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certainly be a 'Fancy Rabbit Society,' whereof, it edition of that Idler whom we see at every streetappears from Bell's Life, there are scores all over Eng- corner with a straw in his mouth? land. Mr W., of the Rochester and Chatham F.R.S., is Here, again, is quite a riddle to anybody unversed happy to observe, at the last numerous and harmonic in the mysteries of Bell : ‘James Carey, alias Merrymeeting of his club, that an infusion of new life has man, will run James Jones, alias Titler, a hundred entered into the breeders of this society;' and, cer- yards level, and take two yards of Edwards, alias tainly, these are scarcely too strong terms to apply to Fake, in a hundred.' How many people are there, its productions—sooty fawns,'' blue and whites,' and and how many run? Here follow a few of the tortoise-shells'—which were placed upon the table names of the correspondents of the sporting journal. for inspection. One female, with her four young Had we not read already what we have, we should ones, was exhibited, whose united measurement of have pronounced them at once to be fictitious; as it ears was no less than 102 inches; the mother's own is, we know not what to think. Diddleum Dumps, ear being nearly two feet long!' Even Mrs Caudle | Happy-go-lucky, An Old Lady Cousin, Ipse Dixit, could scarcely have objected to her husband belonging Bolus, Pickaxe, and Campus Martius. to a club of this description-it must surely be the Even the advertisements are not the least like the very mildest form of rakishness that ever broke out in advertisements of other papers. Who out of the a domestic man. We cannot but think that a long sporting world ever had a fashionable tailor recomcourse of attendance at the meetings of a Fancy mended to him in such a manner as this? Do you Rabbit Society would be the very thing for softening want a well-built pair of Kickseys ?' Whoever saw character and removing asperities.
elsewhere such headings to medical advertisements as What a strange but significant communication has these : 'Given away for the good of nervous sufferers," our friend Bell in his very first page, addressed to a or, 'For the benefit of suffering humanity, gratis ? Mr De C-: 'Unless Mr De C- pays certain What a compliment to the taste of our military is bets lost by him on the Liverpool and Goodwood presented in this little paragraph : 'In consequence Cups, without further application, full particulars of of the interest evinced by gentlemen in the army the same will be advertised next week.' Again, | (many of whom are now quitting this country, what delicate evasions of the laws against betting- unhappily, for India), the great case in fashionable houses appear in these singular columns under the life before Chief Baron Nicholson, at the Coal Hole attractive titles of Winning made Certain,' and 'The Tavern, will be repeated every evening for another Golden Secret Gratis.' 'Judiciam (sic) vulgaris est week.' fallax-public opinion is deceptive,' writes the class- The advertisements conclude with the information ical H. J., "especially in selecting winners for any that ‘Mr Thomas Senn can be seen in Arthur Street, racing event; therefore, apply for advice to the true Bloomsbury, daily.' Is this gentleman a lusus natura, source alone;' which is, of course, H. J. himself, who a beast with a bill, an albino, a lawyer, or has several ready hints for the coming Cesarewitch physician ? Can he be seen gratis ? or if we pay for and Cambridgeshire.'
it, is his appearance worth the money ? A number of these gentlemen also "execute com- Among the answers to correspondents, which vary missions to any amount,''the position of whom in the in subject from dynamics to tossing, there are the sporting world is such that they must needs be following: always in possession of the very latest intelligence.' 'W. H., Reading.–Yes, you idiot.' Crossed cheques or Post-office orders are received 'Blinky must have been drunk to ask such indifferently, only, ‘N.B.—No personal interviews questions. can be granted.
J. B.-The accent is on the o.' What is Nurt and Spell, at which Tommy "W.-Her depth is sixty feet.' Stephenson of Wortley is open to play any man sixty • We do not know what you mean by “Bar the years of age for five pounds a side, providing he will Bottle.” : (Think of the editor of Bell's Life not give him ten score in thirty-one rises? Also, is there knowing an expression of that kind !) any man short of a bird-fancier who can translate And 'J. R. P. is informed that by a solution of this? ‘J. Arnold, of the Rising Sun, Stoke Newington, soda, frequently applied, he may get rid of all his will match his goldfinch against any other for five warts.' pounds, for the best and most slamming of a goldfinch, Finally, where deaths would occur in most journals, also mule one in the month for the same sum.' Mule the place is occupied in Bell's Life by 'scratchings :' one in the month! What possible misprint or assem- On the 4th instant, at eight P.M., Diggers blage of misprints could have produced this ? Here is Daughter, Star of the East, and Cock-a-doodle-do, something like a pigeon: "Thomas Miller's checkered out of the Triennial.' cock will fly R. Wall's black cock, Podgers' sandy Instead of births we find only greyhound produce :' cock, or John Dawson's white cock, or will take a At Newry on the 20th instant, Mr Savage's black quarter of minute's start of Thomas Leech's blue bitch Nameless, whelped nine puppies-namely, four cock, all from North Shields station. Also: 'Samuel dogs and five bitches, all black, to Mr Rageley's Binns of Bradford is surprised after what has occurred black dog, Master Charles, by Bedlamite out of at seeing John Shannik's challenge of Lamberhead Perseverance.' Green: if he really means flying, let him_send a While the nearest approach to a marriage seems to deposit to Bell's Life, and articles to Davy Deacon's us like the breaking off of one: 'On the 1st instant, at once.'
at eleven a. M., Miss Harkaway, out of all her engageThere are scores upon scores of other sporting ments at Chester.' matters here referred to, with the very nature of which folks out of the different ‘fancies' can know Many of our readers will perhaps be surprised to nothing, each evidently exciting considerable interest, find by the foregoing account how thriving and and having large sums depending on it. Those who populous the sporting world' still is. They have concern themselves with these exploits, seem to be supposed, and hoped, no doubt, that the particular almost as numerous as the fast men, within every- classes to which we have been referring belonged to body's observation, who restrict themselves mainly another era, and had died out a quarter of a century to the turf, and go about whispering solemnly of ago. Nevertheless, there is balm in Gilead for this good things and certainties. Are they then publi- matter. It is satisfactory to reflect that this portion cans? Are they small trades-people? Are they of the sporting world is now confined to certain gentlemen's servants? Or are they the collected limits, represented only by particular organs, and is not, as was heretofore the case, suffered to intrude number of long rooms packed one over the other. itself through countless channels upon respectable These shafts whirl round other rods and rollers society.
innumerable. The final result is, that the movement of the great wheel is diffused into that of 10,000
spindles, which wind upon themselves fine filmy MECHANICAL SELF-CONTROL.
threads of woollen yarn after they have been duly There is scarcely a spectacle on this round mechan- drawn out, and slightly twisted. The machinery ical world more interesting than a huge steam-engine accomplishes a few other subordinate tasks; but the bending its pivot-joints, and plying its iron limbs with great item in the account of work done is still the a giant's power. The circle of the writer's familiar rotatory evolutions of the almost countless spindles. acquaintance includes a grim Bolton-and-Watt framed Placed in the form of an equation, the statement would Titan of this species, whom it is particularly pleasant be: 100 horses - 10,000 caterpillars. The power of to be on visiting terms with. The writer has long been the 100 horses draws out and winds 10,000 caterpillarfree to lounge into this grim giant's reception-room like threads of filmy wool. whenever it pleases him, and has often stood there The scattering of great effort into diffused gentle entranced in gazing at the monster as he heaves his movement, is a notable affair. In mechanical conmassive spine up and down, and turns a huge twenty- cerns, there is no such thing as the creation of force; feet wide fiy-wheel, weighing, Messrs Bolton and Watt all motory effects are merely mutations of exertion. only know how many tons of iron, by the unceasing The stream of power may be dammed up until it pressure of his cranky hand. The strength he puts breaks forth as a cataract, or it may be spread out out upon his whirling task, is altogether as prodigious into a wide, smooth, lake-like reservoir; or it may be as it seems. The relentless sweep of the rim of that twisted and turned into new channels; but it cannot colossal wheel, as it rushes past the eye with a speed of be absolutely originated out of nothing. The 100 nearly twenty miles an hour, amply tells how fearful a horse-power of the steam-engine was primarily accutask it would be to have to arrest its progress. The mulated in the black coal, being communicated to it strength of a hundred horses concentred in the effort, from the atmosphere when the wood, out of which would be of no avail.
the coal was made, was growing. That 100 horseThe steam-giant under notice is a very contented power suffices to drive 10,000 spindles, and would, workman, in his way. When he has been once set perchance, turn some few hundreds more ; but if going, he does not at all care how long he is kept at successive additions were made, there would surely his labour; minutes or hours, weeks or years, are all at last come a time when yet another pigmy spindle the same to him; he is entirely indifferent about holi- would be all that was required to arrest the heavings days and sleep. All he requires is, that his employers of the mighty giant-when a minute spindle would shall feed him well while his limbs are exerted in their indeed be the final straw that broke the camel's back. service. He never strikes for wages, but he will strike An instructive illustration of this principle of trangat any time if food is withheld from him when he mutation of power could be seen until recently at the ought to receive it, and then not another turn can be Messrs Blake's yarn-factory. It occasionally chanced extracted from his mighty and otherwise willing arm. that all the spindles contained in one of the apartments He is by no means either an epicure or a gourmand, of the factory needed to be stopped at once, without but it has been found to be good policy to have him arresting the movement of the rest of the machinery. treated with great consideration in the matter of diet. Whenever this was done, the force which had been A trustworthy and experienced attendant is kept to previously devoted to the driving of those spindles was watch the indications of his appetite, and to serve his immediately left in the arm of the giant as redundant meals at proper times. If the curious observer goes strength. In an instant, this redundant power was round into his dining-room, he will see this attendant transferred to the machinery, which still remained at shovelling food into the giant’s yawning mouth, for he work, and its spindles began to rattle round with a does not care to take his own hand from his labour mad speed that threatened dire mischief to the work even whilst at his meals. It will be noticed, too, that on hand. It has happened on more than one occasion, his food consists of black glistening lumps, and the that the sudden putting out of gear of the frames in giant will be heard to roar with satisfaction as each one room of the factory, has occasioned so much alarm mouthful is pitched into his capacious gullet, and to the work-people stationed in the other rooms, as to gulped down. All the energies of the Titanic labourer cause them to rush in frantic terror from their stations, come, in fact, out of that black, glistening food. Having possessed with the idea that the mill was about to be swallowed it, he digests it in his furnace-stomach, and torn down about their ears. there assimilates it into fervid power. Since he thus Every casual inequality in the rate of a powerful knocks off such a quantity of work, it will be readily steam-engine, whose proper work is of this diffusive conceived that he is somewhat of a hearty feeder. He kind, is attended not only with inconvenience, but also eats at least three tons of solid food every day! with absolute loss to the proprietors of the concern,
There is one peculiarity about this Titanic labourer from breakage of yarn, and from other analogous of the iron thews which is worthy of remark. A giant results. It hence becomes an affair of the utmost by nature, of noble extraction, he nevertheless conde- moment that some means should be contrived wherescends to busy himself with operations that seem to by an even and steadily regulated movement of the be more appropriate occupations for spiders and cater- engine may be insured. The ordinary rotating goverpillars than for his mighty energies. He expends his nor, composed of the pair of balls on the divergent gigantic force upon a myriad of pigmy movements, rods, does act as a bridle upon the machine, but which are individually of the most trifling character. unfortunately this bridle only comes into action when His lot has been cast in the yarn-factory of the Messrs the increased speed has been entered upon; it is the Blake of Norwich. It is those gentlemen who feed increased speed that causes the centrifugal diverhim, and it is for their advantage that he labours. gence of the balls. The engine must be tearing on Those who would see what it is that he is doing for too fast, before the rise of the more rapidly rotating his board, must pass round to the further side of the balls can close the throttle-valve which admits the party-wall of the giant's reception-room; and there steam to the cylinder. What is especially required is they will observe that the axle of the great fly-wheel a hand constantly applied to the lever-handle of the passes through the wall, and moves a vertical shaft by throttle-valve, which shall be so ready, and of such exthe agency of a sort of cogged pinion, which, in its quisite sensibility, that it can almost anticipate the fitful turn, sets a series of horizontal shafts revolving in a irregularities of the machinery. This requirement, Messrs Child and Wilson have recently actually a keener perception than his fellows. He declared furnished. They have contrived a sensitive hand of that he was conscious of the extra strain having been brass and iron, and have patented the contrivance, thrown upon the engine ; but, unfortunately for his under the name of the Differential-action Governor.' reputation, it proved that when he fancied the frames The steam-engine in the Messrs Blake's yarn-factory were thrown out of gear, they were really in the act at Norwich, now works under the tutelage of this of being connected with the engine again. controlling hand; and the grim Bolton-and-Watt The working of the factory under the superintendframed Titan may be there seen comporting itself ence of this beautiful piece of mechanism, is indeed with a singularly reformed and equable demeanour, absolutely regular ; the revolutions of the fly-wheel under provocation which before would have driven are registered upon a dial-plate by the agency of him altogether wild.
hands, which serve the further purpose of indicating The differential-action governor consists of a the precise time of the day. The steam-giant now cogged pinion, with two toothed racks, one at each drives the hands of a clock as well as the 10,000
side, the teeth being pressed against the cogs of the spindles—he is now a chronometer as well as a spinner pinion. One rack, which we will call A, comes down of wool. from the centrifugal governor balls of the steamengine, and turns the pinion on a central pivot as it turns up or down; it also so affects a valve beneath,
SIBERIA AND CHINESE TATARY.* as to let water into a pressure-cylinder beneath, The usual idea attaching to Siberia is that of a place turning it either above or below a piston-plate which of frightful exile in one of the most inhospitable parts traverses there; the water comes from a high cistern, of the globe. Now, there is no doubt of the winter
and acts upon the piston by hydrostatic pressure, being intensely severe, and of the great length of driving it up or down. The piston-plate ends above in time requisite for communication with Europe ; but, the second rack, which we will call B. The rack B in summer, a great deal of it is a land flowing with also turns the cogged pinion as it rises or falls. The milk and honey, full of vast mineral and vegetable pinion itself is on the lever-handle of the throttle-valve, wealth, and abounding in the most romantic and and opens or closes the valve, letting steam into or beautiful scenery. In the penal settlements there shutting it off from the steam cylinder of the engine is a severe discipline for the convicts, but the mass of when it is lifted or depressed. When the rack A runs the population of Siberia is the most comfortable and down without B being moved, the pinion is rolled on best provided for in the Russian Empire, and this the rack B, and the throttle-valve narrowed. When region now contains several towns that have the the rack B runs up without A being moved, B is comforts and luxuries of European civilisation. rolled on the rack A, and the throttle-valve diminished. But the region to the south-east of Siberia, and on When A goes up, and B down, pari passu, or the the north-western frontiers of China, was, until the reverse, the pinion is rotated on the pivot, and the travels of Mr Atkinson, a terra incognita to the throttle-valve is neither opened nor closed. The European geographer, and even the volume already downward pressure of the governor acts on rack A, published by him comprises only a portion of his vast and the upward pressure of the water on rack B, and seven years' exploration of regions concerning which
this constitutes the differential action. By this very our geographical data are surmise and hearsay of clever contrivance, the steam is cut off at once, when inaccurate Tatars and Chinese. We learn from this the speed of the engine's movement is augmented in interesting traveller, that it was only by being well even the slightest degree: the instant sufficient steam armed that he overcame opposition, that he daily is cut off from or admitted into the cylinder, the practised the rifle, and, on one occasion, had to hold centrifugal force of the gyrating governor, and the his muzzle for ten minutes to a chief's breast before pressure of the water, neutralise each other, and twirl he could proceed. An examination of the sketches the pinion round on its pivot, without producing any in his portfolios procured us one of the pleasantest change of position in the throttle-valve, or alteration of days we have passed for a long time, and we feel capacity in its aperture. The two racks act upon the persuaded that what is to follow will prove fully as throttle-valve together, or separately, or even simul- important and curious as what has already appeared. taneously in opposite directions, and so the move- In the meantime, the volume_actually published ments of the throttle-valve are practically determined takes us from the Ural to Lake Baikal on the east; by the difference between the hydraulic pressure and and on the south, through the Kirghisian Steppe and the centrifugal force; that is, by differential action' the Gobi or Great Desert to the Chinese town of Chin in the phraseology of the patentees. This is how Si, at the foot of the Syan Shan Mountains, which Messrs Child and Wilson have contrived to endow never had been seen by any European. Looking stubborn and strong-willed steam-machinery with the anxiously forward to the account of the further propower of self-control.
secution of his journey, we will, in the meantime, To illustrate the capabilities of this ingenious little give some account of the ground already traversed. piece of apparatus, the frames of one of the large
Mr Atkinson says in his preface: 'I have several rooms of the factory were thrown out of gear, while times looked upon what appeared inevitable death, the writer stood, watch in hand, in the engine-room to and have had a fair allowance of hairbreadth escapes, note the effects. When the extra twenty horse-power when riding and sketching on the brinks of precipices
was in this way thrown back upon the engine, the with a perpendicular depth of 1500 feet below me. hydraulic rack was seen to lift itself through about With these accompaniments, I traversed much of the the third of an inch, as its opposite neighbour was hitherto unexplored regions of Central Asia, and proconvulsed by a sliglit tremor, but this was the only duced 560 sketches of the scenery, executed with the discernible effect. The huge fly-wheel, in perfect moist colours made by Winsor and Newton-invaluunconcern, travelled on in its twenty-five revolution able to an artist employed under such circumstances. per minute pace. The twenty horse-power revulsion I have used them on the sandy plains of Central Asia, was no more to it than a breath of wind. It was all in a temperature of 50 degrees Réaumur (144 degrees expended in causing the hydraulic pressure to narrow Fahrenheit), and in Siberia have had them frozen as the opening of the throttle-valve. The work-people solid as a mass of iron, when the temperature was
in the rooms containing the still effective machinery, 43 degrees Réaumur of frost, 11 degrees below the were entirely unconscious of any change having taken place in the operation of the mill, with the exception of a single individual, who conceived himself to have
* Atkinson's Oriental and iVcstern Siberia, Hurst & Blackett. 1868.
point where the mercury became solid, and when I poverty in England; but the 3s. 8d. per month to the could make it into balls in my bullet-moulds. Some admirable artist-lapidary, and the Demidoff estate as of my largest works have been painted with colours large as Yorkshire, is a contrast still more striking that have stood these severe tests; and for depth and than any we have in England. purity of tone, have not been surpassed by those English mechanics have been employed in the I have had fresh from the manufactory. With cake- Ural from a very early period. Many years ago, a colours, all my efforts would have been useless.' mechanic named Major was sent to Ekaterinburg, and
Before we begin with a condensation and analysis when the Emperor Alexander I. visited the mountain, of selected portions of the work of Mr Atkinson, it he was greatly pleased with the works Major had may not be amiss to call attention to the more pro- established; and, as a token of his satisfaction, preminent features of the physical geography of the sented him with a piece of land containing about Russian empire. West of the Ural, we find Russia in twenty acres, with all the minerals it contained, for Europe to consist of the vast region lying between the gold was known to be deposited there. He then Black, the Baltic, and the Caspian Seas, the greater began to excavate it, and wash the gold-sand, which part of it being level, and intersected by noble rivers, proved lucrative, and the amount was weighed and adjoining corn-producing alluvial regions, and popu- entered in a book, and delivered to Major every lated, except in the Baltic provinces, chiefly by native evening, who deposited it in an iron box, which stood Muscovites; but all to the eastward of the Volgam in his cabinet, the key of which he carried in his that is to say, in the ancient khanats of Orenburg pocket. One Sunday evening, Major and his old and Siberia—the substratum of the population is housekeeper were alone in the house; he occupied in Turkish, or, according to the new ethnological term, his cabinet, and she sitting in her own room, not far Ugrian. The mountain-chain of the Ural separates from the entrance-door. Suddenly her attention was Russia from Siberia, and the whole of the territory drawn to a noise in the outward lobby, which induced to the east differs essentially from Russia Proper. her to leave the room. The moment she got into the The rivers Ob, Yenisei, and Lena drain the back- entrance, she was seized, and thrown down a staircase bone of Asia, and are lost in the Frozen Ocean. The leading to some apartments below. Her screams and plains on the north, in the vicinity of the sea, are the noise reached Major in his cabinet, who rushed inhospitable, and unfit for habitation; but all the out with a candle in his hand; a blow from an axe mountain-regions are full of the most valuable fell upon his head, and he never breathed again. minerals. The Ural abounds in iron and precious After this the murderers possessed themselves of the stones, and the Altaï in gold and silver.
box and gold, ransacked the place in search of other Ekaterinburg, or the City of Catherine, is the treasure, and then departed, closing the doors after capital of the Ural; and here are the vast mechani- them. All this time the old woman was lying at the cal works and manufactories established by govern- foot of the stairs in a state of insensibility, quite ment for utilising the minerals of the district. They unconscious of the tragedy which had been enacted in are built upon an enormous scale, and fitted up with the rooms above. It was not until the morning of machinery from the best makers in England, under the third day after, that one of the officers from the the superintendence of an English mechanic. Precious machine-works went to consult Major on some matter stones are submitted to the art of the lapidary in of importance, when the murder was discovered. another department. The jaspers are found in a great A strict investigation was commenced The housevariety of colours—the most beautiful deep green, keeper, who was long unconscious, began to revive, but dark purple, dark violet, gray and cream colour; also nothing clear could be got out of her, and the police a ribbon-jasper, with stripes of reddish brown and were baffled. She had been seized so suddenly that green. The porphyries are also of most brilliant she could not tell how many men were in the lobby. colours. Orlite of a deep pink colour, with veins of A merchant was suspected from his dealings in gold, yellow and black, is semi-transparent when made into but he proved that he was distant ninety versts from vases. Here, also, the beautiful malachite vases and the spot at six o'clock on the morning of the murder. tablets are cut and polished. Those who remember Years passed on without a discovery; but the quantity the Great Exhibition of 1851, can have an idea of the of gold stolen from the mines, and sent into Tatary beauty of this material and manufacture. Magnificent and Bokhara, had become so enormous, that the jasper-tables are inlaid with different-coloured stones, Russian government determined to discover how in imitation of birds, flowers, and foliage. Several it was effected. So a spy was sent to Ekaterinburg, men are employed in these for six successive years; disguised as a peasant. Even the police authorities but the wages are exceedingly low: a man engaged in on the spot were not aware of his mission. He ingracarving foliage on some of the jasper vases, in a style tiated himself at the public-houses with the characters not excelled in Europe, did not receive more than likely to throw light on the subject, and discovered 3s. 8d. per month, with thirty-six pounds of rye-flour that there were persons in these gold-robberies far per month, to make into bread. Meat he was never away from Ekaterinburg through whom the precious supposed to eat. A married man with a family metal was got out of the country into Tatary. He receives two poods of black flour for his wife, and one then proceeded to Omsk, and began to offer gold to for each child, on which they look well. Mr Atkinson the Tatars, but with great caution; and he was soon saw another man cutting a head of Ajax, after the introduced to the great gold-dealer, whose influence antique, in jasper of two colours—the ground dark was so great that the Tatars dared not buy gold green, and the head yellowish cream-colour, in very unless it had passed through his hands. His high relief, and intended for a brooch. The traveller interview took place in the back-room of a large being an admirable artist, was a judge of such works. house, where a man with a long Bokhara dress tied He pronounces it to have been a splendid production round his waist with a shawl, took his seat at the of art, such as would have raised the man to a high table, and asked the assumed peasant in a very rude position in any country in Europe except Russia; manner how much gold he had stolen, where he came and yet his pay was 33. 8d. per month, with bread. from, and other questions calculated to frighten him.
The great wealth of the Demidoff family comes All these were answered in a very submissive tone. chiefly from the Ural; their estate there is as large The gold was then ordered to be produced, which was as Yorkshire, and full of iron of good quality. Of done, and the weight of each packet marked thereon. course, the population is scanty, and this accounts The Tatar was asked to pour out all the gold into for the wealth of the Demidoffs not being fabulous. a scale, but to this the peasant objected, as it was Foreigners talk much of the contrasts of wealth and found to weigh less than the seller knew it to be, but the receiver said: “What, thief! thou art not content his feet. The bear then made a rush at him, and with robbing thy employers, but thou wishest to rising on her hind-legs, intended to give him a cheat me. I shall soon hear of thee in the mines of settler with her powerful paws, or hug him to death; Siberia.' He then offered an insignificant amount for but he made a sweep with his club, and dealt such the gold, saying that he gave him five minutes to con- a blow that she toppled over. Many rounds were sider whether he would take the money or be handed fought, her antagonist keeping clear of her pawg. over to the police. The arrest of the gang then took She endeavoured to get behind him, but a blow of the place by the agents of the police who had been called cudgel drove her back, until at last she began a upon by the spy, who, having accomplished his retreat towards the forest ; but the moment the mission in Omsk, started for Ekaterinburg, and Cossack moved to the tree, the bear would rush out, procured the arrest of the merchant who had been taking care not to come within his reach, the cubs previously taken up, but acquitted of the murder; his remaining in the branches as spectators. At this wife now revealed where the gold was buried, and on time, a woodman, returning to the gold-mine, rode searching for it, they found the axe with which the into the glade ; his first impulse was to run, but the murder had been committed. This man had long Cossack ordered him to dismount, take off his saddlebeen engaged in gold-smuggling; he associated with bags, and secure the cubs in them. They then those who stole it from the mines. For this purpose, started for the village, followed by the bear, that he required good horses, and possessed one of extra- charged repeatedly, and was as often beaten back by ordinary power and speed. As soon as the gold had the Cossack with his club, who covered the retreat; been secured after Major's murder, he mounted his each time the bear was laid prostrate, and finally horse, and in about four hours, rode ninety versts, would not approach within striking distance: she presenting himself to the director at Kamenskoï. returned to the forest, and was never seen again. The murder was now proved against all who had been This was a feat of extraordinary daring, skill, strength, engaged in it; they were sentenced to run the gant- and activity ; but, after all, our sympathies are with let' (that is, to walk between the lines formed by the poor inoffensive bear. a regiment of soldiers consisting of 3000 men, each The bear, however, it must be admitted, is not man striking the victim with a rod), and died immedi- always the injured party. When at the Lake Baikal, ately after the punishment. The bands of gold-stealers Atkinson mentions that three villagers went to hunt were broken up; some were sent to the mines in in a forest. His informant lost sight of his two Siberia, and the gendarme returned to St Petersburg companions, lighted a fire, took his evening meal, and to receive a reward for his really dangerous labour. was soon fast asleep. Two or three hours had passed
The Altaï is the mountain-range in the south of when he was awakened by something near him, and, Siberia, in which the Yenisei, and other large rivers turning his head, he observed by the light of his fire of Siberia, flowing into the White Sea, have their a large bear going down the bank to the little stream. source. Parts of it are covered with dense forests of He divined the object of the brute in an instant. cedars, with a thick underwood which renders progress Bruin was going for water to put the fire out, that slow; other parts are clear of bushes, the ground he might then devour his victim ; for it is an ascerbeing covered with grass and plants, and above, tained fact that a bear will not attack a man when gigantic cedars, their gnarled and twisted branches sleeping by a fire, but will first go into the water forming a canopy through which the sun scarcely and saturate his fur, to put out the fire. It was but penetrates. This is on the northern slope of the the work of a moment for the hunter to seize his Altaï; but the southern slope has very little forest. rifle, and stop the proceedings of the animal with a Here are seen in summer the skeletons of Kalmuck bullet as it was ascending the bank. winter-dwellings—the birch-bark is stripped off these The adventures in Mongolia, particularly in the conical houses, and only the bare poles remain. At Gobi, lying between the Siberian Altaï and the this time of the year, the inhabitants are up in the Chinese mountain of Syan Shan, are highly interestmountains, where they find plenty of grass for their ing, and we are introduced to the nomade Kirghisian cattle, and where they are free from the mosquitoes. sultans, who appear to be the purest orientals of the In autumn, they return to the lower grounds, cover Turkish race, having no tincture of European civiltheir yourts with new bark, and, in a few days, their isation, like those of Persia, Siberia, or Turkey proper. winter dwellings are completed. On the river Every Kirghisian has his battle-axe hanging from his Arakym, Atkinson saw many black squirrels, skipping saddle, as in the days of Genghis Khan; and these about in the branches; they enlivened the scene, so-called sultans live like the patriarchs of the Old sitting among the foliage. Their fur is a dark Testament, estimating their power by their sheep, gray in winter, at which season Kalmucks kill their goats, and cattle. There was a commotion as Mr them, for the fur is not good in summer. Stags Atkinson approached the aoul of Sultan Baspasihan; are numerous in these mountains, and the Arakym and the escort guided him to a large cattle enclosure, Valley is a great battle-field of bucks in the rutting with a tall spear stuck into the ground at the door, season. In summer, they are all in the higher regions and a long tuft of black horsehair hanging beneath near the snow, where the mosquitoes and flies cannot its glittering head. This is an old Turkish custom, follow them. Even the bears, with their rough whence the dignity of a pacha of one, two, or three shaggy coats, cannot remain in the valleys in summer, tails, who, since the modern reforms in the Ottoman where these insects are extremely numerous.
Empire, are called siva, ferik, and mushir, correspondBear-hunting exploits are common in these moun- ing with the ranks of major-general, lieutenanttains. One afternoon, a Cossack officer was quietly general, and full general. strolling through the forest alone and unarmed, when Sultan Baspasihan, who welcomed Mr Atkinson, he observed a she-bear and her two cubs playing was a strong ruddy-faced man, dressed in a black together. When she became aware of his presence, velvet tunic edged with sable, and wore a deep she growled, drove her young ones into a tree for crimson shawl round his waist. On his head was a shelter, and mounted guard at the foot of it defend red cloth conical cap trimmed with fox-skin, with an them. The Cossack then made a temporary retreat, owl's feather hanging from the top, shewing his and selected a birch club, four feet long, the quality descent from Genghis Khan. A Bokhara carpet was of which he tested by blows on a tree. When the spread, and two boys entered, bringing in tea and old bear saw him, she began to growl and pace fruit. These were his two sons. Silk curtains hanging about uneasily; but the man advanced over a fine on one side covered the sleeping-place, and near this grassy turf, with no shrubs or bushes to entangle a bearcoote, or large black eagle, and falcon were