any one might have prophesied. Of course, we doors of the hospital are opened to admit the friends found the place, and the bodies of those who had and relatives of the sick. With no little caution, fallen-upon which the wolves had already been when the hour for admission arrives, does the gate- ravening—but we discovered no living Indians-not porter let in one visitor after another. The pockets even the path by which they had retreated ! of each are subjected to a rigid examination, in case any contraband articles—a savoury pie or a pint
The expedition consisted of several hundred menof ale, for example-be carried in to gratify the inces in fact, the whole garrison of the fort. Had we gone sant hunger that attends convalescents from tedious out with a smaller force, in all probability, we should and exhausting diseases. Once within the gate, the have seen something of the enemy. visitors disperse, each one making for the bedside that
The death of Omatla was the most serious incident I was not among those transferred to the new that had yet occurred; at all events, the most import station; I was not a favourite with the cornmanderant in its bearings. By the whites, Omatla had been in-chief, and no longer upon his staff. My duties constituted king: by killing, the Indians shewed kept me at Fort King, where the commissioner also
remained. their contempt for the authority that had crowned
The days passed tamely enouglı—whole weeks of him, as well as their determination to resist all them. An occasional visit to Camp Drane was a interference of the kind. Omatla had been directly relief to the monotony of garrison-life, but this was a under the protection of the white chiefs : this had rare occurrence. The fort had been shorn of its been guaranteed to him by promise as by treaty; and strength, and was too weak for us to go much beyond therefore the taking his life was a blow struck against its walls. It was well known that the Indians were his patrons. The government would now be under in arms. Traces of their presence had been observed
near the post; and a hunting excursion, or even a the necessity of avenging his death.
romantic saunter in the neighbouring woods—the But the incident had its most important bearings usual resources of a frontier station-could not have upon the Indians, especially upon Omatla's own been made without some peril. people. Terrified by the example, and dreading lest During this period I observed that the commissioner similar retribution might be extended to themselves, was very careful in his outgoings and incomings. He many of Omatla's tribe-sub-chiefs and warriors— rarely passed outside the stockade, and never beyond forsook their alliance, and enrolled themselves in the the line of sentries. Whenever he looked in the direcranks of the patriots. Other clans that had hitherto tion of the woods, or over the distant savanna, a shadow remained undecided, acting under similar motives, though he was troubled with an apprehension of
of distrust appeared to overspread his features, as now declared their allegiance to the national will, danger. This was after the death of the traitor chief. and took up arms without further hesitation.
He had heard of Oceola's vow to kill Omatla; perThe death of Omatla, besides being an act of stern haps he had also heard that the oath extended to justice, was a stroke of fine policy on the part of the himself; perhaps he was under the influence of a hostile Indians. It proved the genius of him who presentiment.
Christmas came round. At this season, wherever had conceived and carried it into execution.
they may be found—whether amid the icy bergs of the Omatla was the first victim of Oceola's vow of north, or on the hot plains of the tropic-on board vengeance. Soon after appeared the second. It was ship, within the walls of a fortress-ay, even in a not long before the tragedy of the traitor's death was prison-Christians incline to merry-making. The eclipsed by another, far more thrilling and significant. frontier post is no exception to the general rule ; One of the chief actors in this drama disappears from and Fort King was a continued scene of festivities. the stage.
The soldiers were released from duty-alone the On our arrival at the fort, it was found that the fare as could be procured, backed by liberal rations
sentinels were kept to their posts; and, with such commissariat was rapidly running short. No pro- of monnongahela, the week was passing cheerily vision had been made for so large a body of troops, enough. and no supplies could possibly reach Fort King for Asutler' in the American army is generally a a long period of time. We were to be the victims of thriving adventurer—with the officers liberal both the usual improvidence exhibited by gorernments not of cash and credit-and, on festive occasions, not accustomed to warlike operations. Rations were unfrequently their associate and boon-companion. stinted to the verge of starvation; and the prospect
Such was he, the sutler, at Fort King.
On one of the festal-days, he had provided a sumpbefore us began to look very like starvation itself.
tuous dinner-no one about the fort so capable-to In this emergency, the commander-in-chief per- which the officers were invited—the commissioner formed an act of great patriotism. Independent of himself being the honoured guest. his military command, General Clinch was a citizen The banquet was set out in the sutler's own of Florida—a proprietor and planter upon a large house, which, as already mentioned, stood outside scale. His fine plantation lay at a short distance the stockade, several hundred yards off, and nearer from Fort King. His crop of maize, covering nearly to the edge of the woods. a hundred acres, was just ripening; and this, without returned within the fort, where-as it was now getting
The dinner was over, and most of the officers had more ado, was rationed out to the army.
near night--it was intended the smoking and wineInstead of bringing the commissariat to the troops, drinking should be carried on. the reverse plan was adopted; and the troops were The commissioner, with half-a-dozen others marched upon their food-which had yet to be officers and civilian visitors-still lingered to enjoy gathered before being eaten.
another glass under the hospitable roof where they Four-fifths of the little army were thus withdrawn had eaten tlieir dinner. from the fort, leaving rather a weak garrison; while
I was among those who went back within the fort. a new stockade was extemporised on the general's we were startled by a volley of sharp cracks, which
We had scarcely settled down in our seats, when plantation, under the title of 'Tort Drane.'
the ear well knew to be the reports of rifles. At the There were slanderous people who insinuated that same instant was heard that wild intonation, easily in this curious matter the good old general was distinguishable from the shouting of civilised menmoved by other motives than those of mere patriotism. the war-cry of the Indians ! There were some talk about Uncle Sam'-well We needed no messenger to inform us what the known as a solvent and liberal paymaster-being noises meant: the enemy was upon the ground, and called upon to give a good price for the general's
had made an attack-we fancied upon the fort itself. corn; besides, so long as an army bivouacked upon as he best could.
We rushed into the open air, each arming himself his plantation, no danger need be apprehended from
Once outside, we saw that the fort was not the Indian incendiaries. Perhaps these insinuations assailed; but upon looking over the stockade, we were but the conceits of camp satire.
perceived that the liouse of the sutler was surrounded
by a crowd of savages, plumed and painted in full In the early part of this narrative, it has been fighting costume. They were in quick motion, rushing mentioned that an officer of the United States army from point to point, brandishing their weapons, and gave out the vaunt that he could march through all yelling the Yo-ho-ehee.
the Seminole reserve with only a corporal's guard at Straggling slots were still heard as the fatal gun his back. That officer was Major Dade. was pointed at some victim endeavouring to escape. It was the destiny of Major Dade to find an opporThe gates of the fort were standing wide open, and tunity for giving proof of his warlike prowess—though soldiers, who had been strolling outside, now rushed with something more than a corporal's guard at his through, uttering shouts of terror as they passed in. back. The result was a sad contrast to the boast he
The sutler's house was at too great a distance for had so thoughtlessly uttered. the range of musketry. Some shots were discharged To understand this ill-fated enterprise, it is necesby the sentries and others who chanced to be armed, sary to say a word topographically of the country. but the bullets fell short.
On the west coast of the peninsula of Florida is a The artillerists ran to their guns; but on reaching bay called "Tampa'-by the Spaniards, · Espiritu these, it was found that the stables—a row of heavy Santo. At the head of this bay was erected - Fort log-houses-stood directly in the range of the sutler's Brooke'-a stockade similar to Fort King, and lying house-thus sheltering the enemy from the aim of about ninety miles from the latter, in a southerly the gunners.
direction. It was another of those military posts All at once the shouting ceased, and the crowd of established in connection with the Indian reservedusky warriors was observed moving off towards the a depôt for troops and stores-also an entrepôt for woods.
such as might arrive from the ports of the Mexican In a few seconds they had disappeared among the gulf. trees-vanishing, as if by magic, from our sight.
About two hundred soldiers were stationed here He who commanded at the fort-an officer slow of at the breaking out of hostilities. They were chiefly resolve-now mustered the garrison, and ventured a artillery, with a small detachment of infantry. sortie. It extended only to the house of the sutler, Shortly after the fruitless council at Fort King, where a halt was made, while we contemplated the these troops-or as many of them as could be spared horrid scene.
- were ordered by General Clinch to proceed to the The sutler himself, two young officers, several latter place, and unite with the main body of the army. soldiers and civilians, lay upon the floor dead, each In obedience to these orders, one hundred men, with with many wounds.
their quota of officers, were set in motion for Fort Conspicuous above all was the corpse of the com- King. Major Dade commanded the detachment. missioner. He was lying upon his back, his face On the eve of Christmas, 1835, they had taken the covered with gore, and his uniform torn and bloody. route, marching out from Fort Brooke in high spirits, Sixteen bullets had been fired into his body; and a buoyant with the hope of encountering and winning wound more terrible than all was observed over the laurels in a fight with the Indian foe. They flattered left breast. It was the gash made by a knife, whose themselves that it would be the first conflict of the blade had passed through his heart.
war, and therefore that in which the greatest I could have guessed who gave that wound, even reputation would be gained by the victors. They without the living testimony that was offered on the dreamt not of defeat. spot. A negress--the cook-who had concealed her- With flags flying gaily, drums rolling merrily, self behind a piece of furniture, now came forth from bugles sounding the advance, cannon pealing their her hiding-place. She had been witness of all. She farewell salute, and comrades cheering them onward, was acquainted with the person of Oceola. It was he the detachment commenced its march-that fatal who had conducted the tragedy; he had been the march from which it was destined never to return. last to leave the scene; and before taking his Just seven days after on the 31st of Decemberdeparture, the negress had observed him give that a man made his appearance at the gates of Fort final stab—no doubt in satisfaction of the deadly vow Brooke, crawling upon his hands and knees. In his he had made.
tattered attire could scarcely be recognised the uniform After some consultation, a pursuit was determined of a soldier-a private of Dade's detachment-for such upon, and carried out with considerable caution; he was. His clothes were saturated with water from but, as before, it proved fruitless: as before, even the creeks, and soiled with mud from the swamps. the track by which the enemy had retreated could They were covered with dust, and stained with blood. not be discovered !
His body was wounded in five places-severe wounds all-one in the right shoulder, one in the right thigh,
one near the temple, one in the left arm, and another DADE'S MASS A CR K.'
in the back. He was wan, wasted, emaciated to the This melancholy finale to the festivities of Christ- condition of a skeleton, and presented the aspect of mas was, if possible, rendered more sad by a rumour one. When, in a weak trenibling voice, he announced that shortly after reached Fort King. It was the himself as . Private Clark of the 20 Artillery,' his old rumour of an event, which has since become popularly comrades with difficulty identified him. known as “Dade's massacre.'
Shortly after, two others-privates Sprague and The report was brought by an Indian runner, Thomas-made their appearance in a similar plight. belonging to one of the friendly clans-but the state. Their report was similar to that already delivered ments inade were of so startling a character, that they by Clark: that Major Dade's command had been were at first received with a cry of incredulity. attacked by the Indians, cut to pieces, massacred
Other runners, however, continuously arriving, con- almost to a man-that they themselves were the sole firmed the account of the first messenger, until his survivors of that band who had so lately gone forth story-tragically improbable as it appeared—was from the fort in all the pride of confident strength, accepted as truth. It was true in all its romantic and the hopeful anticipation of glory. colouring; true in all its sanguinary details. The And their story was true to the letter. Of all war had commenced in real earnest
, inaugurated by a the detachment, these three miserable remnants of conflict of the most singular kind-singular both in humanity alone escaped ; the others-one hundred character and result.
and six in all-had met death on the banks of the An account of this battle is perhaps of sufficient Amazura. Instead of the laurel, they had found the interest to be given.
The three who escaped had been struck down and tour is the best testimony as to the behaviour of the left for dead upon the field. It was only by counter- victors. It reads as follows: seiting death, they had succeeded in afterwards 'Major Dade and his party were destroyed on the crawling from the ground, and making their way morning of the 28th of December, about four miles back to the fort. Most of this journey Clark per- from their camp of the preceding night. They were formed upon his hands and knees, proceeding at the advancing in column of route when they were attacked rate of a mile to the hour, over a distance of more by the enemy, who rose in a swarm out of the cover than sixty miles !
of long grass and palmettoes. The Indians suddenly appeared close to their files. Muskets were clubbed, knives and bayonets used, and parties clinched
in deadly conflict. In the second attack, our own The affair of Dade's massacre is without a parallel men's muskets, taken from the dead and wounded, in the history of Indian warfare. No conflict of a were used against them; a cross-fire cut down a similar kind had ever occurred-at least, none so succession of artillerists, when the cannon were taken, fatal to the whites engaged in it. In this case they the carriages broken and burned, and the guns suffered almost annihilation-for, of the three wounded rolled into a pond. Many negroes were in the field; men who escaped, two shortly after died of their but no scalps were taken by the Indians. On the wounds.
other hand, the negroes, with hellish cruelty, pierced Nor had the Indians any great advantage over the throats of all whose cries or groans shewed that their antagonists, beyond that of superior cunning there was still life in them.' and strategy.
Another official report runs thus : It was near the banks of the Amazura, * and after "We approached the battle-field from the rear. crossing that stream, that Major Dade's party had Our advanced-guard had passed the ground without been attacked. The assault was made in ground halting, when the commanding officer and his staff comparatively open-a tract of pine-woods, where the came upon one of the most appalling scenes that can trees grew thin and straggling—so that the Indians be imagined. We first saw some broken and scattered had in reality no great advantage either from posi- boxes; then a cart, the two oxen of which were lying tion or intrenchment. Neither has it been proved dead, as if they had fallen asleep, their yokes still on that they were greatly superior in numbers to the them: a little to the right, one or two horses were troops they destroyed—not more than two to one ; seen. We next came to a small enclosure, made by and this proportion in most Indian wars has been felling trees, in such a manner as to form a triangular considered by their white antagonists as only "fair breast-work. Within the triangle-along the north odds.'
and west faces of it-were about thirty bodies, mostly Many of the Indians appeared upon the ground mere skeletons, although much of the clothing was mounted; but these remained at a distance from the left upon them. They were lying in the positions fire of the musketry; and only those on foot took they must have occupied during the fight. Some had part in the action. Indeed, their conquest was so soon fallen over their dead comrades, but most of them completed, that the horsemen were not needed. The lay close to the logs, with their heads turned towards first fire was so deadly, that Dade's followers were the breastwork, over which they had delivered their driven into utter confusion. They were unable to fire, and their bodies stretched with striking reguretreat: the mounted Indians had already outflanked larity parallel to each other. They had evidently them, and cut off their chance of escape.
been shot dead at their posts, and the Indians had not Dade himself, with most of his officers, fell at the disturbed them, except by taking the scalps of somefirst volley; and the survivors had no choice but which, it is said, was done by their negro allies. The to fight it out on the ground. A breastwork was officers were all easily recognised. Some still wore attempted-by felling trees, and throwing their their rings and breastpins, and money was found in trunks into a triangle—but the hot fire from the their pockets! The bodies of eight officers and Indian rifles soon checked the progress of the work; ninety-eight men were interred. and the parapet never rose even breast-high above 'It may be proper to observe that the attack was the ground. Into this insecure shelter the survivors not made from a hommock, but in a thinly wooded of the first attack retreated, and there fell rapidly country-the Indians being concealed by palmettoes under the well-aimed missiles of their foes. In a and grass.' short while the last man lay motionless; and the From this report, it appears that the Indians were slaughter was at an end.
fighting—not for plunder, not even from motives of When the place was afterwards visited by our diabolical revenge. Their motive was higher and troops, this triangular enclosure was found, filled purer—it was the defence of their country-of their with dead bodies-piled upon one another, just as hearths and homes. they had fallen-crosswise, lengthwise, in every The advantage they had over the troop of Major attitude of death!
Dade was simply that of ambush and surprise. This It was afterwards noised abroad that the Indians officer, though a man of undoubted gallantry, was had inhumanly tortured the wounded, and horribly entirely wanting in those qualities necessary to a mutilated the slain. This was not true. There were leader—especially one engaged against such a foe. no wounded left to be tortured-except the three who He was a mere book-soldier-as most officers are escaped—and as for the mutilation, but one or two lacking the genius which enables the great military instances of this occurred-since known to have been chieftain to adapt himself to the circumstances that the work of runaway negroes actuated by motives of surround him. He conducted the march of his personal revenge.
detachment as if going upon parade; and by so doing Some scalps were taken; but this is the well-known he carried it into danger and subsequent destruction. custom of Indian warfare; and white men ere now But if the commander of the whites in this fatal have practised the fashion, while under the frenzied affair was lacking in military capacity, the leader of excitement of battle.
the Indians was not. It soon became known that he I was one of those who afterwards visited the who planned the ambush and conducted it to such battle-ground on a tour of inspection ordered by the sanguinary and successful issue, was the young chief commander-in-chief; and the official report of that of the Baton Rouge-Oçeola.
He could not have stayed long upon the ground . 'Quithlacoochee' of the Seminoles.
to enjoy his triumph. It was upon that same evening,