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to reach us. For a long time, the stillness of death had often heard before said: "The anchor, sir-the prevailed; but when she came fairly abreast of us at anchor.' I dressed hastily, and going on deck, saw the i the distance of six or seven miles, and threatened to city of St John's lying in the light of a bright July pass us without the slightest notice, cries hoarse with morning. The angry waves had ceased, and broke in! despair clove the wind. The cries were useless, for gentle ripples with a home-sound upon the vessel's ] she was to windward. We had no powder on board to side. make any further signal; but there can be no possible! Our first business when on shore was to make ? doubt she saw us and knew our condition. She did public in the newspapers our grateful thanks to the pass us, and steered away. We found out the nation two captains to whom, under providence, we owed our she belonged to; but it need not be mentioned here. lives. I know not what has become of either of them. Let her flag perish from our recollection; but let it I have not seen them since my return to England; be known she was not English!
but if this brief sketch should be seen by them, let With redoubled anxiety, we now turned to our it serve as assurance that the kindness of the captains second and last remaining hope. Another hour of and crews of both vessels will ever be held in remem-it weary watching, that seemed an eternity. Her course brance by the living freight the old Lesmahagow bore lay a little nearer to us than the first, so that into the harbour of St John's. we could see her more distinctly. For a while, our signals seemed to promise no better success. At length the better eyes thought they could discern
MUSIC something black moving quickly up the head-mast;
'Tis true no verse of mine can tell, a moment more, and a red rag streamed on the wind.
Fair lady, what the gentle breath At this instant, the mate, who was standing on the
Within the flute, that rose and fell bulwarks, looking intently through the glass, shook
And died in the far distance, saith : all over with violent emotion; the glass in his hand
The speechless echoes linger still; shared its convulsive movement, and a moment after
Their meaning is not of the earth. wards he sprang to the deck, and cried out, the Union
Thou know'st no less love's accents thrill, Jack!' 0 ye who think that flags and standards are
Although the words be nothing worth: but the baubles of the brave, think how ye wrong the
The perfect sense we cannot tell, language of the leart's true chivalry! If we had been
And thence the glory grows the more. nearer, we should have heard that an English voice
The organ-billows, as they swell, had already given the command to 'bout ship!'and have
Roll far and farther from the shore, known surely that British hands handled the tackle.
Until from verge to verge they sweep, It was not long before she veered round, and the whole
And Thought, its wearied wings drooped down, breadth of her canvas came to view. On she sped
Slow sinking in the charmèd deep,
'Mid the sweet thunder loves to drown. like an angel of mercy, with her wings spread to the
The harp-voice best we understand; favouring gale. I knew it was quite an hour before she could reach us, so I went straight into the cabin,
Its grief is shaped by her who flings
Athwart its face the gentle hand, and for the first time for two nights I slept soundly
And hides, in ruth, the sobbing strings. for just three-quarters of an hour. When I awoke,
The brazen trumpet's war-note shrill there was a stately ship just passing under our
Would ever teem with stir and life, stern, and taking up her station about half a mile to
Although the earth had lost its ill, leeward, to avoid collision in the heavy sea. Now
And there was end to foemen's strife : came a fresh anxiety, for in the sea that was running,
And though the cymbals ceased to beat no boat could come close alongside, and the captain
Amid the ranks of bristling steel, very much feared some lives might be lost in changing
They'd aye recall the thousand feet ships. It was yet tolerably early, and after a consult
In motion at the single will. ation through trumpets, it was deemed advisable to
But what of war, the while we hear wait an hour or two. Towards afternoon, the wind
These Christmas bells o'er hill and plain, happily lulled, and the sun shone out for the first
And all our memories drawing near, time since our troubles commenced, though the sea
Entrance us with a pleasant pain, was still heavy. But I will not enter into further
And fill our hearts with love and peace, detail; let it suffice to record, that the disembarkation
And lead us like an angel hand was managed with consummate skill, and that after
Whereto the wondrous harmonies four hours of hard work, every woman, child, and
Sweep alway through the Better Land. J. P. 1 man was safe on board the Lesmahagow, bound for St John's, New Brunswick, without a child's finger ROYAL NATIONAL LIFE-BOAT INSTITUTION. being hurt. Often, when a boat-load started from
This institution expended during the past year L.3421 the Welsh Mountaineer, we lost sight of them alto- in building eleven new life-boats, and in altering and gether in the trough of the sea; but as often we
repairing several others; L.1292 in building and in repaircould hear the cheers of the sailors giving courage ing life-boat houses; L.787 in building new life-boat to their trembling cargo.
transporting-carriages and in repairing others; L.855 in The rest of the voyage had nothing specially in-payment to cockswains and crews of life-boats; and L.578 teresting. We made the first landmark at night: I for rewards for saving the lives of 376 persons, shipshall not soon forget it. We were growing somewhat wrecked on our coasts, of which 132 were actually rescued uneasy in the fogs and cross-currents of the Bay of by the life-boats of the society in that period. Its outFundy ; but in the night the fog cleared off, leaving a standing liabilities for life-boats, life-boat carriages, and clear dark air. The twelve o'clock watch had hardly | boat-houses are L.3394. It would be needless to expa
eir station when the word was given, a 'light tiate on the merits of an institution like this. The on the starboard bows. It grew larger as we neared it, merchant, shipowner, or underwriter who does not and seemed to our grateful sight as if some spirit of support it, neglects his duty; while the philanthropy of mercy held out calmly its torch of light and love private individuals could not elsewhere find a more above a thousand storms that roared at its feet, an meritorious channel. eternal welcome to poor tempest-driven wanderers. Next morning I was awaked by a sound like the Printed and Published by W. & R, CHAMBERS, 47 Paternoster
Row. LONDON, and 339 High Street, EDINBURGH. Also sold by driving of a hundred hammers at the ship; I jumped
WILLIAM ROBERTSON, 23 Upper Sackville Street, DOBLIN, and all out of my cabin in alarm; but a rough kind voice Il Booksellers.
looking florid-faced young priest, or acolyte, full of A SEA-SIDE SHOW.
vivacity and apparently of business. I soon perceived If I were asked what was the special attraction which that both the ladies, and the younger especially, were | drew me to Boulogne last August, I should be rather living in a condition of excitement, which, so far from puzzled for an answer. It was not the camp in the subsiding, seemed hourly to increase, and that the neighbourhood, for that was not then a source of priestly visitor was in some way or other connected attraction to anybody. It was not that I had any little with the cause. On the third day of my domiciliation, financial difficulty to contend with any temporary while Jeannette was arranging my breakfast, after my congestion of credit or collapse of pocket-for which the morning-bath in the sea, I mentioned the subject of the air of Boulogne is notoriously so beneficial. Nor was priest, confessing the curiosity his visits had excited, it because I had any friend to visit, who, being under and wondering whether there was a matrimonial a cloud at home, had bought sunshine on that sunshiny termination to be expected—who could be the happy coast. I have no grand friendships to boast; the few man, and whether either of the ladies, Jeannette, for whose confidence I share are of that old-fashioned, instance, was to be the bride. slow, and vulgar class who look upon twenty shillings Jeannette did not blushı; she only turned to me, in the pound as a matter of religious principle, and as she paused in her operations, a face of mingled want that moral courage, so remarkably general in astonishment and incredulity. this great age of progress, which enables its possessor Monsieur did not know! O but that was strange, coolly to turn his back upon his creditors, and to when all the world was coming to Boulogne this liquidate by a few months of agreeable exile abroad, month to assist in the installation of Our Lady and the expense of his agreeable relaxations at home. It monsieur really did not know? was not, either, the prospect of pleasant society, for I I assured her that I knew nothing about the knew nobody in the town, where, though it had lain installation, or of Our Lady of Boulogne eitherin my route a dozen times, I had never as yet spent who was she? twenty-four hours at a visit. And, least of all, was it "O but that is droll,' said Jeannette ; but I forget the expectation of seeing what I did see ; for if these -you English are all Protestants—what pity! Shall coming events cast their shadows before, they had I tell you about Our Lady of Boulogne ?' never fallen on my path; and it was in utter ignorance "Thank you, I wish you would.' of what was about to take place that, before the month I drew a chair for Jeannette as I spoke; she sat was a week old, I had crossed the strait, extricated down with an air of perfect self-possession, and having my valise and carpet-bag from the fangs of the handed me a cup of coffee, began enlightening my douaniers, and taken lodgings by the week in a quiet- ignorance, speaking with a very grave tone and in looking café in a turning-out of the Grande Rue, not a dignified way. The story, however, is not very far from the highest ground of the ramparts.
different from some other Catholic traditions, and at The café, neat, clean, and comfortable, was kept by anyrate it would occupy too much space to give it in the Widow R- , and it was pleasant to find that ther version. The substance is simply this: that one in the domestic arrangements regard was had to morning, a vast number of years ago, a beautiful ship, island notions and predilections. Madame spoke little without sails or sailors, and with no cargo or passenger English, but then she had a daughter, a lively lass of on board but a wooden image of the Virgin, came sixteen, with black eyes and a face that would have sailing into Boulogne; that the heaven-sent gift was been exceedingly pretty but for a rather damaging reverently placed in the cathedral, where it receired prominence of the cheek-bones, who chattered our the adoration of the faithful, from far and near, for insular tongue with astonishing volubility, and with more than a thousand years, performing innumerable the most charming accent imaginable. Both mother miracles in return; till at length the Revolution came, and daughter cheated me in numberless small matters; when the sacred image was burned to ashes-all but but as I did not object to their trifling peccadilloes, one hand, and the cathedral itself sold and ruined. or disturb their self-love by rebuking them, they Forty years after, the cathedral was raised anew by treated me in all other respects with notable consider contributions from all countries, and was now on the ation, and I thought that, on the whole, I had reason eve of completion, when another image of the Virgin, to congratulate myself on my quarters.
| but of stone, and of colossal proportions, was to be There was constantly coming to the house--now placed on the top of the edifice, so as to be visible from mingling with the guests in the common room, now far at sea; and the inauguration was to take place of closeted with madame and the daughter-a good- the re-establishment of pilgrimages to the shrine of
St Mary of Boulogne. This was to come off, Jeannette due time they unanimously issued a decree uniting concluded, on the festival of the Assumption, which is Our Lady of Boulogne with Our Lady of Lorettothe 15th of this month; and then such a spectacle will thereby securing to the former all the spiritual and
intercessory favours and influences so long enjoyed by be seen in Boulogne as has never been witnessed yet.
the latter. Moreover, by the same liberal decree, an Every body will walk in procession on the 30th
indulgence is accorded, once in the year, to all faithful already the whole town are busy, each preparing for
Christians who, confessing and doing penance, shall the part he is to perform.'
pray devoutly, according to the directions of the "And you, of course,' said I,'have your part allotted church, before the holy image of the immaculate Virgin you.'
—the pilgrims being at liberty to choose for their “Yes, truly. What would you have ? I am to be | indulgence any day of the year that suits them best. one of the choir of our parish : there will be two fifties
But that was not all—the decree offers also a seven of us, all dressed alike in white muslin, with gold;
| years' indulgence, extending over the whole period, to
| those who shall come to pray daily in the church, coronals and veils descending to the knee. Will it not
exercising due contrition for their faults. Further, the be charming?'
sacred pontiff gives a warranty with the indulgences, The voice of Madame R- screaming for Jeannette guaranteeing their applicability to souls in purgatory. at the foot of the stairs, prevented my reply, and the The conditions on which these spiritual advantages damsel tripped away.
were to be won, it will be seen, are by no means hard ; On quitting the house after breakfast, I made
and the promulgators of the decree were right in
calculating that they would be pretty widely accepted. towards the new cathedral, which, standing on the
If I had had any doubts on the subject, they would Bummit of a hill, towers over the whole town. In the
have been dissipated by the eagerness and excitement Place d'Armes, I passed the covered statue of the that prevailed among the population of the town-by Virgin, standing veiled on its pedestal, waiting for the the indications that met me on all sides of zealous day of inauguration. The cathedral is a lofty and preparations for the great event; and by the sudden magnificent building-and the door being open, and going and coming of strangers from the provinces; and workmen passing in and out. I entered to look around: / by the influx of flowers and tinsel, finery and greenery, but though perfectly finished without, the interior is.
which, as the time drew on, suddenly inundated the
place. almost a waste, and I found a number of men engaged
The pilgrimages commenced on the appointed day, in the erection of what were evidently temporary the 15th of August. The first bands of pilgrims fittings for a temporary рurроѕе.
arriving were from the parishes of the north nearest I had no difficulty in obtaining further information. to Boulogne; these, for the most part, came on foot, Not only was every one aware of what was coming off, or in such rustic conveyances as they had at command. but a good number had, by some means or other,
| They formed in procession as they entered the town penetrated so far behind the scenes as to make
the acolytes of each parish, in red and white garb,
leading the way, and bearing the crucifix in the van. themselves masters of the policy which guided the
Next came the ecclesiastics, singing canticles to the whole affair. From one informant, an Englishman, / Virgin. Then came the groups of pilgrims proper, in and of course a heretic, I learned a few private parti- some cases forming a rather motley show, consisting culars. According to his shewing, the superb cathe- of both sexes and all ages and ranks-white-headed, dral, reared with such painstaking piety by the good tottering old men, sturdy grandames in high-peaked old Haffreingue, was terribly in debt, while yet a caps, peasant girls and lads, farmers, shopkeepers, with prodigious sum was wanting to complete the interior.
| here and there a country gentleman with his wife and In this dilemma the bishop of Arras had come forward
daughters-to these must be added the sober-looking
figures of the Sisters of Charity, and the juvenile bands and manfully put his shoulder to the wheel. He it of pupils of the parochial schools. The above, howwas, and none other, who had boldly resolved to restore ever, constituted the humblest order of pilgrims; those the pilgrimages to the shrine of Our Lady, calculating who came from towns of any pretensions at all, cut a that from the offerings of the devoted pilgrims might much more imposing figure: with a more numerous be raised, if the affair were well managed, not only clergy, they had choirs of young-lady singers; they enough to clear the expenses past and prospective of shone in gayer
prospective of shone in gayer costumes, and carried embroidered the cathedral, but to maintain a permanent fund for
| banners brilliantly emblazoned. Such companies the sustentation of the worship on a scale commensur
generally arrived by the railway, and many came from
great distances. The party from Paris was the most ate with the dignity of the church. And well indeed
pretentious and picturesque of all. Starting from the did the bishop manage the business. In the first capital in the morning, it was nightfall when they place, he applied to the pope for the sanction and reached Boulogne, and they had to make their procesco-operation of his holiness; and meanwhile, nothing sion by the light of hundreds of torches--and they doubting the result, he commissioned the execution of presented a really striking spectacle. Led by a long & statue of the Virgin in stone, ten feet high, to stand
train of ecclesiastics in splendid attire, and accomon the summit of the edifice as a landmark and Star
panied by a powerful choir of skilled metropolitan
voices, they promenaded the Grande Rue under a series of the Sea.' Before raising it to its lofty elevation, he of triumphal arcs formed of flowers and foliage. They resolved to consecrate and bless the image, with the were apparently all of the well-to-do class, and were most imposing ceremonial, in the Place d'Armes, the clad in the current fashions of the day-the gentlemen very spot where the former image had been burned, blossoming in vests of delicate hue and pattern, and and in the presence of such an assembly as for the ladies bare-browed, oyster-shell bonneted, and centuries had not been gathered within the walls of most expansive in crinoline. Boulogne.
Day after day, the parishes of the northern pro
vinces poured in their pilgrims, and though numbers The bishop was not deceived in his expectations from
unavoidably departed almost as soon as they came, the pope. Pio Nono recommended the subject of the
the town grew rapidly full to overflowing. As each restoration of the pilgrimages to the shrine of Our band of pilgrims arrived at the cathedral, the gates Lady of Boulogne to his council of cardinals, and in were thrown open, the organ began to play, and
the choir in the gallery to sing-and the old Abbé portions of the vast procession, allotting to each indiHaffreingue, placing himself at the head of the new-vidual his or her proper place in the cortège, according comers, led them through the body of the church into to a programme previously distributed. The head of a small chapel in the rear dedicated to Our Lady of the procession, which in a straight line would have Boulogne, and to the foot of the altar of the Virgin, measured a mile and a half in length, was stationed which was surmounted by an image of Mary in her in the Place d'Armes, close to the now unveiled boat, gleaming in the light of many lamps around. statue of the Virgin. This statue is a work of remarkHere the companies were formed into ranks, and able beauty, and worthy of all the encomiums that kneeling, recited the petitions which mother-church | have been bestowed upon it, and is all too good to be had exacted as the price of the indulgences that were exiled to a height where its wonderful merit will be to follow. The prayers being at length finished, a lost to the observer. It stood beneath a magnificent white-robed priest glided along between the ranks, canopy of flowers and foliage; and from this point, as presenting to each suppliant an open money-box for the clock struck two, the van of the procession moved the reception of the votive-offerings. The appeal was forwards, descending the hill towards the lower town. liberally responded to; the silver and the gold chinked The procession consisted of two parts--the first being plentifully in the dark receptacle; and there can be formed of the representatives of the seven parishes of little doubt that during the fortnight these collections Boulogne--and the second being made up of pilgrims lasted, several thousands of pounds were thus silently from other parts, and including a number of dignified and unostentatiously contributed to the treasury of the ecclesiastics who sanctioned the proceedings with their church.
presence. I expected to grow weary of these endless flocks of In the front, marched a detachment of the police, pilgrims; but I did not, the reason perhaps being that horse and foot, to clear the way. Of the several the spectacle was one of continual variety, and the parishes, that of Portel took the lead. The suisse, excitement it occasioned was contagious. No two of very like an English beadle, only not so fat or so blue, the processions were alike-each seemed to have some but dazzling in scarlet and gold, stalked grandly, lead prominent peculiarity of its own-and in all of them ing the acolytes who in their vests of open lace bore there was a mingling of old-world faith and feeling the crucifix on high. Then followed the companies of with modern modes and customs, which, when it was young maidens in fifties, clad in white, and veiled not ridiculous, and perhaps even when it was, was almost to the skirt, each with a transverse scarf on often touchingly simple and suggestive. I ought to the shoulder. These, as they walked, burst into song, mention that while so large a provision was made for chanting sacred harmonies in praise of the Virgin the spiritual necessity of the pilgrims, their bodily Mother. A following band, no less beautifully clad, wants and their recreations had not been forgotten. carried the white banner of the Immaculate ConcepGood eating and drinking seemed, and was the order tion, and held in their hands lilies of gold. Then of the day, and the commissariat of the town had not came a troop of maidens, bearing baskets of flowers; been neglectful. Further, by way of amusement, the then the pupils of the parish-school in white garments, Vauxhall of Boulogne, the Tintelleries' Gardens, con- and bearing flags, banners, and streamers of all imaginsummated a gala every night-where a six hours' set- able devices, and brilliant with blossoms and gilding. to at dancing, gallanting, and carousing, was crowned Then came a company of men loaded with huge with a grand display of fireworks about the small banners on lofty poles, and reliquaries, and carved and hours preceding the dawn. This nocturnal excitement gilded representations of some event in the life of was found particularly convenient for those hand-to Mary. These were followed by troops of children, mouth Christians of the pilgrimage, who, having an with more flowers, ever-more flowers, flowers. Then indulgence to act upon, hardly knew what to do with a group of cultivators of the soil carried an image of it, and therefore summarily squared the account at the Virgin, and these were followed by a band of once, ere they departed to their homes, by taking an music. The whole seven parishes, linked together, equivalent in a debauch in the gardens. An enter- extended for nearly a mile. Among them were the tainment of a different kind attracted the more representatives of nearly every profession--the miliintellectual order of pilgrims. Every night, the church, tary in full dress, captains, colonels, and commanders which will hold four thousand auditors, was thrown -the magistracy and municipality, with the guilds open, and every night during these initiatory pilgrim- of all the trades—the navy, the mercantile marine, ages did the Abbé la Vigne, in a voice which resounded and the humble fishermen of the coast-shopkeepers, through the vast edifice, thunder his advocacy of the craftsmen, artisans, and agriculturists—and religious distinguishing doctrines of the Romish Church, and orders of every grade and every colour, and in all his denunciations against heresy and heretics. His varieties of costume. Of the young girls who figured fervid eloquence drew crowds to hear him, and the in the procession, there could not be many short of church was nightly filled--though & part of the two thousand, each of whom had been fitted out by attraction was perhaps due to the powers of a young her family at a cost which must have been far from monk who, during the performance of the mass which trifling. Their sweet voices rang pleasantly in the followed the discourse, poured forth tones exquisitely Sabbath air, and, answered by the deep responses of melodious, and manifested capacities as a vocalist the priests at a distance, produced an effect as novel probably unrivalled.
as it was striking to the ear. The last and grand day of the pilgrimages, which The second part of the procession, though less was expected to be, and was, the crowning climax of / varied, was of even weightier significance. A company the whole, was Sunday, the 30th of August. The sun of English Catholic ladies led the way; and it is no rose that morning in an unclouded sky--a cool breeze libel to assert that their costume offered a singular blew gently from the north-west over the ocean, and contrast to the display of French taste and elegance moderated the heats which had for a long time pre- which had gone before. They were followed by a band vailed - the air was balmy and fragrant with the of Parisians of both sexes, dressed as Parisians always odours of myriads of flowers which everywhere met dress for a spectacle. The nuns and friars in serge the eye. Six thousand persons in Boulogne spent the and frieze came next. Sisters of Charity, Redemptorist best hours of that morning at the toilet. Soon after Fathers, and an endless column of shaven priests, sucthe hour of noon had struck, they began to assemble ceeded. Another band of maidens in white pressed on in the streets, walks, and open places around the behind them, bearing presents to the Virgin, and a cathedral. There they were met by the priests, who, golden heart containing that famous relic, the old acting on a well-considered plan, arranged the several burned hand of the miraculous image, and flags,
banners, branches, and censers of smoking incense withi- is to be hoped, they found consolation for the mishap out number. Last of all came a reverend assembly of of the afternoon. And thus endeth the history of the bishops, who, to the number of nine, brought up the re-installation of the pilgrimages to Our Lady of rear. The Bishop of Arras marched first, with two Boulogne. tail-bearers, and with uplifted hand blessing the multitude as he went. Archbisliop Cullen-the great Irish
THE RYO T. Newton-and a cardinal in red stockings, closed the account.
The term 'ryot’ signifies simply an agricultural The procession, on the whole, was brilliant and labourer. Bengal contains eighty millions of inhasplendid beyond my powers of description. At the bitants of whom fully sis
bitants, of whom fully sixty millions are of this class : pace at which it moved, it took an hour and a half to
in other words, more than double the entire population pass any particular point. As it wound its slow trail
of the United Kingdom are in this one presidency sometimes in contrary directions through its sinuous route, flashing and sparkling in the clear sunlight, it engaged in cultivating the soil. This will cease to seemed an endless stream of life that would never pass be matter for astonishment when we remember that away; anon, it was thrown into perspective, and then not only Bengal, but the whole of India is, strictly the whole mass seemed moving under a forest of silken speaking, an agricultural country, where nineteenbanners which the west wind curled with countless twentieths of the exports are of raw produce. The ripples. And ever the voices rose in solemn chant; and amount of manufactured articles is most trifling; for the bursts of plaintive music from the accompanying although sugar, indigo, saltpetre, lac-dye, and other bands were borne upon the breeze.
articles of produce undergo a certain manufacturing But alas for the glory of the hour. Finis coronat | before being fit for the market, they do not come opus, says the adage; but the finis here was anything under the head of manufactures : they are but prebut a worthy crown to the proceedings. It had been pared vegetable products. resolved that, on the return to the point of departure, The condition of this large class of labourers, who the bishops and higher ecclesiastics should take post really produce the great staples of Indian commerce, at the top of the Grande Rue, and unitedly bless the and are, in fact, the sinews and bone of the land, assembled multitude. A scaffolding and platform had must be a subject of considerable importance at the been erected on the spot for the purpose. As the present moment. Until Great Britain can arrive at dignified personages returned from their long walk, a true appreciation of the position and interests of not a little weary, each took his place on the platform. the many classes of her Indian subjects, it is scarcely They were all assembled, bishops, archbishops, and possible for her to determine her future policy in cardinals, and were on the point of lifting their sacred regard to the country and those people. hands to shed a benediction on the crowd below, when! The ryot is not merely an agricultural labourer: suddenly the platform on which they stood gave way he is something more. He approaches more nearly with a terrible crash. Happily the planks had been to the Irish cottier in the nature of his tenure, though covered with a stout carpet; and the carpet, being far below him in the abjectness of his poverty, in the firmly lashed to the scaffolding poles, did not fall with hopelessness of his struggle with his fellow-man. the timber. The august prelates, instead of being We must understand, then, that the ryot is neither dashed precipitately to the ground, were therefore only more nor less than a farmer on a very minute scale: caught, as it were, in a blanket; but thus jumbled a small renter of a small fragment of land, sometimes together in a mass, there was a sad surrender of eccle- equal to several acres in extent; at other times, but siastical dignity. Bare heads knocking together, head- a few roods from boundary to boundary. The lands less mitres and red caps, abandoned crosiers, red legs they hold under various tenures are in nearly all sticking upwards, and redder faces puffing for breath; cases included in some zemindary or landed estate, and hands just stretched out to bless, now clutching the rights and privileges of which are put up for desperately at the empty air-such was the spectacle sale, just as any nobleman's estate may be in Great that greeted the expectant multitude. What is remark- Britain. able is the fact, if it be a fact, which we received from It usually happens, however, that in every village a near by-stander--that the great Irish luminary, he in a zemindary, there are far more hands than are who smashed the Norum Organum, in the midst of this needed for cultivating the land upon it; at any rate, right-reverend tussle, kept his footing, and retained it in the rough antique style of culture which they are to the last. Whether bis Milesian blood, which, as in the habit of giving it. This surplusage of labour all the world knows, is in its element in the atmo- is often sought for in indigo or sugar districts at sphere of a scrimmage, stood him in good stead-or considerable trouble, and some cost; indeed, it often whether, not believing in gravitation, he did not choose happens that the only mode by which village-labour to gravitate himself, this deponent sayeth not; he only can be secured, is by the purchase out and out of the says that his reverence from the sister-isle stood his zemindary. The people belong to the soil, rather than ground when all else lay prostrate, and emerged from the soil to them; hence, the purchaser of the one the blanket unscathed and unruffled. The worst of acquires with them an ownership in the other. It this mishap, however, was not the bodily injury sus constantly happens that when a European wishes to tained by their reverences, but the unfortunate twist commence indigo-making, silk-rearing, or coal-mining, which it gave to the conclusion of the fête, which was the only possible chance for his obtaining labour is to to have been so sublime. For the mob who had come purchase a few villages, well stocked with able-bodied to see the show were base enough to relish this part of men and handy women. It is the possession by sale it most of all. They broke out with a tremendous or lease of these populous villages which leads to cheer-they laughed, they roared, they yelled madly so many affrays and downright battles in various with delight-they clapped their hands till they were parts of the Indian Mofussil, as to call for legislative sore, and bawled for an encore; and so the final bless- interference. ing had to be administered on a safer footing, amidst During the government of Lord Cornwallis was all this merriment and din.
perpetrated one of the greatest blunders of that or After the blessing of the people, came the blessing of any other period : he completed what is known as the Virgin, which was followed by a sermon on the the Permanent Settlement ;' by which government, spot from the Bishop of Nevers; and the sermon was as owners of the soil, fixed for ever the rate at which followed by a banquet given by the mayor, to which the land should be assessed to the zemindars, irrethe dignified ecclesiastics were invited ; and where, it spective of any improvement which might take place.