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Lord Russell was committed to the
Tower on the 26th June, tried on the
13th July, and executed in Lincoln's
Inn Fields on the 21st July 1633. The
particulars of this atrociously unjust
sentence, and the shameful manage-
ment of the trial which preceded it,
as also the heroic conduct of Lady
Russell upon that occasion, and the
calm and pious magnanimity of her
lord, have been a favourite theme
with all the writers of history or me-
moirs at the time; and even the in-
veteracy of party prejudice has never
raised a dissenting voice against those
honours and eulogies that decked the
untimely grave of Lord Russell, and
shed a lustre over the sorrowful seclu-
sion of his afflicted widow. The edi-
tor of this work, speaking of the time
when he was apprehended, (not chus-
ing to shun a trial when the escape
was put in his power,) says,

550

"To see any body preparing, and taking their way to see what I long to do a thousand times more than they, makes me not endure to suffer their going, without saying something to my best life; though it is a kind of anticipating my joy when we shall meet, to allow myself so much before the time: but I confess I feel a great deal, that, though I left London with great reluctance, (as it is easy to persuade men a woman does,) yet that I am not like to leave Stratton with greater. They will tell you how well I got hither, and how well I found our dear treasure here: your boy will please you; you will, I think, find him improved, though I tell you so before hand. They fancy he wanted you; for, as soon as I alighted, he followed, calling Papa; but, I suppose, it is the word he has most command of; so was not disobliged by the little fellow. The girls were fine, in remembrance of the happy 29th of September; and we drank your health, after a red-deer pie; and at night your girls and I supped on a sack posset: nay, master would have his room, and for haste burnt his fingers in the posset; but he does but rub his hands for it. It is the most glorious weather here that The coach shall meet you at the cabbage-garden: be there by eight o'clock, or a little after; though I guess you can hardly be there so soon, day breaks so late; and indeed the mornings are so misty, it is not wholesome to be in the air so early. I do propose going to my neighbour Worseley to-day. I would fain be telling my heart more things-any thing to be in a kind of talk with him; but, I believe, Spencer stays for my dispatch: he was willing to go early; but this was to be the delight of this morning, and the support of the day. It is performed in bed, thy pillow at my back, where thy dear head shall lie, I hope, to-morrow trust in His night, and many more, mercy, notwithstanding all our enemies or ill-wishers. Love, and be willing to be R. RUSSELL. loved, by

ever was seen.

"I need not tell you, good Doctor, how little capable I have been of such an

"I have not seen your brother; yet I exercise as this. You will soon find how wish matters go well."

unfit I am still for it; since my yet disordered thoughts can offer me no other than such words as express the deepest sorrow, and confused as my yet amazed mind is. But such men as you, and particularly one so much my friend, will, I know, bear with my weakness, and compassionate my distress, as you have already done, by your good letter, and excellent "You, that knew us both, prayer.

and how we lived, must allow I have just cause to bewail my loss. I know it is common to others to lose a friend; but to have lived with such a one, it may be questioned how few can glory in the like happiness, so, consequently, lament the

"From this moment, till after her husband's death, we know little of Lady Russell, but what is recorded in the history of her country, where her name will be embalmed with her Lord's, while passive courage, devoted and unblemished purity, are honoured in the one sex, or public patriotism, private virtues, or unshaken principles, revered in the other."

A letter to Dr Fitzwilliam, a dissenting clergyman who deservedly shared much of her confidence, gives the first notice that appears of the state of her mind under the pressure of this aggravated calamity. The Doctor had written to endeavour to assist her in lifting up her mind to heaven, when all other consolation must have been useless. She replies,

There are only six more preserved, perhaps the shortness of her absences from her lord gave occasion to no more; this one was dated 20th September 1631. In less than two years the fatal event took place that overwhelmed this admirable person with the deepest and most lasting affliction, filled the country with astonish ment, sorrow, and indignation, and finally was not a little instrumental in paving the way for the expulsion of that prince to whose jealousy and resentment her lord was sacrificed.

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like loss. Who can but shrink from such a blow!

I

son, who appears to have been very amiable, and the object of the most tender and unbounded affection, died of the small-pox in the thirty-third year of his age, after being for several years happily married, leaving children to reap the benefit of his mother's wisdom and experience. Our extracts have been so ample, that we cannot afford room, at present, for a valuable letter of advice addressed to him, nor for a very affecting one addressed to Archbishop Tillotson after his death. She was destined to have all her Christian fortitude called forth, to support her unworld in my own way; and this sure hinder the loss of her younger daughter, ders my comfort. When I see my children before me, I remember the pleasure he took in them: this makes my heart shrink. Can I regret his quitting a lesser good for a greater? Oh! if I did but steadfastly believe, I could not be dejected; for I will not injure myself to say, I offer my mind any inferior consolation to supply this loss. No: I most willingly for sake this world, this vexatious, troublesome world, in which I have no other business, but to rid my soul of sin, secure by faith and a good conscience my eternal interests, with patience and courage bear my eminent misfortune, and ever hereafter be above the smiles and frowns of fortune.""

Lord let me understand the reason of these dark and wounding providences, that I sink not under the discouragement of my own thoughts! I know have deserved my punishment, and will be silent under it; but yet secretly my heart mourns, too sadly, I fear, and cannot be comforted, because I have not the dear companion and sharer of all my joys and sorrows. I want him to talk with, to walk with, to eat, and sleep with. All these things are irksome to me. The day unwelcome, and the night so too; all company and meals I would avoid, if it might be: yet all this is, that I enjoy not the

From

the Duchess of Rutland, who died in
child-bed in the same year.
seeing this beloved child laid in her
coffin, she went to visit the Duchess
of Devonshire, likewise in child-bed,
who inquiring anxiously for her sis-
ter, her mother, with extraordinary
presence of mind, said to her, "I
have to-day seen your sister out of
bed." The afflictions which Lady
Russell felt so deeply, yet supported
so firmly, would have overwhelmed
any ordinary mind, but in hers they
only called forth greater powers of
exertion, and furnished occasion for
the exercise of more severe and ex-
alted virtues. Her life, useful and
exemplary to the last, was prolonged
to her eighty-sixth year, and in enu-
merating, with humble gratitude, the
blessings that still remained to her
after her signal misfortune, she men-
tions the continuance of a greater de-
gree of health than common, which
was even improved, since all worldly
pleasures had become indifferent to
her, for in her happiest days she had
been subject to severe and frequent
headaches, which never returned in
the days of her affliction. There is
an extremely interesting fragment,
written when she was very old, in
which she had begun to take a sort of
review of her life, in a supplication to
Heaven for pardon on the transgres-
sions she recapitulates; and, as is well
remarked by the Editor, the scrupul-
ous exactness with which she dissects
these, may assure us she had not
weightier matters to bring forward in
the account.

Yet so was her mind borne up under this severest trial by her true piety, and the love that devolved to her from him adding a holy fervour to maternal solicitude, that she left no duty undone to his children, but watched over their health, their interest, and their instruction, with the vigilance of a mind occupied by no other care. She was loved, honoured, and sought to in her retirement, by all that was most estimable and most exalted by character as well as rank in the kingdom. Her husband's attainder was early reversed by an act of William and Mary, in which his execution was declared to be a murder. And she appears to have been in intimate correspondence with Queen Mary, and entitled to ask any favour for those she deemed worthy of her patronage. Her daughters proved worthy of their parents, and of the judicious care bestowed on their education. She had the satisfaction of seeing them, at an early age, married to the heirs of the two most illustrious families in England, one of them being Duchess of Devonshire, and the other of Rutland. Her only

66 Vanity cleaves to me, I fear, O Lord! in all Í say, in all I do. In all I suffer, proud, not enduring to slights or

enough so, my servants went to church, if
I did, or did not go myself.

"Some time after in London, and then with my father's wife at Tunbridge, and after with her at Bath, gave too much of my time to carelessly indulging in idleness. At Bath too well contented to follow the common way of passing the time in diversion, and thinking but little what was serious: considering more health of body than that of my soul. Forgive my heaviness and sloth in spirituals, for Christ Jesus' sake.

552

neglects, subject to envy the good parts of
others, even as to worldly gifts. Failing in
my duty to my superiors; apt to be soon
angry with, and without cause too often;
and by it may have grieved those that de-
sired to please me, or provoked others to
Not ready to own
sin by my rash anger.
any advantage I may have received by
good advice or example. Not well satis-
fied if I have not all the respect I expected,
even from my superiors. Such has been
the pride of my naught heart, I fear, and
also neglect in my performances due to my
superiors, children, friends, or servants-
I heartily lament my sin. But, alas! in
my most dear husband's troubles, seeking
help from man, but finding none. His life
was taken away, and so sorely was my
spirit wounded, even without prospect of
future comfort or consolation-the more
faulty in me, having three dear children to
perform my duty to, with thankfulness for
such a blessing left me, under so heavy
a dispensation as I felt the loss of him to
be. But, alas! how feeble did I find
myself both then, and also poorly prepared
to bear the loss of my dear child and only
son, in 1711.

"If I carry my sorrow to the grave, O Lord, in much mercy let it not be imputed as sin in me! His death was a piercing sorrow to me, yet thou hast sup. ported me, Lord! even in a very old age, and freer from bodily pains and sickness than most feel-I desire thankfully to recollect.

"After this, I must still accuse myself that sometimes in Wales, and other times in England, my care in good has not suited to my duty, not with the active and devout heart and mind 1 should in the evening have praised thee, my God, for the mercies of the past day, and recollected my evil doings, or omissions of doing good in my power. Not in the morning carefully fixing my will and purpose to pass the day pleasing in thy sight, and giving good example to man, particularly such as under my care; more especially after my second marriage, forgetting by whose blessing I was so happy, consuming too much time with him.""

"Alas! from my childhood I can recollect a backwardness to pray, and coldness when I did, and ready to take or seek cause to be absent at the public ones. Even after a sharp sickness and danger at Chelsea, spending my time childishly, if not idly; and if I had read a few lines in a pious book, contented I had done well. Yet, at the same time, ready to give ear to reports, and possibly malicious ones, and telling my mother-in-law, to please her. At seventeen years of age was married; continued too often being absent at the public prayers, taking very slight causes to be so, liking too well the esteemed diversions of the town, as the Park, visiting, plays, &c. trifling away my precious time. At our return to London, I can recollect that I would choose upon a Sunday to go to church at Lord B.'s, where the sermon would be short, a great dinner, and after, worldly talk; when at my father's, the sermon longer, and discourse more edifying. And too much after the same way, I much fear, at my several returns to Wales and England. In the year 1665, was brought to bed of my first child; with him too in. dulging 1 fear to get strength soon, and spend my time as before, much with my loved sisters; I doubt not heedful, or not

No one, who has the happiness of knowing the distinguished female to whom the public owe this selection of materials, can read without emotion the conclusion of the memoir. Beauty, grace, wit, elegance, all the charm of polished and intelligent conversation, all, in short, that is calculated to excite admiration, added to the more solid virtues that exalt the female character, we see verging to decline with a feeling like that of watching a beacon light on the point of extincBut we shall quote the pastion. sage, and conclude our extracts with this testimonial to female excellence, which may be truly styled praise from the praise-worthy.

"May the writer of these pages be permitted to hope, while fast sinking to the grave that must shortly close on an insignificant existence-may she be allowed to hope, that existence rescued from the imputation of perfect inutility, by having thus endeavoured to develope, and hold up to the admiration of her country women, so bright an example of female excellence as the character of Lady Russell? a character whose celebrity was purchased by the sacrifice of no feminine virtue, and whose principles, conduct, and sentiments, equally well adapted to every condition of her sex, will in all be found the surest guides to peace, honour, and happiness."

4

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Weights and Measures.-The commercial world will learn with satisfaction, that a plan has been commenced, under the auspices of the British Government, for determining the relative contents of the weights and measures of all trading countries. This important object is to be accomplished by procuring from abroad correct copies of Foreign standards, and comparing them with those of England at his Majesty's Mint. Such a comparison, which could be effected only at a moment of universal peace, has never been attempted on a plan sufficiently general or systematic: and hence the errors and contradictions which abound in tables of Foreign weights and measures, even in works of the highest authority. In order, therefore, to remedy an inconvenience so perplexing in commerce, Lord Castlereagh has, by the recommendation of the Board of Trade, issued a circular, dated March 16, 1818, directing all the British Consuls abroad to send home copies of the principal standards used within their respective consulates, verified by the proper authorities, and accompanied by explanatory papers and other documents relative to the subject. Most of his Lordship's orders have been already executed in a very full and satisfactory manner. The dispatches and packages transmitted on the occasion are deposited at the Royal Mint, where the standards are to be forthwith compared. The comparisons are to be made by Robert Bingley, Esq. the King's Assay Master of the Mint, and the calculations by Dr Kelly, of Finsbury Square, who originally submitted the plan to Government; and who will publish the results of those comparisons and calculations, as soon as they are completed, in the second edition of his "Universal Cambist."

Improvement on Boats.-We congratulate the public on the application or a simple mechanical apparatus to impel boats, instead of oars. It consists of the machinery of steam-vessels, but the moving pow. er is the hand applied to a windlass. Boats were first used on this principle with suc cess on Whit-Monday, between London and Greenwich. The labour is much less than that of oars, and the impulse of the boat through the water much increased in swiftness.

Naphtha. Mineralogists and chemists are aware of the existence of naphtha in Persia, and of the many wonderful stories that have been related of its volatility and combustibility. "I have," says Dr Thomson, in his Annals, "been lately favoured, through the kindness of a gentleman, who has spent many years in the neighbourhood

VOL. VI.

of Persia, with a specimen of the naphtha in the purest state in which it occurs. It is colourless as water, has the specific gravity 0.753, and precisely the same smell and taste as the naphtha which is made in this country from the distillation of coal. Indeed, our artificial naphtha and the Persian naphtha resemble each other in all their chemical properties, as far as I have compared them together. I have never got any naphtha made in this country from coal quite so light as the Persian. The specific gravity of the lowest which I have met with was 0.817, but probably had it been rectified once or twice more, it would have become as light as the Per,. sian."

New Acoustic Instrument.-Baron Cagniard de la Tour has invented a new Acoustic Instrument, designed to measure the vibrations of air which constitute sound. The wind of a pair of bellows is made to issue through a small orifice, covered by a circular plate, moveable on a centre placed at a little distance from the aperture. The circular plate has a number of oblique equidistant holes made through it, in a circle round the axis, which passes over the orifice of the bellows: when this plate is made to revolve, (which, by the obliquity of the holes, may be affected by the current of the air, or otherwise by proper mechanism,) the aperture is alternately open and shut to the passage of the air; and thus a regular series of blows are given to the external air, and sounds analogous to the human voice are produced, and more or less acute according to the velocity with which the plate revolves. In place of one aperture many are used, which are opened and shut simultaneously, by which means, without interfering with the height of the sound," its strength is increased. The instrument is a circular copper box four inches in diameter. Its upper surface is pierced by 100 oblique apertures, each a quarter of a line in width and two lines long: on the centre of this surface is an axle upon which the circular plate turns: this plate has also 100 apertures corresponding to those below, and with an equal obliquity, but in an opposite direction. The obliquity is not necessary to the production of the sounds, but it serves to give motion to the plate by the currents of air. The box is, by a tube, connected with the bellows that supply the air. In the experiments to ascertain the vibrations for each sound, the plate was made to revolve by wheel-work moved by a weight. The bellows were then used only for the purpose of judging whether the sounds of the machine accorded with the notes of a 4 A

standard instrument, namely, the Harmonica, consisting of an arrangement of steel bars made to vibrate by a bow. Thus arranged, the machine was made to produce the diatonic notes of the gamut, and some beyond them: the revolutions of the plate were ascertained by the revolutions of a wheel, which made one revolution while the plate made thirteen and a half.

M.

Christianity in China.-M. Perrocheau, Bishop of Maxula, arrived at Macao, on the 8th of March last, with the intention of proceeding into China. After some previous study of the Chinese language, he embarked on the 7th of April, with M. Thomassin, for Upper Cochin China, whence he was to repair to Tonquin, and there wait for conductors that would introduce him into the country of China. Thomassin was to remain in Cochin China. A letter from a Catholic Missionary, at Macao, dated April 1, 1819, affords some details relative to the persecution of the Christians in China. Every European priest that is discovered is instantly seized and put to death; Chinese Christian priests undergo the same fate. Christians of the laity, unless they will apostatize, are first dreadfully tortured, and then banished into Tartary. This year, 1819, in the prisons of one province alone, Sutcuen, two hundred Christians were expecting the orders for their exile. A Chinese priest had just been strangled, and two others were also under sentence of death. Throughout the whole empire, there are but ten missionaries, five of whom, at Pekin, have no communication with the inhabitants unless it be secret. The emperor has moreover declared that he will no longer tolerate either painters or watchmakers, or even mathe maticians. The Bishop of Pekin has in vain attempted to introduce himself, under this title, into his diocese. The only way left to the missionaries to penetrate into the country, is by gaining the messengers or couriers that pass from Macao to Pekin, but if discovered, both the missionary and the courier suffer death on the spot.

France. Botany.-A new mode of facilitating the study of botany has lately been invented by Mr Lefebvre, consisting of a pack of cards containing the elements of the science. He places all the flowers in the world in four classes;-Polypedales, Monopedales, Perigones, and compound flowers. These supply the place of the four suits, diamonds, clubs, spades, and hearts. The other divisions are likewise the same as at cards, viz. twelve matadors or figures; and the plain cards from ace to ten. The latter are expressed by the stamina of the flowers; and Linnæus's twelve last classes supply the place of king, queen, and knave, on each of the four principal divisions. These cards are called

Boston de Flore."

Empiricism. The Prefecture of Police, as authorized by the secretary-general on the part of the French minister of state, issued strict orders, dated October 3, 1819, that all the privileges, whether temporary or unlimited, formerly attached to the Charlatans (irregular medical practitioners) be annulled. The venders of secret medicines, who affected to be ignorant of the legislative decree enacted on this subject, August 18, 1810, and continued their former traffic, for themselves and their heirs, have received notices to discontinue their preparations, and a great number of Charlatans have been accordingly put down; among other instances, the Sieur de Belloste had obtained in 1781 (in the antichamber of the prince or minister, like many others) a privilege for the composition and sale, during thirty years, of the pills bearing the name of Belloste; but though the thirty years were elapsed, this individual still continued to vend his pills, but, in common with many others, he has had an order inhibiting the preparation, the publishing for sale, or filling any shop or warehouse with them.

M. Dufour, of St Sever, in the department of the Landes, intends making an excursion into such districts of the Pyrenees as have not yet been explored by botanists, and to augment the French Flora with an accession of non-descript plants. The minister of the interior has engaged to defray the charges of the undertaking.

Two young naturalists, the Messrs Godefroy, selected by the professors of the Jardin du Roi, are to set out on a voyage to the Philippine Islands, which have never been visited by French botanists. The youngest of the brothers has been a student of medicine, &c. in the faculty of Rennes The purchase of instruments, and all other expences, are by the French government.

A voyage to Lapland and the seas beyond is preparing by the French govern. ment. It will embrace the interest of the sciences and arts, will proceed beyond the North Cape, into the Frozen Ocean, and is expected to terminate about the end of September 1820. This mission is confided by the minister of interior to M. de la Morinière, Inspector of the Fisheries

Germany. The police of Munich has lately put under arrest all copies of the pamphlets entitled "Results of the Congress of Vienna,” and, “ Antistourdza,” a work written in opposition to the Memoir of Mr Stourdza, presented to the Sovereigns at Aix-la-Chapelle.

In Vienna, since the 22d of January, all Foreign, French, or German Journals, are prohibited from being exposed to perusal in coffee-houses, and other public places or reading-rooms. Certain of the Foreign journals are excepted; the regulation, how

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