ed almost every branch of literature, him to relate, as of importance, the and if he has created no perfect mo- most trifling circumstance of his del in any one, it can only have been life; and constantly persuading him occasioned by his dividing his atten- that none of his opinions can be false, tion among them all. Although his or his actions wrong, it gives an air exeessive vanity has made him some of sincerity and truth to the whole. enemies, he is still the idol of a large His ballads, songs, and occasional majority of German readers, and he poems are as numerous, and more vais the author of, the most popular of rious than those of any eminent poet all German books out of Germany, with whom we are acquainted. His “ The Sorrows of Werter." We work on colours, (Farben Lehre,) know no author who is so perfectly though not so eloquent as the works different from himself in his various of St Pierre, is written in the style of productions as Goethe. A character that author. It is much more scienof ridicule pervades all the works of tific, however, than the writings of Voltaire ; à warm and impassioned the amiable Frenchman, and opposed soul animates all the writings of like them to some of the opinions of Schiller ; but there is no character Newton on Optics, has not been peculiar to all the labours of Goethe, thought unworthy of refutation by except a most complete knowledge some of the most accomplished matheand mastery of his subject. He seeins maticians of Germany. That it is never to have worked up a second better calculated for the common time a similar train of thought, reader than most works on the same never to have repeated any one of his subject cannot be denied ; but it is plans,—and never to have written two not sufficiently exact to satisfy the pieces that at all resemble one another, man of science. His theory is allowe either in style or matter. There is ed by his opponents to be ingenious, no more similarity between his Goetz but acknowledged by his admirers to von Berlichingen and his Faust, than be unsound. His celebrated descripthere is between the poetical romances tion of the Carnival at Rome is surof Sir Walter Scott, and the Manfred passed by no description which we of Lord Byron. We do not mean that ever read for accuracy and fidelity. It he equals these illustrious poets; we is totally different from any other of only refer to their works to illustrate his works we have mentioned, and the extraordinary difference in the also quite different from his Hermann compositions of Goethe. His Werter and Dorothea. This is a simple, differs as much from his Wilhelm plain, but very descriptive poem. It Meister, as the sentimentality, of is written in blank verse, and describes Sterne does from the prolix novels of the manners of the inhabitants of the Cumberland. His Wahluerwandschaft small and retired towns of Germany. cannot be compared to any other We know that these are not all his known work. His Iphigenia is mo- former works, but they are all the tidelled after Racine. "With his Tor- tles which now recur to our mequato Tasso and Clavigo we are un- mory. The work mentioned in the acquainted; but his Egmont and his review,* and which led to the digresStella no more resemble the produc- sion, bears the title of West-Easterly tions of Racine than those of Shake- Divan. It was published in 1819, in speare do. His “ Mitschuldigen," or an octavo of 556 pages. Goethe, in Companions in Guilt, may be com- his old days, has been studying, like pared to the very best of the French so many of his countrymen, Arabic light theatrical pieces; and his own and the rest of the Oriental languages. memoirs (aus meinem Leben) is far He has translated several pieces from from being the dullest of all auto-bio- them, and has adorned some of his own graphies. It is not so amusing as the fictions with the flowers and gems of Life of Goldoni, nor so energetic as the the East. To these varied producConfessions of Rousseau, but it is both tions he has given the title mentionsomewhat pleasant and instructive. ed. Divan, according to the German We know no book from which so reviewer, signifies to the Arabs, Turks, much information on the literature and Persians, not only the collection and manners of Germany can be obtained. His excessive vanity supplies * See Allgemeine Literature, Zeitung, the place of a noble candour. It urges published at Halle for November 1819.

of ministers at Constantinople, or a rassed body. He died before attainwell stuffed sopha, but also a collec- ing his fortieth year. His poetry tion of songs. The professed object seems to be the voice of his own heart, of the work is to make eastern litera- and when not deformed by passion, ture, by an appropriate dress, known as in some of his early pieces, it finds to the western world, and the execu- a corresponding voice in every human lion seeins quite worthy of the genius breast. This is particularly the chaof Goethe. We find it impossible to racter of his smaller pieces. In them make any extract, but the very great he is entirely the man, and he uses knowledge which Goethe displays has poetry only because it is the most astonished the reviewer, and made convenient medium for expressing him speak of the work as well calcu. what he feels. Goethe, in general, lated to convey accurate notions both gives delight only to refined and cul. of the past and present literature of tivated minds, to those acquainted the Orientals. The work is to be with all the nice metaphysical discontinued.

tinctions of passion, and he is not alGoethe has found time to compose ways understood nor relished by unall these various works without ne- educated people. If ever his langlecting the world. He has long live guage is impassioned, the design is ed at the court of Weimar, been the evident, and he never describes his companion of its sovereign, and had own feeling, but always those of some the direction, with the character of other person. His own portrait is minister, of every thing which relates never found in any of his works. to the fine arts. Celebrated actors, Schiller, on the contrary, let him dewhom he is said to have instructed, scribe what he will, invests it with are to be met with in Weimar and the deep colours of his own mind. In many other parts of Germany. He his history of the thirty years' war, an began writing as a young man, and extract from which will be found in a his muse is not yet tired, now that he former part of this Volume, he has is in his seventy-first year. “Nothing changed the cold phlegmatic calcu(says Madame de Stael) disturbs the lating sovereigns of that period into strength of bis mind, and even the animated and generous heroes, or he defects of his character, ill-humour, has given them all the wickedness embarrassment, constraint pass like of devils. In short, we should say, clouds round the foot of that moun- and it is the chief distinction between tain, on the summit of which his ge- these poets, that all the works of nius is placed.” In the equanimity Goethe proceeded from a remarkably of his temper, and in the vigour of well informed head ; those of Schiller his innagination, as well as in the sic are more the effusions of a burning milarity of age, he seems to resemble and feeling heart. Fontenelle. He is all fancy, imagi We intended to confine our remarks nation, and knowledge, and can turn wholly to reviews of German books, his well-stored mind with a most ex- and we break through our rule in one traordinary lightness and felicity to instance, to mention a review of a every subject, and always executes French work, but which seems to us, something above mediocrity, but there from the peculiar situation of the auis no particular one to which he can thor, and the nature of the subject, be said to be attached. He seems to of very general interest. The title of regard life as intended for enjoyment, the work is “ Tresor des Origines et and without participating in its pas- Dictionnaire Grammatical Raisonnée sions, turns it on every side to gather de la Langue Française, par Charles all its flowers. His acquaintance with Pougens de l'Institute." What is human nature is more from study than published is only a specimen of the from feeling, and he describes it well, Tresor des Origines, amounting to because he has accurately observed fifty words of the whole, which, and dissected it in others. No strong it is expected, will fill six fopassions ever run away with him, and lio volumes. It is to be followed, he never forgets the poet in the man. should the author meet with sufficient In all this he is essentially different encouragement, by the “ Dictionnaire from his great rival in popular favour, Grainmatical,” which will extend to Schiller, whose boiling and impetuous spirit early destroyed his ha

• Page 415.


any other

four folios. The whole is ready for instructor of the prophet is a power publication. More than 4200 books tul character, but the apostacy of the are referred to in it. In some of the prophet had rendered them irreconspecimens published, twenty-five lan- cilable enemies. He, however, does guages are quoted, either to show the not live beyond the first act, leaving origin of the word, or its present form a daughter, who, instead of hating and signification in some affiliated Mahomet according to her father's languages. The work could not have commands, loves him, and professes been brought together without prodi- his religion. The language is very gious labour and learning, and it is good. The following are the only said to be a treasure of etymology for specimens we can give. Mahomet all the nations of Europe. Every answers to the reproaches of his old word is traced to what the author teacher. supposes its source, and in this arduous task he has employed forty- And round my heart, like its owa branclıy.

I call that truth which grew with me, three years of unceasing toil, forty

veins, one of which he has been blind. We Has firmly wove itself. As child, I was are acquainted with no similar in- Even as now I am ; and then my bosom slance of perseverance. During the warmed whole of this period the author has At that which now fills my whole soul. necessarily been labouring, and look- God has chosen me, and joyful 1 announce ing only at the end of his labours. it, For our parts, we have long thought, for I know and feel it irresistibly true; that, under the dictates of fashion, thé Yet thou deny'st me, and the living power French are the most patient people Which, visibly divine, created and excites of the globe, and without

Ask'st thou the sun's warm ray wherefore feeling for Mr Pougens but admiration, it pierces in the depths of carth to form we think he is as extraordinary an in

the gold ? stance of this quality as we have ever The storm, why thundering down heard of. We would conclude our It lames the knotty oak of giant growth ? notice by wishing that his labours Has't never seen the sea lift its wild waves, might be rewarded, but we know And foaming, dash upon the narrow shore ? not what greater reward they could Thou see'st wonders, and doubtest still my give him at the age of sixty-five, than power. they have already bestowed in amus

He who makes each glorious thing, which

thou, ing him through a long life. God tempers, it is most true, the wind to He lives within my soul, and I do but

In dust adoring, only can admire, the shorn lamb. Books that are new to the review

Obey him. ers seem old to the public. We We have only room for another thought we should have the pleasure short extract. Mahomet says, of announcing a perfectly new tragedy of the first order, but on inspecting The Almighty's love, like sunshine and the heading of the article, we obser. Like rain,

is universal.

The roads that lead heaven are numerved that " The Death of Mahomet"

ous as the stars, was published in 1815. As we have never heard that it was represented, I am the leader.

And true believers crowd upon them all. we conclude it wants the usual attractions of horror and absurdity. In Of novels and romances we find an fact, it seems to fail in interest. Ma- abundance reviewed, but no one with homet is painted as a weak enthusiast, so much praise as to make it worthy & dividing his attention between women place in our pages. The thirty-rinth and religion. Hapsa, the daughter of volume of the novels of Schilling has Omar, the heiress of the prophet's been published. This author is as mission, is an inspired maiden, with prolific as La Fontaine. Both bring all the resignation, tenderness, and forth two or three volumes every year. sublimity of a soft and mild being, who There is a vast deal of mannerism in believes herself selected by the Deity the writings of both, particularly of to testify and to suffer. The early Schilling. We give him the prefer

ence, however, as being more graphic, • Mahomet's Tod. von Georg Christian more original, and more humorous Braun.

than La Fontaine. Our literary

knighthood forbids us to pass unnoti- promise is not yet fulfilled. It is of ceil the numerous lady-authors who little consequence that this preface is contend with men, and with success, already paid for by the purchasers, in this species of writing, for the and that they have been put off with mead of praise. We believe, pro- an incomplete work, but it is of much portionately, there are more female importance, that without this preface, writers in German than in English, which was to give an account of the though we are acquainted with no labours of preceding authors, point one who has busied herself like Mrs out the books which might be referMarcet with the abstruse sciences. red to for help, and explain the many Mad. Caroline Pichler is called by abbreviations and critical signs in the her countrymen the Mad. de Stael of work itself, even the incomplete work Germany. She is rather an opponent cannot be used. It is very hard on of this latter lady, and wrote some those jurisconsults who have been strictures on her work on Germany, grateful to the author for this proHer collected works in 1818 filled duction, that it remains for them a 23 volumes. They consist of plays, sealed book. The advertiser, thereodles, and novels. She is the wife of fore, believes that he represents the a bookseller at Vienna. The reviewer voice of all the jurisconsults who dedescribes her as seeking out every sires the advancement of their science, thing noble in nature and history, when he thus publicly begs the auand endeavouring to bring it nearer thor to fulfil his promise as early as the heart, by the means of beautiful possible.” poetry. Frau Von Weissenthurm, Fanny Tarnow, * Madame de La Motte, Fouque, Henrietta, Schubart, EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM ITALY are all noticed as the authoresses or

OF 8TH MAY 1820. translatresses of agreeable plays or novels. The obligation, we believe,

I SHALL give you an account of an is mutual, but certainly our fair expedition for a week a friend and I writers are indebted to the pens of lately made to the Marimma and sea their own sex, for translating their coast of Tuscany, a country very most beautiful productions into Ger- little known to the English, and

scarce ever visited by them, being Advertising in Germany costs 1ļd. quite cut of the way of great roads per line, and by paying this price, and large cities. Our object was to anti-critics are inserted in German see the Marimma of Groseto, Orbi. reviews. Authors take the sting from tello, Montargentaro, Port Ercole, and the serpent, and plant it in its own Ansidonia, the distance about eightyhead. They attack the reviewers in five miles from Siena. Our first day's their own pages, and if readers are journey was through finely wooded fond of pugilistic encounters with the hills, beautified by the rivers La Merpen, they may find in Gerinan perio- cia and L'Ombrone; the latter, the dicals some of the first literary people largest in this part of Tuscany, about sparring with each other. We quote

the size of the Tweed at Melrose. an advertisement as a good specimen Next day we travelled through the of polite insinuation. Mr Hugo, to Marimma to Groselo, a bare flat, whom it is directed, is one of the without wood, and not declivity most celebrated professors at Gottin- enough to keep the water running in gen, a knight of the Guelphic order, the ditches and drains, so very unand a justice counsellor.

healthy in summer. Groseto is a for“When the Jus-antijustinianeum tified place, containing 1500 inhabitappeared in 1815, the preface to it ants in winter and spring, and only was promised for the following fair. 500 in summer, every person leaving Four years have now passed, and this it that can. The labourers are inhabit

ants of the hill country, a great proThis, we believe, is a false name.

portion from the Casentina Apa

It is quite fashionable among all the witlings

penines, where the Valombrosa is. of Germany to assume such ; and we be. Many labourers come, too, from the lieve the name of Contessa, one of whose comedies recently appeared in our pages, is * Allgemeiné Literature, Zeitung, from an assumed name.

November 1819. Halle,


nearest parts of Lombardy, leaving hind it, but all the bank, a quarter of their families, and return after the a mile broad, covered with the finest harvest, which is ended in the Ma- shrubs and turf, myrtles, Arbor vitæ, rimma the last days of June; several the caruba with pink blossoms. Ora that remain to this time carrying bitello is built on a point of land surwith them slow fevers, and a good rounded by stagni or salt water lakes, many dying. The wages in winter formed by banks thrown up by the about 10d., but for reaping and thresh- sea, and having two outlets. These ing from 2s. 6d. to 35. 3d. with their stagni are not deep. No vessels can meat, and plenty of wine. Many enter them except boats. Indeed, flocks of sheep come down from the the sea has filled up many of the Casentina mountains in the end of old ports, also the drains at their October for the fine pastures here, mouths. We were there feasted with and return the end of May. Felons fish, large fine eels from the stagni, are sent to Groseto, and free to go anchovies, sardines, tunny, &c. A about and labour, but must make neck of land about two miles in length their appearance, some every day, joins Orbitello to the land ; they were some every third day, &c. and for so forming a new road upon it, and every many years in proportion to their where found the remains of an ancrimes. The Lombard labourers are cient city; we saw a great deal of old reckoned of little better character. bricks, lime, &c. thrown out by the The land is, in general, a rich clay, workmen. They found a chamber of with a dry bottom of gravel and sand, sepulture with Etruscan urns, vases the soil very deep. It bears strong of terra cotta, candelabra of bronze, a crops of wheat every third year; ale wreath of fine worked gold, all which lowed to run to grass without sowing were taken by the Grand Duke to off, and it affords very good pasture Florence; we were offered some pretty the two years of rest. Sometimes they things the workmen had secreted, but have fallow the second or third year. they did not know what to ask, and An average of the Marimma crops, I had been told the English were made was told by an eminent proprietor and of money. Orbitello contains 1600 agriculturist, to whom we were re- inhabitants; we were shown two Lacommended, is nine after one, though tin inscriptions built into the walls, sometimes as high as fifteen ; but it is Cosa being specified in each, one of to be considered that, in this climate, the towns mentioned by Virgil as they sow thin. They make very little sending “ Mille manus juvenum qui dung, burning the strawon the ground, mænia Clusi, quique urbem liquere or rotting it without cattle, because all Cosas," to the assistance of Æneas, those that are not employed in hus- (Æn. x. 167.). We remained two bandry are never taken into the house, days at Orbitello. This district belongbut are reared on the pastures, or run ed to Spain, afterwards to Naples, wild in the adjacent woods. From and at the last peace was restored to them and a fine breed of horses, which Tuscany. The Grand Duke was just run quite wild till taken to be broke, before us visiting it for the first time. the Marimmani say they derive their We sailed across the Stagni to Mont greatest profits, because they cost no- Argentaro a mile, and walked two to thing; and the crops are very expen- Port Ercole, an ancient town, now a sive in the cultivation, and from the miserable place, half in ruins, upon a bad behaviour of the labourers. There very deep slope of a hill. We took a are palm trees in the gardens at Gro- boat, sailed four miles across the bay seto, and oranges in the open air all to Ansidonia, and landed at the rewinter. Notwithstanding the bad air, mains of the old port now filled up a countryman who is accustomed to it, with sand, but where we saw some and well fed, and does not expose him- Cyclopian work of its harbour. For self to the morning or night air, will be robust and healthy, as we saw a

Cossæ, vel Cosæ, vel singulari numegood many. Children are all sickly; ro Cosa, Etruriæ maritimæ urbs, ad proin our journey to Orbitello we passed montorum Argentarum, hodie monte Arthe ancient sea-port of Talamone, now gentaro, urbs ipsa putatur quibusdam eaa poor place. We travelled five miles dem esse cum Orbitello, sed aliis melius on a bank of sand thrown up by the oppidum vicinum Ansidonia. (Virgilius in sea, with an unwholesome marsh be- usum Delphini.)

3 x


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