this little expedition by sea we were EXPLANATORY STATEMENT BY THE obliged to take a permission and bill of health from the commander at Port BROWN'S PHYSIOLOGY OP Ercole, and to land beside a martello

MIND." tower, and have them inspected by an officer, so great are the precautions

MR EDITOR, against the plague. At' Ansidonia I have been not a little surprised we passed a most interesting forenoon. to see a small unpublished pamphlet It is a hill washed on three parts by of mine made the subject of animadthe sea. All the flat top of it two version, by a writer who subscribes miles round is encircled with old himself J. Stewart, as an attack on Etruscan walls, a great deal standing, the memory of the late Dr Brown. I much more than at Volterra, Arezzo, could not have conceived that J. S. or Cortona, and quite unmixed with or any other person could have read any modern buildings, there being that pamphlet, without perceiving only one cottage on the hill occupied that the object of it was to assert the by a keeper of cattle. The walls are independence and originality of animmense blocks of stone without ce- other writer, and not, in any one inment, in many places 25 to 30 feet stance, to detract from the merits of high, straight and solid, four gates Dr Brown. Is Dr Brown's name ever and strengthened passages within mentioned in it but with respect? Is them, no arch over them, but the it ever hinted that he had borrowed grooves for the gates quite distinct. his system from the article Logic? I Within the gates a great quantity of should have thought such a charge stones of the ancient town, and a good foolish and indecorous indeed: but so many ruins standing, the remains of far from preferring such a charge, I a high arch, with two small ones for state most distinctly my belief, that foot passengers on each side, a large all the coincidences (with one excepoval temple of massy blocks of stone; tion) are entirely accidental. My and on the western point above the whole reasoning proceeds on this supsea, high walls, but of small stones, position, as is obvious from the words called il Palazzo della Regina, many of the pamphlet which immediately large arched vaults under ground, re- precede the passages considered as servoirs for water, &c.; all these parallel : “ We hope it will indicate clothed with groups of fine shrubs that there is something like certainty just like an English shrubbery. The in the Philosophy of Mind, when it views fine; Port Ercole, the open sea, is seen that two independent minds, Mont Argentaro, and the island of unfettered by system, and directing Gigli; to the north, Orbitello and its their energies to the same subject, stagni, the Bay of Talamone, Castig- have arrived at precisely the same relione, and the Island of Elba; to the sults." south, the coast to Civita Vecchia, I have, therefore, not the smallest forty miles distant; to the east, the objection to admit J. Stewart's infermountains of Viterbo, &c. This flat ence, that Dr Brown's doctrines, as top of two miles round seems to have detailed in his Physiology of the been the arx or citadel. There are re- Mind, were taught in his class before mains of ancient buildings all down the article Logic was published. I the sides of the hill. The day was only repeat my former assertion, that fine, the shrubs in flower, in every the writer of that article never heard bush a nightingale, the country well Dr Brown lecture, or knew any thing wooded, and not a soul to be seen but of his views, till they appeared in his the herd our guide. Ansidonia is Outlines

. In fact, the author of Lolittle known, and probably contains gic had intimated his views on the great treasures of Etruscan antiquipoints in question in the article Conties, never having been dug into. ception in the Edinburgh EncyclopæThis coast, in the time of the ancient dia, which, I suppose, has been in Etruscans and Romans, was very po- print for seven or eight years. pulous, till, in the seventh century, But the passage in the pamphlet the Saracens destroyed all the mari- which has given the greatest offenee time towns.

to Dr Brown's friends is that in which it is asserted that he has, in one instance, borrowed from the article Lo


gic a particular mode of expression, trines implied in it, have been anand ranged himself under a denomi- nounced in any printed work of annation which the writer of that article terior date to the article Logic, I will was the first to announce to the world. confess my ignorance, and do justice Let the public judge of the fairness of to the original inventor. In the meanthe inference. In the article Logic time, I leave it to Dr Brown's friends the following sentence occurs: “ We to account for the remarkable similaare inclined to think that the field rity of expression between him and which has hitherto been occupied by the author of Logic, in the passages Nominalists, Realists, and Conceptual- quoted above, on any principle they ists, might be successfully disputed please, except that of supposing that by a new denomination ; and, were it the latter ever borrowed a single worth while to take a side in an ex- word or idea from any of the works, ploded and useless controversy, we doctrines, or disciples of Dr Brown. would go along with the Relationists, Let any one of Dr Brown's numerous who have not, before this, been heard of friends and pupils come forward, if in philosophy.' This assertion, that he can, and prove the contrary. I the Relationists had never been heard will answer for the author of Logic, of before, passed uncontroverted for who, I suppose, is generally known, two years. About three months ago, that he will not be backward to meet Dr Brown's Physiology of the Mind the charge, and to prove it to be appeared, containing the following founded in falsehood, or in misconsentence: “If, therefore, in confor- ception. As to any germs of Dr mity with the spirit of the same quaint Brown's system existing in his early phraseology, I were to express, in works, they are entirely unknown to some analogous term, my opinions on

I believe it is nearly twenty the subject, it is as a Relutionist that years since I looked into the Observaa I would technically distinguish my- tions on Darwin's Zoonomia; the self.”

pamphlet on Cause and Effect I have Now, what was the author of Logic never seen, since the time of the Lesto think on reading this sentence? leian controversy; and Dr Brown's He was perfectly conscious that he large work was not published when had not borrowed his ideas, directly Logic was written. I do not believe or indirectly, from any human being; that any passages similar to those and he was not a little gratified to quoted from the article Logic are to think that his views were thus pub- be found in any of these works. If licly sanctioned by Dr Brown, and they exist let them be produced. To that he had adopted a designation conclude, I never conceived that my which the author of Logic had, two pamphlet, which was printed for disa years before, claimed the honour of tribution among a few friends, could first introducing into philosophy. have excited a controversy. I repeat This is the amount of my attack on it, that its sole object was to vindicate Dr Brown, stated in its most aggra- the independence of the author of vated form!

Logic, who has, many years ago, inIn answer to this, J. S. states that timated his intention of laying his he has notes in his possession taken speculations, in a separate form, bein Dr Brown's class-rooin during the fore the public; and who, after the session 1816-17, in which he finds publication of Dr Brown's late work, the following passage, which I under- must have been suspected of borrowstand to present the ipsissima verba ing from hin, had the present opporof Dr Brown. “ Therefore, if a name tunity of asserting his independence be invented for expressing my opi- been neglected. nion regarding universals, it would be as a notionist, or a relationist, that I would be classed.” If this note be correctly taken, which I am not inclined to dispute, I give up the as

MR EDITOR, sertion that Dr Brown borrowed the The part of the Edinburgh Gazet. term Relationist from the author of teer now at press contains a descripLogic, as the article, though written, tion of Paris, from which I extract the was not then published; and if it can concluding paragraph. It will give be shown that the term, and the doc- your readers a specimen of the man


ner in which that useful work is con- in extremes. No part of our metroducted.-Your's, &c.

polis can rival the splendid quarters

of the Tuileries or the Boulevards, Parallel of London and Paris.- while, on the other hand, it is only Each of these cities absorbs in a great- the very worst of our streets that have er degree than most other capitals the the narrowness and gloom of the far talent, the industry, and the pecu- greater part of the streets, or rather niary resources of their respective lanes, of Paris. Thus, though the countries ; each is not only the seat of climate of Paris is less variable, Lonthe sovereign, the legislature, and the don, from its better construction, is offices of government, but the grand the healthier city. As to their reresort of the nobility and gentry of spective inhabitants, the Parisians are the kingdom. Each is of ancient date, credulous and unthinking, but less and has risen, by a gradual progress, exclusively devoted to a separate buto its present magnitude ; and if, in siness, less circumscribed in their noLondon, the ratio of increase has been tions of matters out of their particular more rapid, it has been owing to its line, than a large proportion of the inbeing the mercantile as well as govern- habitants of London. The present ment capital of the kingdom. In some generation has witnessed a succession respects the grounds of comparison do of rulers, and was long blindly duped not hold. Paris has no sea-port, Lon- by one party after another, but of don no seat of learning. To afford the judicial murders, at one time so the means of an accurate parallel, we frequent within their walls, they were should, for a moment, suppose West- as guiltless as the ancestors of the minster and the western half of the Londoners were of the cruelties of city to form a whole, detached from Queen Mary, or of the execution of all the quarter to the east of London Charles I. În regard to morals, also, Bridge, but augmented by the addi- the charges against the Parisians are tion of the two English universities. carried by much too far, in conse. There are, however, various points of quence chiefly of their own reports, resemblance in the present state of which, whether for good or evil, parthese capitals. With reference to the take almost always of the marvellous. fertility of the adjacent provinces, Each city forms the pride of its reeach occupies the best part of its re- spective country; but the predilection spective kingdom, the northern pro- of the French for Paris, their desire vinces being in France the most pro- to exalt it in the eyes of a foreigner, ductive, as the southern in England. is greater than that of the English in Each covers a level surface ; in each regard to London. In both it would the surrounding country is pleasant, be wiser to regret the undue extenbut not picturesque. In its river, the sion of their respective capitals. There superiority - lies decidedly with Lone is no substantial reason for accumulatdon; and such are the advantages of ing on one spot merchants, manufacwater communication, that, though turers, and public functionaries. A the population of our capital is so over- great waste of health, morals, and grown, the rate of expence above the property, would have been prevented, provincial part of England (from 30 had a line of distinction been originto 40 per cent.) is not greater than ally drawn, and the pursuits of prothat of Paris above France. In point ductive industry been directed to of structure, London has, as is well towns distant from the abode of the known, the wider streets and squares; court, and where, from the command Paris the larger houses. In Paris the of fuel, provisions, and water commuexterior is finer, because the abun- nication, the expence of living is so dance of stone affords a more elegant much less considerable. and durable material; but, in accommodation, whether in or out of the

ST PETER'S CHURCH, houses, the balance is in favour of London, because a much larger proportion of it has been built or rebuilt Look not here for space immense ;in an improved age. Another dis If thou dost, it is an error : tinction, less frequently remarked, is, My greatness, in the truer sense, that the French capital is much more Of thine own is but the mirror !



HISTORICAL NOTICER OF THE POPU« the village was always announced by LAR SUPERSTITIONS, TRADITIONS, a loud and “ gowstie wind, which

soupit owre the houses, and often

tirled the thack to the bare bougars ;* No. II.

and though it gard the divots stour “A distant age asks where the fabric stood.” off the house riggins and every caber

COWPER. dunner,+ his lang black goun hang

straucht to his cutes ne'er i' the least MR EDITOR, Having formerly given you a

curfufled." He was always observed number of stories illustrative of the to go into a particular house situated

at the east end of the hamlet, where opinions which anciently prevailed a

à “ notit witch" and her family remongst the inhabitants of Tiviotdale

sided. The son and the younger concerning fairies, I now proceed, as proposed, to a partial illustration of the daughter were both of good characnotions of our forefathers regarding counted as “rank a witch” as her mowitches, &c. by the relation of a few ther. One evening the deiľs wind, stories concerning them.

As civilization has evidently assist. as it was proverbially called, having ed more to destroy the belief in witch begun to blow, two young men, more craft, than it has had power to make it up” to go and look in at the old

resolute than their neighbours," made the reality of supernatural appear- woman's window, to see what passed ances doubtful, we now find the num- between her and the man in the side ber of reputed witches to be exceed- black goun." The window was darkingly small, if, indeed, any are to be ened, and they could neither see nor found; for, instead of being branded, hear any thing, but determining to as they anciently were, with the op- “ slocken their curiosity,” they crept probrious names of witches and warlocks, those who, at present, are of up very warily to the top of the house,

and looked down the chimney, I when, bad repute, generally go under the softer, though still suspicious, charac (to use the ludicrous words of my ter of being uncannie or ill wishers. narrator,) ewhow sic a sicht! The

deil's curate-the eivy deil himsell Notwithstanding this apparent emancipation, however, their bad wishes and about hauf a score o great big

was sitting in an auld muckle chair, are by no means viewed as trifles, but are generally considered as being foud mawe, -crawled thrice wither

grey cats cam in ane by ane,- gaed a in no small degree portentous, though shins s about the foul fiend, and their fulfilment is not now directly takin' their tails in their teeth, tumblit attributed to the privileges of a pac- heels owre head and startled up auld tion with the devil, from which the liart carlins, ll wi mous moupin' like powers of the ancient witches were maukins in May! The gudewife sat at supposed to be derived. In illustra- Mahoun's right, and the rest were tion of the more ancient mythology of seated in forms along the side of the Tiviotdale concerning witches, and wall: one excepted, who, nature-clad, their compact with Mahoun, a name which the inaccurate genealogical low but deep voice, explained to her

stood before the devil, while he, in a knowledge of our forefathers transferred from the son to the sire, take the

Rafters. following story: It was related to

+ Cuber dunner-spar clatter. me by a very old woman who told

The lum of a Scotch hut is of ample me she had it from her grandmother, volume. wheu she was a girl.

& The word withershins, though not The reader will excuse me for in- mentioned in Dr Jamieson's Dictionary, is troducing a few of my narrator's ex- to be found in ajany Scottish authors; it pressive phrases. At Allanbaugh, a denotes going round a thing in a contrary small village (the vestiges of which direction to the sun. Hence, as it was only now remain) in the upper parts supposed that witches always acted in con of Tiviotdale, the devil was seen re- trariety to the laws of nature, we hear of gularly every Saturday evening, walk- their going thrice withershins round a thing ing along the loun. His presence in to render it subject to their powers.

# And startled up auld liart carlins,

may be Englished, " and transformed • See Number for April.

themselves into old grey headed witches."

the duties of a witch, and the advan- mogrified into women, as on the fore tages of being one; in particular, tel. mer occasion. Shortly after the comling her that she should want nothing pany had seated themselves, and the which she was desirous to obtain, and devil taken his presidence with his that she should be possessed of the former gravity, the old woman propower of inflicting upon her enemies duced a waxen image, which she took whatever punishment or mischief she from the straw in the bed, telling pleased; but these only upon the con- Auld Nick that it represented her son dition of her giving up to him both Will, and that she wished to torment her soul and body. To this she him to death. He told her to do with gave a nod of approbation; and placing him as she pleased ; and taking two her right hand on her head, and her pins, she stuck the one through its left under her feet, she gave up“ a' breast, and the other through its head, between them to the powers aneth, and turned it slowly round before the renouncing a' aboon,” The fiend then fire, repeating over and over, at the stuck a pin in her ear, and told her same time, this incantation, that neither God nor man was her master, and that she was a “ lawfu'

“ Wi' cramps and cleeks may he be pest,

An' o' diseases be a nest ;" witch." After this ceremony was concluded, the company sat down to which she continued to do for some a repast, consisting of apples and time, and then replaced it among the wine, of which they all partook, ex

straw. But here®“ this rare sicht" cept the man in black, who sucked met with a miserable interruption. the breast of one of the women. Upon The fears of being detected had caused finishing their collation, they all strip- the ". twa chields" to give many a ped and commenced dancing to the suspicious look over their shoulders, music of the bagpipes, which were

but of all they saw nothing appeared played by the devil. In this harm- more inoffensive, and nothing from less manner the carlins continued en- which they dreaded less ill, than a joying themselves, with much hilari

« bit harmless mankin."Before ty, and occasionally regaling them- they took any particular notice of her, selves with a draught of wine or ale, bowever, puss had " hirpled thrice (which, says my narrator, nae doubt withershins” round house, and then they had stoun out o 'some honest suddenly made a spring to the riggin, lairil's cellar,”) till the young men

and bounced down the chimney to who were watching at the chimney the hearth, where she was in an intop dreading the consequences of being stant transformed into a “ strang detected, descended and went home strappan hizzie.” In a twinkling she no less astonished than pleased with informed the company of their being what they had witnessed. On the Sa- watched from without, and “ afore turday evening following, the “ deil's the twa lads could hae steppit owre a wind” having again blown, the two strae," the deil exploded like a bombyoung men, induced by the success shell, and threw the roof of the house which attended their former adven- to the ground, with them below it, ture, again resolved to go upon the where they were almost suffocated same errand. At first nothing was

with the smell of brimstone which the to be seen in the house but broom- devil left behind him !-and they sticks and egg-shells." When about were only rescued from their perilous to descend, however, they were agree

situation by the timeous arrival of ably surprised with the loalling + of some of their neighbours. My nar. cats; which, upon making their ap- rator concluded her story with an acpearance on the floor, were all trans- count of the calamities which after

wards overtook the truly unfortunate

young inen, who were caught in the act On broomsticks witches were said to of watching the private transactions of ride-in cgg-shells to swim across the sea : the witches. Every thing, said she, hence arose the practice of fixing the broom under their charge, had “ill luck," to the shank with scarlet thrums, (a cele- and the career of their misfortunes brated preservative,) and of turning the egg-shell up after eating its contents, and was only checked by their having had breaking its ends, so that a witch might not

recourse to the expedient of taking be able to use it as her ferry-boat. + Crying.

• A hare.

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