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youth, the preserver of my life. By that name alone it binds you to a mere conditional promise--to surdo I remember you.'

render your lands and move west, only in case a There was a momentary pause. The speech had majority of your nation agree to it. Now, to-day a evidently produced a conciliating effect; perhaps majority has not agreed, nor will the addition of memories of the past had come over him.

your name make the number a majority.' He replied :

“True, true,' interrupted the chief, beginning to •Your errand ? Come you as a friend ? or only comprehend my meaning. like others, to torment me with idle words? I have Well, then, you may sign, and not feel bound by had visitors already; gay gibbering fools with forked your signature, since the most essential condition tongues, who would counsel me to dishonour. Have still remains unfulfilled. And why should you not you been sent upon a like mission ?'

adopt this ruse ? Ill-used as you certainly have From this speech I concluded that Scott-the been, no one could pronounce it dishonourable in pseudo-friend-liad already been with the captive- you. For my part, I believe you would be justified likely on some errand from the agent.

in any expedient that would free you from so wrongful I come of my own accord--as a friend.'

an imprisonment.' • George Randolph, I believe you. As a boy, you Perhaps my principles were scarcely according to possessed a soul of honour. The straight sapling the rules of moral rectitude; but at that moment rarely grows to a crooked tree. I will not believe they took their tone from strong emotions; and to that you are changed, though enemies have spoken the eyes of friendship and love the wrong was not against you. No-no; your hand, Randolph-your apparent. hand! forgive me for doubting you.'

Oçeola was silent. I observed that he was mediI reached through the darkness to accept the prof- tating on what I had urged. fered salute. Instead of one, I grasped both hands Why, Randolph,' said he, after a pause, you of the prisoner. I felt that they were manacled must have dwelt in Philadelphia, that famed city of together: for all that, the pressure was firm and lawyers. I never took this view before. You are right; true; nor did I return it with less warmth.

signing would not bind me- it is true. But think Enemies had spoken against me. I needed not to ask you that the agent would be satisfied with my signawho these were: that had been already told me; but ture? He hates me; I know it, and his reasons. I felt it necessary to give the captive assurance of my I hate him, for many reasons ; for this is not the first friendship. I needed his full confidence to insure the outrage I have suffered at his hands. Will he be success of the plan which I had conceived for his satisfied if I sign?' liberation ; and to secure this, I detailed to him what 'I am almost certain of it. Simulate submission, if had transpired by the pond-only a portion of what you can. Write your name to the treaty, and you had passed. There was a portion of it I could not will be at once set free.' intrust even to the ears of a brother.

I had no doubt of this. From what I had learned I anticipated a fresh paroxysm of fury, but was since Oceola's arrest, I had reason to believe that agreeably disappointed. The young chief had been Thompson repented his conduct. It was the opinion accustomed to harsh developments, and could out- of others that he had acted rashly, and that his act wardly control himself; but I saw that my tale was likely to provoke evil consequences. Whispers produced an impression that told deeply, if not of this nature had reached him; and from what loudly, upon him. In the darkness, I could not see the captive told me of the visit of the aid-de-camp, his face; but the grinding teeth and hissing ejacula. I could perceive that it was nothing else than a tions were expressive of the strong passions stirring mission from the agent himself. Beyond doubt, the within.

latter was tired of his prisoner, and would release Fool!'he exclaimed at length-blind fool that I him on the easiest terms. have been! And yet I suspected this smooth-tongued 'Friend ! I shall act as you advise. I shall sign. villain from the first. Thanks, noble Randolph! I You may inform the commissioner of my intention.' can never repay this act of chivalric friendship; 'I shall do so at the earliest hour I can see him. henceforth you may command Oceola!'

It is late: shall I say good-night ?' "Say no more, Powell; you have nothing to repay : "Ah, Randolph! it is hard to part with a friendit was I who was the debtor. But come, we lose time. the only one with a white skin now left me. I could My purpose in coming here is, to counsel you to a have wished to talk over other days, but, alas ! this plan for procuring your release from this awkward is neither the place nor the time.' confinement. We must be brief, else my intentions The laughty mien of the proud chief was thrown may be suspected.'

aside, and his voice had assumed the melting tenderWhat plan, Randolph ?'

ness of early years. "You must sign the treaty of the Oclawaha.

“Yes,' he continued, "the only white friend leftthe only one I have any regard for--one other whom I'

He stopped suddenly, and with an embarrassed

air, as if he had found himself on the eve of disA single 'Ugh!'expressive of contemptuous sur. closing some secret, which on reflection he deemed prise, was all the reply; and then a deep silence it imprudent to reveal. succeeded.

I awaited the disclosure with some uneasiness, but I broke the silence by repeating my demand. it came not. When he spoke again, his tone and •You must sign it.'

manner were completely changed. “Never!' came the response, in a tone of emphatic "The whites have done us much wrong,' he condetermination-never! Sooner than do that, I will tinued, once more rousing himself into an angry linger among these logs till decay has worn the flesh attitude-'wrongs too numerous to be told ; but, by from my bones, and dried up the blood in my veins. the Great Spirit! I shall seek revenge. Never till Sooner than turn traitor to my tribe, I will rush now have I sworn it; but the deeds of this day have against the bayonets of my jailers, and perish upon turned my blood into fire. Ere you came, I had the spot. Never!'

vowed to take the lives of two, who have been our • Patience, Powell, patience! You do not under- especial enemies. You have not changed my resolustand me-you, in common with other chiefs, appear tion-only strengthened it; you have added a third to misconceive the terms of this treaty. Remember, I to the list of my deadly foes : and once more I swear




-by Wykome, I swear-that I shall take no rest till flung themselves on the path that had been taken the blood of these three men has reddened the leaves by the ci-devant captive. of the forest-three white villains, and one red traitor. The chase proved bootless and fruitless; and after Ay, Omatla! triumph in your treason-it will not be more than an hour spent in vain search, the soldiers for long-80on shalt thou feel the vengeance of a came straggling back to the fort. patriot-800n shalt thou shrink under the steel of Oceola.'

Gallagher and I had stayed all the morning in my I made no reply ; but waited in silence till this quarters, expecting the order that would confine me outburst of passion had passed.

there. To our astonishment, it came not: there was In a few moments the young chief became calm, no arrest. and again addressed me in the language of friendship. In time, we obtained the explanation. Of my two

One word,' said he, before we part. Circumstances duelling antagonists, the first had not returned to may hinder us—it may be long ere we meet again. the fort after his defeat, but had been carried to Alas! our next meeting may be as foes in the field of the house of a friend-several miles distant. This fight-for I will not attempt to conceal from you that partially covered the scandal of that affair. The I have no intention to make peace. No—never! I other appeared with his arm in a sling ; but it was wish to make a request; I know, Randolph, you will the impression, as Gallagher learned outside, that his accede to it, without asking an explanation. Accept horse had carried him against a tree. For manifest this token, and if you esteem the friendship of the reasons the interesting invalid had not disclosed the giver, and would honour him, wear it conspicuously true cause of his being crippled,' and I applauded upon your breast. That is all.'

his silence. Except to my friend, I made no disAs he spoke, he took from around his neck a chain, closure of what had occurred, and it was long before upon which was suspended the image of the rising the affair got wind. sun--already alluded to. He passed the chain over Upon duty, the aid-de-camp and I often met aftermy head, until the glistening symbol hung down upon wards, and were frequently compelled to exchange my breast.

speech; but it was always of an official character, I made no resistance to this offering of friendship, and, I need not add, was spoken in the severest but promising to comply with his request, presented reserve. my watch in return; and, after another cordial It was not long before circumstances arose to pressure of hands, we parted.

separate us; and I was glad to part company with

a man for whom I felt a profound contempt. As I had anticipated, there was but little difficulty in obtaining the release of the Seminole chief. Though

CHAPTER XLIX. the commissioner entertained a personal hatred against Oveola—for causes to me unknown-he dared not indulge his private spite in an official capacity. For some weeks following the council at Fort King, He had placed himself in a serious dilemma by what there appeared to be tranquillity over the land. The he had already done; and as I communicated the hour of negotiation had passed that for action was purposed submission of the prisoner, I saw that nigh; and among the white settlers the leading topic Thompson was but too eager to adopt a solution of of conversation was how the Indians would act ? his difficulty, easy as unexpected. He therefore Would they fight, or give in? The majority believed lost no time in seeking an interview with the captive they would submit. chief.

Some time was granted them to prepare for the The latter played his part with admirable tact; removal-runners were sent to all the tribes, appointthe fierce, angry attitude of yesterday had given place ing a day for them to bring in their horses and cattle to one of mild resignation. A night in the guard- to the fort. These were to be sold by auction, under house, hungered and manacled, had tamed down his the superintendence of the agent; and their owners proud spirit, and he was now ready to accept any were to receive a fair value for them on their arrival conditions that would restore him to liberty. So at their new home in the west. Their plantations or fancied the commissioner.

'improvements' were to be disposed of in a similar The treaty was produced. Oçeola signed it with manner. out saying a word. His chains were taken off-his The day of auction caine round; but, to the prison-door thrown open-and he was permitted to chagrin of the commissioner, the expected flocks did depart without further molestation. Thompson had not make their appearance, and the sale had to be triumphed, or fancied so.

postponed It was but fancy. Had he noticed, as I did, the The failure on the part of the Indians to bring in fine satirical smile that played upon the lips of their cattle was a hint of what might be expected; Oceola as he stepped forth from the gate, he would though others, of a still more palpable nature, were scarcely have felt confidence in his triumph.

soon afforded. He was not allowed to exult long in the pleasant The tranquillity that had reigned for some weeks hallucination.

was but the ominous silence that precedes the storm. Followed by the eyes of all, the young chief walked Like the low mutterings of the distant thunder, off with a proud step towards the woods.

events now began to occur, the sure harbingers of On arriving near the edge of the timber, lie faced an approaching conflict. round to the fort, drew the shining blade from his As usual, the white man was the aggressor. Three belt, waved it above his head, and in defiant tones Indians were found hunting outside the boundary of shouted back the war-cry: ‘Yo-ho-ehee!'

the reserve.' They were made captives by a party Three times the wild signal pealed upon our ears; of white men, and fast bound with raw-hide ropes, and at the third repetition, he who had uttered it were confined in a log-stable belonging to one of the turned again, sprang forward into the timber, and party. In this situation they were kept three days was instantly lost to our view.

and nights, until a band of their own tribe hearing of There was no mistaking the intent of that demon- their confinement, hastened to their rescue. There stration; even the self-glorifying commissioner was was a skirmish, in which some Indians were wounded; convinced that it meant war to the knife,' and men but the white men fled, and the captives were were hurriedly ordered in pursuit.

released. An armed crowd rushed forth from the gate, and On bringing them forth to the light, their friends



beheld a most pitiable sight'-I am quoting from a Simple historic facts. I quote them as illustrating faithful history—the rope with which these poor the events that ushered in the Seminole war. Barfellows were tied had worn through the flesh; they barous though they be, they were but acts of retaliahad temporarily lost the use of their limbs, being tion—the wild outburst of a vengeance long pent up unable to stand or walk. They had bled profusely, -a return for wrongs and insults patiently endured. and had received no food during their confinement, As yet, no general engagement had taken place; so it may readily be imagined that they presented a but marauding parties sprang up simultaneously in horrible picture of suffering.'

different places. Many of those who had inflicted Again: Six Indians were at their camp near outrage upon the Indians were forthwith repaid; and Kanapaha Pond, when a party of whites came upon many barely escaped with their lives. Conflagration them, took their guns from them, examined their succeeded conflagration until the whole country was packs, and commenced whipping them. While in on fire. Those who lived in the interior, or upon the act, two other Indians approached, and seeing the borders of the Indian reserve, were compelled to what was going on, fired upon the whites. The abandon their crops, their stock, their implements of latter returned the fire, killed one of the Indians, husbandry, their furniture, and indeed every article and severely wounded the other.'

of value, and seek shelter within the forts, or conExasperation was natural—retaliation certain. On centrate themselves in the neighbouring villages, the other side, read :

around which stockades were erected for their better On the lith of August, Dalton, the mail-carrier security. between Fort King and Fort Brooke, was met within The friendly chiefs—the Omatlas and otherssix miles of the latter place by a party of Indians, with about four hundred followers, abandoned their who seized the reins of his horse, and dragging him towns, and fled to Fort Brooke for protection. from the saddle, slot him dead. The mangled body The strife was no longer hypothetical, no longer was discovered some days afterwards concealed in the doubtful; it was declared in the wild Yo-ho-ehee! woods.'

that night and day was heard ringing in the woods. 'A party of fourteen mounted men proceeded on a scout towards Wacahonta-the plantation of Captain Gabriel Priest-and when within one mile of the place, they came upon a small hommock, through which some of the party declined passing. Four of As yet but few troops had reached Florida, though them, however, dashed into it, when the Indians detachments were on the way from New Orleans, suddenly arose from ambush, and fired upon them. Fort Moultrie, Savannah, Mobile, and other depôts, The two in advance were wounded. A Mr Foulke where the soldiers of the United States are usually received a bullet in his neck, but was picked up by stationed. Corps of volunteers, however, were being those in his rear, and borne off. The other, a son of hastily levied in the larger towns of Georgia, CaroCaptain Priest, had his arm broken, and his horse lina, and Florida itself; and every settlement was shot dead under him. He fed, and sinking his body mustering its quota to enter upon the campaign. in a swamp, succeeded in eluding the search of the It was deemed advisable to raise a force in the pursuers.'

settlements of the Suwanee-my native district-and * About the same time, a party of Indians attacked on this duty my friend Gallagher was despatched, a number of men, who were employed cutting live with myself to act as his lieutenant. oak timber on an island in Lake George. The men Right gladly did I receire this order. I slould escaped by taking to their boats, though two of their escape from the monotonous duties of the fort garrinumber were wounded.'

son, of which I had grown weary enough; but what "At New River, on the south-east side of the penin- was a still more pleasant prospect, I should have sula, the Indians attacked the house of a Mr Cooley, many days at home--for which I was not without murdered his wife, children, and a tutor engaged in longing. the family. They carried off twelve barrels of pro- Gallagher was as overjoyed as myself. He was a visions, thirty hogs, three horses, one keg of powder, keen sportsman; though, having spent most of his over two hundred pounds of lead, seven hundred life within the walls of cities, or in forts along the dollars in silver, and two negroes. Mr Cooley was Atlantic seaboard, he had found only rare opportuabsent at the time, On his return, he found his wife nities of enjoying either the ‘fox-chase' or 'deer-drive.' shot through the heart with her infant child in her I had promised him both to his heart's content, for arms; and his two oldest children also shot in the both the game and the 'vermin’ were plenteous in same place. The girl still hield her book in her hands, the woods of the Suwanee. and the boy's lay by his side. The house was in Not unwillingly, therefore, did we accept our flames.'

recruiting commission; and, bidding adieu to our 'At Spring Gorden on the St Johns, the extensive companions at the fort, set out with light hearts and plantation of Colonel Rees was laid waste, and his pleasant anticipations. Equally joyous was Black buildings burnt to the ground. Sugar-cane, sufficient Jake to get back once more to the sole plantayshun.' to manufacture ninety hogsheads, was destroyed ; In the quarter of the Suwanee settlements, the besides thirty hogsheads of sugar, and one hundred Indian marauders had not yet shewn themselves. It and sixty-two negroes were carried off. The mules and lay remote from the towns of most of the hostile horses were also taken. The same Indians destroyed tribes, though not too distant for a determined foray. the buildings of M. Depeyster, with whose negroes they In a sort of lethargic security, the inhabitants still formed a league ; and being supplied with a boat, they remained at their houses—though a volunteer force crossed the river, and fired the establishment of had already been mustered—and patrols were kept in Captain Dummett. Major Heriot's plantation was constant motion. laid waste; and eighty of his negroes moved off with the I had frequent letters from my mother and Virginia; Indians. Then on towards San Augustine, where the neither appeared to feel any alarm: my sister espeextensive plantations of General Hernandez were cially declared her confidence that the Indians would reduced to a ruin--next Bulow's, Dupont's of Buen not molest them. Retiro, Dunham's, M.Rae's of Tomoka Creek, the Withal, I was not without apprehension; and with plantations of Bayas, General Herring, and Barta- so much the greater alacrity did I obey the order to lone Solano, with nearly every other from San proceed to the settlements. Augustine southward.'

Well mounted, we soon galloped over the forest road, and approached the scenes of my early life. a slight sprinkling of water upon the dead leaves This time, I encountered no ambuscade, though I that lay along the trail. The horseman had been did not travel without caution. But the order had swimming-he had been across the river ! been given us within the hour; and having almost This discovery led me into a train of reflection. immediately set forth, my assassin-enemies could have What could he-an Indian-want on the other side ? had no warning of my movements. With the brave If Oçeola, as I still believed, what could he be doing Gallagher by my side, and my stout henchman at my there? In the excited state of the country, it would back, I dreaded no open attack from white men. have been risking his life for an Indian to have

My only fear was, that we might fall in with some approached the Settlement and to have been disstraggling party of red men—now our declared ene- covered and captured would have been certain death. mies. In this there was a real danger; and we took This Indian, then, wlioever he was, must have some every precaution to avoid such an encounter.

powerful motive for seeking the other side. What At several places we saw traces of the Indians motive? If Oceola, what motive? pearly fresh. There were moccasin prints in the I was puzzled--and reflected; I could think of no mud, and the tracks of horses that had been mounted. motive, unless that the young chief had been playing At one place we observed the debris of a fire still the spy-no dishonourable act on the part of an smouldering, and around it were signs of the red men. Indian. A party had there bivouacked.

The supposition was not improbable, but the conBut we saw no inan, red or white, until we had trary; and yet I could not bring myself to believe it passed the deserted plantation upon the creek, and true. A cloud had swept suddenly over my soul, a were approaching the banks of the river. Then for presentiment scarcely defined or definable was in my the first time during our journey a man was in sight. thoughts, a demon seemed to whisper in my ears: It

He was a horseman, and at a glance we pronounced is not that. kim an Indian. He was at too great a distance for Certainly had the horseman been across the river ? us to note either his complexion or features; but the Let us see ! style of dress, his attitude in the saddle, the red We rode rapidly along the trail, tracing it backwards. Bash and leggings, and above all, the ostrich-plumes In a few minutes it guided us to the bank, where waving over his head, told us he was a Seminole. He the tracks led out from the water's edge. No correwas mounted upon a large black horse; and had just sponding trail entered near. Yes, he had been across. emerged from the wood into the opening, upon which I plied the spur, and plunging in, swam for the we had ourselves entered. He appeared to see us opposite shore. My companions followed without at the same time we caught sight of him, and was asking any questions. evidently desirous of avoiding us.

Once more out of the river, I rode up the bank. After scanning us a moment, he wlieeled his steed, I soon discovered the hoof-marks of the black horse and dashed back into the timber.

where he had sprung off into the stream. Imprudently enough, Gallagher put spurs to his Without pausing, I continued to trace them backhorse and galloped after. I should have counselled a wards, still followed by Gallagher and Jake. contrary course; but that the belief was in my mind The former wondered at my eagerness, and put that the horseman was Oceola. In that case, there some questions, which I scarcely answered coherently. could be no danger; and from motives of friendship, My presentiment was each moment growing darker I was desirous of coming up with the young chief, -my heart throbbed in my bosom with a strange and exchanging a word with him. With this view, I indescribable pain. followed my friend at a gallop-Jake coming on in The trail brought us to a small opening in the the rear.

heart of a magnolia grove. It went no further. We I was almost sure the strange horseman was Oçeola. had arrived at its end. I fancied I recognised the ostrich-plumes; and Jake My eyes rested upon the ground withi a sort of had told me that the young chief rode a fine black mechanical gaze. I sat in the saddle in a kind of horse. In all likelihood, then, it was he; and in order stupor. The dark presentiment was gone, but a far to hail, and bring him to a halt, I spurred ahead of darker thought occupied its place. Gallagher-being better mounted.

The ground was covered with hoof-tracks, as if · We soon entered the timber, where the horseman horses had been halted there. Most of the tracks kad disappeared. I saw the fresh tracks, but nothing were those of the black horse ; but there were others

I shouted aloud, calling the young chief by of not half their dimensions. There was the tiny name, and pronouncing my own; but there was no shoe-mark of a small pony. reply, save the echo of my voice.

'Golly! Massr George,' muttered Jake, coming I followed the trail for a short distance, continuing forward in advance of the other, and bending his eyes to repeat my cries; but no heed was given to them. upon the ground; “lookee dar-dat am tha track ob The horseman did not wish to answer my hail, or else de leettle white Fox. Missa Vaginny 's been hya for had ridden too far away to understand its intent. sartin.'

Of course, unless he made a voluntary halt, it was vain to follow. We might ride on his trail for a week without coming up with him. Gallagher saw this

THE CITY OF LONDON. as well as myself; and abandoning the pursuit, we The long-promised measure for the reform of the turned once more towards the road, with the prospect corporation of the city of London has recently been of soon ending our journey.

brought forward in the House of Commons; and A cross-path, which I remembered, would bring perhaps this may be a suitable time for giving to our us by a shorter route to the landing; and for this we readers a sketch of that great corporation, which has now headed.

hitherto successfully resisted all the attempts that We had not ridden far, when we again struck upon have been made for its reformation, and which has the tracks of a horse-evidently those made by the had influence enough, even at the last, to turn away, horseman we had just pursued, but previously to our in a great measure, the destruction which threatened having seen him. They led in a direct line from the its cherished privileges. river, towards which we were steering.

The antiquity of London is undoubtedly very Some slight thought prompted me to an examination great: it is mentioned by Tacitus as a 'great mart of of the hoof-prints. I perceived that they were wet- trade and commerce;' but the corporation, unlike water was oozing into them from the edges; there was most of the other municipal corporations of the


kingdom, has no definite constitutional charter at all; but are also members of the court of common council, its rights result from a series of royal grants or and ex officio governors of the royal hospitals. The charters, from statutes of the realm, and from court of common council consists of two hundred and orders and ordinances of the courts of aldermen and six members, also elected by the different wards, common council. The Anglo-Saxon law of King though only for one year, like the popular representaAthelstan mentions it; and though we do not find tives under every constitution. This court is now the it named in Domesday- book, yet a charter of most important, their principal function being their William the Conqueror, addressed to the bishop, the unlimited command over the funds of the city. The

Portgerefa,' or chief-magistrate, and the 'Burhwara,' court is presided over by the lord-mayor, who has or burghers, recognises it as a city. This is the power to dissolve a meeting at any time, by ordering earliest charter in the possession of the city, the the sword-bearer to take up the sword. The sheriff's latest is one granted by George II., in the fifteenth are two in number, the shrievalty of London and year of his reign; and the total number of charters Middlesex being united in one office. They are elected amounts to 120. The boundaries of the city were by the livery in common hall, and not appointed by fixed at a very early period; and the area enclosed by the crown, as is the case in all other counties. A fine them, as compared with the metropolis generally, is of L.400 is imposed on a person refusing to serve the very small; the former comprises little more than a office; and the sum obtained by the levying of these square mile; while that of the latter is, from north to fines during the first fifty years of the present censouth, about eleven miles; and from east to west, tury, amounted to more than L.66,000. The corporaabout sixteen miles, or about 176 square miles. tion has several important officers of its own, the Within the last fifty years, the metropolis has nearly recorder being the chief: his duties are chiefly judidoubled its population, the city remaining almost cial; and by him the city appears whenever any of stationary. Besides the city, properly so called, the its customs are called in question. The common corporation has exercised a certain jurisdiction over serjeant, who is the counsel for the city, also sits as a the borough of Southwark. This was granted in the judge in some of the courts; and the chamberlain, year 1327, in consideration of a yearly rent of L.10. who is the treasurer of the city funds, likewise holds They hold courts-leet for the borough, appointing a position of importance and emolument: his office is the steward and other officers, including the high- generally considered as a kind of provision for decayed bailiff and coroner. They also go through the form aldermen. of holding quarter-sessions. A grand jury is impan. The funds of the corporation are very large, the nelled, and are addressed to this effect: "Gentlemen, revenue for the year 1852 amounting to L.551,971, 58. by virtue of certain charters, we have been obliged to 4d. It is derived from the rents of the city's landed call you together; we are happy to tell you there is estates and house-property, from street-tolls, the coalnothing for you to do.' Then the jury say: 'Why duty, the metage of corn, fruit, &c., the harbour-dues did you then call us together?' The answer given of the port of London, and the various rates assessed by the late recorder, Mr Law, was: 'Surely it is better on the inhabitants. The city has also large estates to call you together and say: “Now you may go in the north of Ireland, which they acquired by a home," than to keep you here two or three days.' grant from the crown in the time of James I. This jurisdiction the new bill proposes entirely to do That district was then in a most unsettled and away with, and for the future the borough of South- disaffected state, and the rebellion of the Earls of wark will be constituted in all respects like the other Tyrone and Tyrconnel had caused large forfeitures of metropolitan boroughs.

land there. The king wishing to repeople this part The city of London is governed by a lord-mayor, of his dominions, the corporation undertook to settle a court of aldermen, and a court of common council, it at their own expense. Large estates were allotted whose full title is, “The Lord-mayor, Aldermen, and to each of the companies who had contributed, and Commoners of the City of London.' The lord-mayor the property has continued to be managed by a comis elected annually; and the form of his election is mittee of the corporation. Its revenues are applied for the livery in common hall assembled, which is partly in grants to the municipal institutions of composed of the members of the different city com- Londonderry, and partly to charitable and educational panies, who are also citizens, to nominate two of the purposes in the districts around that town and aldermen who have served the office of sheriff-usually Coleraine. the two senior ones below the chairmand for the court The city of London has the power of levying tolls of aldermen to select one of those presented by the on certain articles, and exercises some other rights livery. The lord-mayor is the chief-magistrate of the corresponding very much with the custom-duties city, is a member of the privy council, though it is levied by the crown. It claims the right to measure doubtful whether he can take his seat, except upon all corn landed within its jurisdiction, and for this, the demise of the crown; and he has an allowance of some small toll is charged. It is compulsory; and L.10,000 assigned to him out of the revenues of the the city uses its own bushel for the purpose. The exercity, together with the official residence of the Mansion cise of this right alone adds about L.10,000 a year House, to enable him to keep up the accustomed state to the revenues; it also extends to all fruit imported and hospitality of the city. The aldermen are twenty- from abroad, and all sea-borne oysters. A toll of six in number: one elected by each ward of the city, twopence upon all carts entering the city which do and one for a ward which has now ceased to exist, not belong to citizens, is also levied; and this compaand to which the senior member of the court usually ratirely small toll produces in the course of the year succeeds by rotation. When elected, they remain in more than L.5000. The city exercises jurisdiction office for life. The title of alderman may be traced over the navigation of the Thames, from Staines in back as early as the time of Henry II. ; but being a Middlesex, to Yantlet Creek, in Kent; and these Saxon term, it has probably existed much longer. metage rights extend not only to goods landed within Each alderman has the government of the ward for the limits of the city, but also to goods landed any. which he is elected; and in ancient times, the Watch, where within its jurisdiction. The conservancy of then an efficient body, was under his command; and the Thames also belongs to the lord-mayor, and he bore his coat of arms and banner as a baron. The has some valuable rights attached to it. There was aldermen are all justices of the peace, and attend in formerly a metage-duty upon coal, but this has been rotation the police-courts of the city, and are named commuted into a fixed duty on the ton. There in the commission of the central criminal court. They are now three duties imposed upon all coal imported assemble together, and form a court of their own, either by land or water into a district extending

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