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they term them, of a barbarous and servances of our respective ecclesiasunenlighter.eil age; and hail their ut- tical establishments. Our national ter excinction as a proof of the rapid church assumes an apostolical simpliimprovement of our national manners. city in its arrangements and holy ordiIt may be so; but I cannot help la- nances. The weekly recurring Sabmenting, when I observe, that with baths of tranquillity and rest are the the poetical superstitions of the pea- only days set apart from the bustle santry of England, as well as of our own of life, and exclusively appropriated country, much of that high-spirited in, to the observances of public service, dependence and native dignity of soul, and the worship of the Most High. which was their proudest boast, have With us there are no “ moveable taken their departure. But society has feases." Lent passes unnoticed, and not yet reached that pointof refinement the precise date of Easter day and Rowhere the meanest of its members are gation Sunday is a matter never intotally free from the influence of oc- quired after. Scarcely one among, a cult and undefined sensations, leading thousand will be found who are the to the belief in supernatural agency. least curious to know whether the The lighter and more airy and roman- Dominical letters be BA or DC, or tic particles of the popular creed may whether the Epact or the Golden Numhave evaporated; but there is left be- ber be above or below twelve. hind a gross and unetherial residuum, How different the case is among which betrays its existence in a su- the adherents of Episcopacy requires perabundance of offensive shapes, - not to be stated. To them an almaand in none more so than in the uni- nack for the year is indispensable ; yet versal popularity and extensive circu. I see no good reason why any thing lation of the astrological absurdities more than the astronomical phenowhich are annually bought, and their mena of the season, and such tables contents as eagerly swallowed as the and informations as may be of fre“ Christmas puilding” of the south, quent use, ought to become the daily or the well concocted curran bun"

manual of a whole people; or why of the north, at this merry season.

their understandings should, in the The predictions of professional star- nineteenth century, be insulted by the gazers, of Francis Moore, physician, political prophecies and meteorologiand others of his tribe, are, however, cal anticipations of obscure astrolomuch less attended to in Scotland gers, who must either be enthusiasts than they appear to be among our or impostors. wealthier neighbours across the Tweed; What would an intelligent foreignand the few copies of their “ Prognos, er think of the taste and literary retications” which travel so “far north”

finementofour professional bibliopoles, as our domicils, I understand from my who, as a company, are, in London, bookseller, meet with a very slow sale the exclusive publishers of these silly and limited circulation. Many plau- trash, after a perusal of “ Vox Stelsible reasons might be assigned for larum, or a Loyal Almanack for the this apparent difference in national

year of Human Redemption 1820 ; in feeling and taste.

It may be said, which are contained all things fitting that the Scotsman, with his usual for such a work; as astrological obforesight and sagacity, although he servations for the four quarters of the

year; observations on the weather, _" That words and signs have power weather-glasses, rain, &c.; an hieroO'er sprites in planetary hour,"

glyphic adapted to the times ; and yet dreads something “uncanny" in other matters both profitable and cutoo close a familiarity with the pro- rious;"—the black portions in the tyficients in their use, and

pography of which are tastefully in“ Deems not well their venturous part,

tersected with blotches of red, and Who tamper with such dangerous art;" which introduces itself and the month or something may be imputed to the of January to its readers in the fol. superior intelligence and literary taste lowing tasteful lines? of the working classes of our country- “ Now, reader, come and lay thy envy by, men, compared with those of the same

And view the products of the etherial sky; rank in England ; and, above all, to And calmly trace the motions of the sphere, the dissimilarity of the ritual and ob- To see what follows in the ensuing year;

may believe

Who can behold the heavenly canopy, The legs unto Aquarius' lot do fall,
And not admire the sacred Deity ?" The Fish our active feet their portion call,

is laid down. But I must tear myIn the same page, its author, Fran

self cis Moore, physician, who, by the “Mutations will happen," says he,

away

from the worthy physician. bye, must by this time be fast verg

“ thus has it been since the foundaing to the age of Methusalah, informs tions of the world !” Little did he us, that the New Year is “ likely to

probably imagine, when penning this begin with rain,” and kindly points sublime exclamation, how soon it was out those parts and portions of the to be verified! How could he suphunan frame on which particular days exert their influence during the pose, that, after reigning lord of the month. The knowledge that the 15th ascendant for so many years, he should

now be jostled on the highway of pubof January is unquestioned sovereign lic opinion, or that “ Vox Siellarum” of the belly, the 16th of the reins, and would ever require to fight with a rithe 25th of the hams, is surely of in- val in borrowed plumes,-in other estimable value!

words, lose a single purchase by the "Here now follow," says the sa

sale of “ Will's Moore's Almanack pient Doctor, in the month of April; improved?This second sun will not, here now follow my monthly ob

however, long continue the contest. servations relating to the political af- As an almanack, it possesses the unfairs of the world.” “After the many pardonable blemish of containing dangers and troublesome transactions much useful information, and but a we have laboured under for some small portion of absurdity; of course, years past,” continues this Sir Oracle, it never can be extensively popular.

we are now arrived at the year 1820, It is not, in justice to its claims to and (mirabile dictu !), still we find public notice, I may observe, altogethat the heavens do walk in a constant ther barren and unfruitful in respect course of circular motions !" I have of the latter qualification, although its much pleasure in informing my fe- oracles are delivered in a tame and unmale friends, that the Doctor assures

impressive manner, compared with his readers, that signal and emi

those of the illustrious work which it nent marriage” will take place near has audaciously attempted to improve the conclusion of June. It is not, upon. Its writer does not on any occahowever, quite so agreeable to learn, sion saddle his Pegasus, and really is so that, in the succeeding month, “trou- weak as on several occasions to betray bles are threatened to Holland and Prus- the possession of a few grains of comsia;" although “ the Protestant” will mon sense. The following are prodoubtlt ss rejoice to hear, that the Pope mising attempts, I must, however, is to be poisoned in October, and the “ In March, excepting Mars, lovers of mischief to understand, that all the planets are above the earth; "broils and uneasiness” are to“ appear but Mars is posted in the third house, very barefaced” in November, in which and moving retrograde.

Both the important month, too, a gentleman moon and Saturn are posted in the of the long robe meets disgrace, a fe- eleventh house, and Venus is followmale of note meets sorrow and afflic- ing the sun in the west. Considertion, and a sly intrigue comes to ing this planetary scheme, great and light." However, in December, he great deliberations are likely to occuinforms his readers,

py the cabinets of Europe at this time.

Spain will bite the dust.” In April, This year of troubles draweth to an end, The stars erratic row do disagree :

“ monarchs and their ambassadors Blest be those worthies that their time do will be active.” “Woe to the 'Turks;" spend

and “ although the configurations are In eultivating peace and harmony.

pacific, an eminent match promises to The weather's cloudy, and 'tis mostly cold, engross the public mind.” Great store of rain or snow we now be The improvements of modern arthold.

ists in the art of engraving are de

servedly applauded. By what indiIn the Doctor's elegant stanzas up- vidual 'the vignette of the Ladies' on "the Influenee of the Moon on Diary, or Woman's Almanack," for Man's Body” in the “Twelve Signs,” the present year is executed I am ige the important fact, that

norant, but in freedom, softness, and

a

own.

as

an interesting air of obscurity, I have amusements seem to have gained a never seen any cut surpassing the por- less extensive patronage, at least am trait of a “woman" there given. The mong the possessors of the Ladies' interior arrangements and contents do Diary, and its “ male brother," who, not belie the promise of the title-page, I presume, are a body by no means (no mean praise in modern times!) We despicable in point of numbers, than haveoften heard it lamented, that'“the I was at first inclined to dread. age of chivalry is gone." With more

“ And does Scotland prefer no truth, and, i dare say, fully as much claims, as a nation, to celebrity in the sincerity, I have frequently sighed at world of Almanacks?" methinks I recollecting how much the days, or hear it asked. My answer is, simply rather the nights, of“ guessing” have the production of “ The Belfast Town disappeared, when the full-grown wo- and Country Prognosticator," " for man and the aspiring boy cheerfully this present year, as the hawkers and happily wiled away five dreary have it. The title-page declares it to hours of a winter evening in unravel- be printed in Dublin, and calculated ling the intricacies of such an enigma at Belfast; it is, however, shrewdly

suspected to be one of “ The comCome a reetle, come a rattle, come a rat the immortal Bailie Nicol Jarvie.

forts o' the Sautmarket," bewailed by tat tot,

The Irish excel in " buttering a stoA wee wee man wi' a red red coat, A staff in his hand, and a bane in his ry,” and it must, I have no manner throat.

of doubt, have been a mirthful son of

the sod, who, half in jest and half by How delighted was the domestic cir. his unalienable right of blundering, cle when some individual luckier than drew up the article “ Memorable ethe rest relieved us of our anxiety, by vents for 1820.” Poor Sandy's love declaring that these said lines were de- of antiquity is here unmercifully scriptive of a cherry! In supposing quizzed upon ; he is gravely told that that the popularity of this amusement 5827 years have elapsed since the was on the decline, I have been wo- creation of the world, 2227 since the fully mistaken. - The Woman's Al- Scots entered Albion ; 2148 since the manack” is crowded with similar building of Edinburgh Castle; and “ merrie conceits,” expressed, with 3002 since the reign of Fergus the their answers, in numbers worthy a- First ! like of the subject and of this poetical But I must conclude, and I cannot age. The following lines are almost do so in a better manner than is exequal in beauty to the popular quota- emplified by the work last quoted, tion given above :

namely, by dismissing my readers with

a smile on their face, that is, if a speThe gallant ship, she leaves the strand,

cimen of its budget of anecdotes will And 'minishes to view;

raise one. The kerchief from the lily hand

Well, then, here followIs graceful wav'd adieu !

eth an excerpt from the record allud

ed to. Two English gentlemen, What, too, can be more light and sometime ago, visited the field of happy than the following lines from Bannockburn, so celebrated for the the Gentleman's Diary," “ The defeat of Edward's army. A sensible eightieth of the kind.”

countryman pointed out to them the Full bent was I, good Mr Di,

positions of the hostile nations, the To solve your prize so queer,

stone where Bruce's standard was fixWhen lo! a fly came whisking by,

ed during the battle, &c. Highly And buzz'd against my ear?

pleased with his attention, the gen

tlemen on leaving him pressed his acThat posterity may do justice to ceptance of a crown piece. “Na, na,' the memory of the author of this bril- said the honest man, returning the liant distich, I chronicle his name, - money, keep your crown piece, the 'tis Mr William Birkin, student, Free English hae paid dear aneugh already School, Dronefield. It appears, then, for seeing the field of Bannockburn." that my uneasiness at the decline of I am, &c. the popularity of such pastimes is un

AN OLD SUBSCRIBER. necessary and gratuitous. Rational

Glasgow, Jan. 11, 1820.

ور

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Regent Fishing Bank. It is well were only antheræ filled with pollen, was known, that, next to the Newfoundland properly rejected by Hedwig, but lias been Banks, those of Shetland are the most revived by Beauvois ; the question may productive in ling, cod, tusk, and other now be regarded as finally settled ; for in white fish ; and by the recent discovery Mr Drummond's experiments, the powder of a bank, trending many leagues to the from the capsules never failed to germinate ; south-westward, the British merchants have and he uniforinly obtained the same spemade a vast accession to their fishing cies of moss from which the capsules had grounds. In the small picturesque Bay of been taken. He tried the seeds, both in Scalloway, and in some of the other bays earth and in water. In the former case, he and roes on the western side of the Main- previously torrified the earth, so as to exland of Shetland, the fishing upon this new clude the possibility of other minute seeds bank has been pursued with great success. existing in it in a state fit for vegetation : Here small sloops, of from 15 to 25 tons the earth having been thus rigorously puburden, and manned with eight persons, rified, was put into garden-pots ; these, have been employed. In the beginning of again, were covered closely with small bellAugust they had this summer fished for glasses, and moisture was communicated to twelve weeks, generally returning home the pots by placing them in water that had with their fish once a week. On an aver been boiled. In the other case, he sowed age, these vessels had caught 1000 fine cod. the seeds on the surface of rain-water, and fish a-reek, of which about 600 in a dried kept the vessel carefully covered. In the state go to the ton, and these they would water, the germination proceeded with bare gladly sold at about L. 15 per ton. great rapidity, being visible the second or So numerous are the fish upon the Regent third day, when examined with the comFishing Bank, that a French vessel, be. pound microscope. Mr Drummond found, longing, it is believed, to St Maloes, had that the seeds of all the different kinds of sailed with her second cargo of fish this mosses produced at first similar articulated season ; and though the fishermen did filaments. These Hedwig regarded as coDot mention this under any apprehension, tyledons, and Sprengel as minute conas though there were danger of the fish fervæ; they are, however, neither cotylebecoming scarce, yet they seemed to regret dons nor confervæ, but germinating expanthe circumstance, on account of their mar sions of the seed itself, somewhat analogous ket being thus pre-occupied.-Phil. Jour. to what is called the spawn of mushrooms.

George Bidder. This wonderful boy, On the moist earth the process of germinawho is only thirteen years old, and is weli tion is more slow; in a fortnight, however, known for the singular faculty of perform the surface of the pots is covered with a ing in his mind the most complex and dif. substance resembling green velvet ; and in ficult arithmetical computations, arrived about three weeks, the proper leaves begin some weeks ago in Edinburgh for the pur. to appear. It has long been suspected, pose of exhibition. It occurred to a pub- that many of the small confervæ would relic-spirited individual, Henry Jardine, Esq. quire to be expunged from botanical lists : to whose benevolence and enlightened zeal Mr Drunimond's experiments will hasten most of the charitable and scientific insti. this result; the well known Byssus velututions of this city have been under great tina, he ascertained to be nothing else than obligations, that it would be highly desir. Polytrichum aloides in the first stage of able to rescue this interesting boy from vegetation. A full account of Mr Drumbeing the subject of a public show; and, mond's curious and important observations having obtained his father's consent, he set will probably appear in the next volume on foot a subscription for providing him of the Transactions of the Linnean Society. with the means of maintenance and edu New Society of Arts in Edinburgh. cation for some of the learned professions. We understand that several gentlemen in The progress of his mind will be watched Edinburgh have been occupied for a consi. by some of the members of the Royal So- derable time in establishing a Society for ciety and the University.-Phil. Jour. the Promotion of the Mechanical and Use

Germination of the Musci.-Mr James ful Arts in Scotland, for rewarding invenDrummond, Superintendent of the Bota- tions of public utility, and disseminating nic Garden at Cork, has lately made some useful knowledge among the industrious very curious and important observations on classes of society. A leading object of the the germination of mosses. He has suc- Society will be to erect a hall for depositceeded in tracing the progress from the ing instruments, and models of machinteed of nearly thirty species. The opinion ery of all kinds. of Linnæus, that the capsules of mosses New Siliccous Grass. In the hills be

VOL. VI.

tween the Circars and the Nagpore coun en-pot, and covered with six inches of dry try, a kind of jungle grass occurs in great goat's dung: fire is then applied ; and in abundance, in the joints of which a very twelve hours the pots are sufficiently cool perfect siliceous deposit is found. Dr Rox. to be removed.” Black Rock-crystal may burgh makes no mention of it. This curi. be made quite colourless by heat. Some ous fact is contained in a letter from Dr specimens may be obtained of a yellow coMoore to Dr Kennedy of Edinburgh. lour by not continuing the fieat too long.

Glass from Struw.Wheat straw may The colour of the Amethyst may be taken be melted into a colourless glass with the away by a moderate heat ; if the heat be blowpipe, without any addition. Barley increased, it becomes white and opalescent. straw melts into a glass of a topaz-yellow The amethyst is more apt to crack with colour.

the heat than rock-crystal. The Beryl is Annual Quantity of Salt raised from changed with a moderate heat to a light Earth in Europe. - It would appear, from a blue; when the heat is raised, it becomes careful examination of the most accurate re- like mother-of-pearl. The Emerald has turns, that the European salt-mines and the same kind of pearly lustre when heatsalt-springs afford annually from 25 to 30 ed. The colour of the Chrysoberyl is not millions of hundred weights of salt. altered with a red heat. Dr Clarke ex

Silk of the Pinna Marina.—The pinna posed a Diamond of an amber colour to shell occurs on the Neapolitan coast, parti. the flame of the gas blowpipe ; it became cularly on the shores of Calabria, and af- colourless and transparent; by continuing fords a kind of silk, which, after dressing, the heat it became white and opaque, and is wove with common silk, and made into was volatilised. Blue Fluor-spar changes various articles of dress. A pair of men's to a kind of red when heated, and when gloves cost 13 carlinis.-women's gloves the heat is raised, it is often rendered co18,-- pair of stockings 6 ducats, waist- lourless. coat 30, and coat 100 ducats.

France.--Natural History.-M. de LaCanary-Bird without l'cathers. It is lande, associate naturalist to the king's generally supposed that birds cannot live garden, Paris, is now employing his time without feathers, or that they linger out a in foreign travels. In May 1817, he emmiserable existence for a few days or weeks. barked from the harbour of Brest, in the This, however, does not appear to be true; Golo, one of the king's ships, to visit the for we find it stated in the Memoirs of the isle of Bourbon. He is authorized to reSociety of Natural History of Wetterau, main for some months at the Cape of Good that a Mr Schæpf of Gottorf reared a Hope. He will there pursue his researches featherless canary-bird, which continued in botany, zoology, and all the departments living and in good health for upwards of of natural history. Afterwards he will three years.

proceed on his voyage to India, to proseMethod of taking Impressions of Gems cute the ulterior and principal objects of and Seals in Shell-lac.—Take a piece of his mission in the Indian Seas. mica, and put some lac upon it ; hold it Economy of Fuel.-M. Valette, mecha. over the fire till the lac is softened, which nists of Paris, has brought to great perfecmust then be spread evenly over the mica; tion his new inventions for economizing on the surface of the lac put a piece of gold. combustible materials. His process has leaf or coloured foil, about the size of the been submitted to, and received the sancimpression to be taken ; and cover this also tion of, the Academy of Sciences, and the with a thin layer of lac ; it must now be Society of Encouragement. It embraces softened at the fire, and the impression ta- an extensive plan for supplying families ken as with sealing-wax. The lac takes a with moveable warm-baths in their own very sharp impression; and the reflection houses, and for a sort of ambulatory caul. from the gold-leaf gives the figures a fine drons or flesh-pots, for the use of naval relief. The mica is convenient for melting armaments or of soldiers by land. He the lac upon, and the impression easily se means also to adapt it to the coppers or parates from it, leaving the back with a large kettles of dyers and brewers." In all fine shining surface, and beautiful iride these cases the expence will be diminished scent colours, occasioned by a thin plate of three-fourths; and, what is of high im. the mica adhering to the lac. The same portance, the wounded in a field of battle piece of mica may be used for many im- may always have a supply of soups. Very pressions. In softening the lac, the heat superior advantages are expected from this should not be so strong as to make air. invention. bubbles rise, as it is difficult to get quit of Dr Wollaston has recently ascertained them again.

the existence of potash in sea-water. He Experiments on the Colour of Minerals. estimates the proportion of this alkali, which -The Yellow Carnelian may be changed he supposes to exist in the state of sulphate, into a fine red, by exposing it in a cru- at something less than 1-2000th part of the cible with sand to a heat under redness. water at its average density. In India, “ the stones are put into an earth Germany.-- An order has been issued

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