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southERN view of EAston.
- In the foreground, beneath the spectator, are the Lehigh canal, river, basin, and outlet lock. On the right is the Lehigh bridge, and beyond the limestone cliff is the Delaware bridge. On the hili at the extreme left is the Catholic Church; in the center, above the town, is Lafayette
'ollege, and to the right of it the gap by which the Delaware breaks through Chestnut hill. The taller spires are those of the German Reformed and Lutheran Churches. grant such redress as the circumstances of things may require; and your petitioners will ever ray, &c. P Jasper Scull, Henry Rintker, Stophel Wagoner, Philip Mann, John Wagle, Jacob Miner, Nathaniel Vernon, Lodwick Connong, William Hoffman, Robert Latimore, David Jones, James. Percy, Robert McCracken, Robert Coungeiton, John Latimore, Thomas Sillyman, Thomas Wilson, William Hays, Thomas Patton, Conrad Hesse, Isaac Miller, Joseph Brader, William Mack, John Jones, Ballser Hesse, Jacob Bachman. The petition is endorsed, “John Fricker is not allowed a recommendation, &c., being a Roman Catholic.”
Easton was a favorite place for holding councils with the Indian chiefs between the years 1754 and 1761, while the French were endeavoring to seduce the tribes on the Susquehanna and the Ohio from their allegiance to the English. It was not uncommon to see from 200 to 500 Indians present on these occasions, and many of the dignitaries of the province and of other colonies. It was during the course of these negotiations that Teedyuscung, the Delaware chief, succeeded—by his eloquence, by the weight of his personal character, and by the firmness and cunning of his diplomacy—in redeeming his nation, in a great degree, from their degrading subserviency to the Six Nations; and also in securing from the proprietary government, in substance if not in form, some acknowledgment and reparation for the wrongs done to his nation by the subtleties of the Indian walk, and by calling in the aid of the Six Nations to drive them from the forks. He would scarcely have succeeded in securing these advantages, had he not been assisted and advised at every step by the Quakers and members of the Friendly Association, who were desirous of preserving peace and of seeing justice done to the Indians. They suggested to Teedyuscung the propriety of having a secretary of his own, (Charles Thompson, Esq.) to take minutes of what was said and done in council. This was to prevent that convenient forgetfulness which often seized the proprietary secretaries whenever the proprietary interest required it. This measure was strenuously resisted both by the governor and George Croghan, but firmly insisted upon by Teedyuscung. The first council was held in July, 1756; but as the parties were not fully prepared, and the attendance was small, the more important business was deferred until autumn. On the 8th Nov. 1756, the Indian tribes, Delawares, Shawanees, Mohicans, and Six Nations, represented by their principal chiefs and warriors, met Gov. Denny, with his council, commissioners, and secretary, and a great number of citizens of Philadelphia, chiefly Quakers. Great pomp was observed on these occasions. “At three o'clock,” says the record, “the governor marched from his lodgings to the place of conference, guarded by a party of the Royal Americans in front and on the flanks, and a detachment of Col. Weiser's provincials in subdivisions in the rear, with colors flying, drums beating, and music playing—which order was always observed in going to the place of conference. Teedyuscung, who represented four tribes, was the chief speaker on the occasion. o
- “When the governor requested of him to explain the cause of the dissatisfaction and hostility of the Indians, he mentioned several,—among which were, the instigations of the French, and the ill usage or grievances they had suffered both in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. “When the governor desired to be informed what these grievances were, Teedyuscung replied, ‘I have not far to go for an instance: this very ground that is under me (striking it with his soot) was my land and inheritance, and is taken from me by fraud. When I say this ground, I inean all the land lying between Tohiccon creek and Wioming, on the river Susquehanna. I have not only been served so in this government, but the same thing has been done to me as to several
tracts in New Jersey, over the river.” The governor asked him what he meant by fraud? Teedyuscung answered, “When one man had formerly liberty to purchase lands, and he took the deed from the Indians for it, and then dies—after his death his children forge a deed like the true one, with the same Indian names to it, and thereby take lands from the Indians which they never sold,—this is fraud; also, when one king has land beyond the river and another king has land on this side—both bounded by rivers, mountains, and springs, which cannot be moved—and the o greedy to purchase lands, buy of one king what belongs to another, this likewise is fraud.’
“Then the governor asked Teedyuscung whether he had been served so 7 . He answered, ‘Yes—I have been served so in this province : all the land extending from Tohiccon, over the great mountain, to Wioming, has been taken from me by fraud; for when I had agreed to sell land to the old proprietary by the course of the river, the young proprietaries came, and got it run by a strait course '. the compass, and by that means took in double the quantity intended to be sold ; and because they had been unwilling to give up the land to the English as far as the walk extended, the governor sent for their cousins the Six Nations, who had always been hard masters to them, to come down and drive them from the land. The English made so many presents to the Six Nations, that they would hear no explanation from the Delawares; and the chief (Conassatego) abused them, and called them women. The Six Nations had, however, given to them and the Shawanees the country on the Juniata for a hunting ground, and had so informed the governor; but notwithstanding this, the latter permitted the whites to go and settle upon those lands. That two years before, the governor had been to Albany to buy more of the lands of the Six Nations, and had described their purchase by points of compass, which they did not understand—including not only the Juniata, but also the West branch of the Susquehanna, which the Indians did not intend to sell ; and when all these things were known, they declared i. would no longer be friends to the English, who were trying to get all their country from
He assured the council that they were glad to meet their old friends the English, to smoke the pipe of peace with them, and hoped that justice would be done to them for all the injuries which they had received.”
This conference continued nine days, and at the close a treaty of peace was concluded between the Shawanees and Delawares and the English. The governor also offered to satisfy them for the land in the Forks and the Minisinks, but as many of those concerned in the land were not present, that question, at the suggestion of Teedyuscung, was adjourned, and was fully discussed at a subsequent council held at Easton in July, 1757. The old deeds were called for, but could not all be produced. Teedyuscung was well plied with liquor; and it was with great difficulty that the Quakers could keep him in a proper state to see clearly his own interest, and to resist the powerful intrigues of Col. Croghan with the Six Nations to weaken his influence. It was at length agreed to refer the deeds to the adjudication of the king and council in England, and the question was quieted for a time.
Another council was held here in the autumn of 1758, having for its object more especially the adjustment of all differences with the Six Nations, as well as with the other tribes. All the Six Nations, most of the Delaware tribes, the Shawanees, the Miamis, the Mohicans, Monseys, Nanticokes, Conoys, &c., were represented : in all, about 500 Indians were present. The governors of Pa. and New Jersey, Sir Wm. Johnson, Col. Croghan, Mr. Chew, Mr. Norris, and other dignitaries, with a great number of Quakers, also attended. Teedyuscung, who had been very influential in forming the council, acted as principal speaker for many of the tribes; but the Six Nations took great umbrage at the importance which he assumed, and endeavored to destroy his influence. Teedyuscung, however, notwithstanding he was well plied with liquor, bore himself with dignity and firmness, refused to succumb to the Six Nations, and was proof against the wiles of Col. Croghan and the governor. The council continued eighteen days. The land questions were discussed—especially the purchase of 1754, by which the line was run from near Penn's cr., N. W. by W., “to the western boundary of the state.” (See page 25.) All the land under that purchase beyond the Allegheny mountain was restored, the deed being confirmed for the remainder, except for lands on the West Branch. All causes of misunderstanding between the English and the Indians being removed, a general peace was concluded on the 26th Oct. An additional compensation for lands was given ; and at the close of the treaty stores of rum were opened to the Indians, who soon exhibited a scene of brutal intoxication. There was also another council held at Easton in 1761, concerning the Delaware settlement at Wyoming, in which Teedyuscung took an active and eloquent part. BEThlehem, the principal town of the United Brethren or Moravians in the U. States, occupies an elevated site on the left bank of the Lehigh, at the mouth of Manockisy cr. The scenery in the vicinity is said “not to be surpassed by the finest park and forest scenes in England, to which it bears a great resemblance.” The town has always elicited the admiration of travellers by its substantial, neat, and orderly appearance, corresponding with the character of the excellent people that founded it. The principal buildings and other objects of interest in the town are, the spacious church, capable of containing about 2,000 persons—the only one in the place; the Brothers' house, and Sisters' house, where those who choose to live in a state of single-blessedness, and still earn an independent support, can do so; the corpse-house and cemetery; the museum
of the Young Men's Missionary Society, containing a cabinet of minerals and a collection of curiosities sent in by the missionary brethren from all parts of the world; the very celebrated seminary for young ladies; the water-works on the Manockisy, said to have been in operation more than 90 years, and which furnished the model for those in Philadelphia.
All the property at Bethlehem belongs to the society, who lease out the lots only to members of their own communion. Each individual when of age becomes a voluntary subscriber to the rules of the society, with the right of withdrawing himself at pleasure; in which case, however, he is required to dispose of his property, if a householder, and remove from the town. Each member pursues his occupation on his own private account; but if any particular trade should suffer by too great competition, the society will not permit a new competitor in the same trade, although a member of the society, to locate himself in the place. This secures to all a competence. The society takes charge of its own poor, of which, however, there are very few. The Moravian system is probably the most successful attempt that has been made in the U. States to maintain a community on the common property plan, having been in operation for more than a hundred years. It is remarkable that there is not a single lawyer in the place, nor is one needed. There are only two hotels in the place—both good ones. Although the place has its full share of travel and of strangers, yet the society has never found it “necessary for the convenience of the public” to license six or eight tippling taverns. The Lehigh canal passes the town along the river. There is a bridge over the Lehigh. Population in 1840, 1,622.
“The Moravians are fond of music, and in the church, besides a fine-toned organ, they have a full band of instruments. When a member of the community dies, they have a peculiar ceremony: four musicians ascend to the tower of the church with trumpets, and announce the event by performing the death dirge. The body is immediately removed to the house appointed for the dead— the corpse-house'—where the remains are deposited for three days. The weeping willows, whose branches overhang this resting-place for the dead, convey an impression of the solemnity and silence which reigns in the narrow-house prepared for all mankind. It stands detached from all other buildings; excluded from all communication with the stir and bustle of business, and appears in character with the purpose to which it is devoted. On the third day the funeral service is performed at the church. The corpse is brought from the dead-house to the lawn in front, and after several strains of solemn music, the procession moves towards the grave, with the band still playing, which is continued some time after the coffin is deposited. The graveyard is kept with perfect neatness. The graves are in rows, on each of which is placed a plain white stone, about twelve inches square, on which is engraved the name of the deceased, and the date of his birth and death—nothing more is allowed by the regulations of the society. A stone, rude as it may be, is sufficient to tell where we lie, and it matters little to him on whose pulseless bosom it reposes. The ground is divided into various apartments, for males, females, adults, children, and strangers. Among the many graves that we looked at was that of the pious Heckewelder, born 1743, died in 1823.”
“We were shown the house where Lafayette lay during his recovery from the wound received at the battle of Brandywine, and were told that the woman who acted as a nurse had an inter. view with the old general when he last visited the country, and that she was now living in the * Sister House.’”—Travellers' Notes.
In the ninth century a sister of the King of Bulgaria being carried a prisoner to Constantinople, became a Christian, and, through her means, on her return to her native land, a Christian church was established in her country, of which the King of Moravia and the Duke of Bohemia were members. A part of these churches were afterwards forced into the Roman church, but a select few still refused to bow the knee to Rome. This little remnant, adhering to the pure and simple doctrines of the primitive church, suffered a variety of persecutions for several centuries, and at last were permitted to live in a wasted province on the borders of Moravia. Here they established a church in 1457, on what they deemed “the Rule and Law of Christ,” calling thenselves at first Fratres legis Christi, Brethren of the Law of Christ, and finally, Unitas Fratrum, or United Brethren. They were a regular, sound, and evangelical church a century before the reformation of Luther; and were in intimate communion with the Waldenses, who had been