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actly whích year, but this is of no great The consequence was, that, a little importance,) there happened to be an above Cologne, where the l'hine makes uncommonly severe winter, the Rhine an elbow, a new arm of the river, had been what is called frozen up for composed equally of ice and wanearly six weeks, during which time ter, broke out, and took its direcgreat roads are usually cut over the ice. tion towards our unfortunate town. Horses, carriages, and the heaviest We had hardly any warning. The laden waggons cross it without any alarm was given in the night; and, danger, and markets are established on before noon the next day, almost all it.

the mischief was done, with such imIt may not be irrelevant to notice, petuosity did this terrible flood come that this great bridge is not composed down. It would be difficult to deof one solid sheet, but of large shoals scribe the general terror which seized of ice and hardened snow, which fioat all the inhabitants. In a few hours, down the stream, accumulate, and are the water increased from twenty to heaped up upon each other until the thirty feet. House after house was passage is stopped by its own pressure. swept away. People leapt from the People are so accustomed to this, that first and second story windows (and no sooner does any part stand still, this in the night) upon the moving than they begin to traverse the bridge ice, in hopes of saving their lives by of ice, and set to work upon it, well being floated to dry land, or by scramknowing that nothing can prevent its bling, under imminent danger, from consolidation for a time at least, or one shoal of ice to another, until they should it break loose again, sufficient reached a place of safety. There was no warning is given by the cracking of other way of escaping; for, while fathe ice, which produces a report like milies were endeavouring hastily (but the discharge of cannon. The ice in vain) to save at least part of their there may be from ten to twenty-five most precious valuables, the house feet thick, but this, from the mode of was surrounded, and soon after disapits formation, must, of course, be very peared. The use of boats was quite irregular. When, for the first time I out of the question. In this manner saw, many years afterwards, the large 170 and odd houses were swept away, field of lava which you are obliged to large brick and stone buildings, among cross with much difficulty on the top which was that of my father, and a of Mount Etna, before you come to the large church which stood near it. The last steep ascent leaving to the prin- steeple of this church was the means cipal crater, the similarity of appear- of saving the lives of a number of ance between this and the vast fields people, who had climbed to the top of ice on the Rhine struck me very of it; not that its own strength could forcibly, with this difference, that the have withstood the furious clement, one is black, and the other white, and which nothing can resist, but probeautifully glittering when the sun videntially it happened so, that large shines. I have since seen the same masses of ice surrounded it in such comparison male by another writer, a manner that the ice itself became but do not recollect where. But to its support, though it was afterwards return. When the ice comes thus to obliged to be taken down, as it threata flood, the river, of course, still flows ened to fall in from the injury it had underneath. Now it happened, in received. Some of those, who, in dem the year I am writing of, that a sud- spair, attempted to make their escape den thaw came on in Switzerland, from it perished, while others fortuwhere the Rhine takes its rise, by nately succeedleid, but the greatest which means immense floods of water number (60 or 70) who awaited their came down, caused by the melting of fate equally in despair, were saved the snow in the mountains, which two days afterwards, though nearly alone would have done great damage; famished, among whom were two of but, in addition to this, the frost con my father's servants. The whole tinued on the lower parts of the river, number of lives lost was comparativeand the crust of ice having continually ly small, I think it was not 80, but gained strength and solidity during upwards of 70. six weeks, it neither gave way, nor

When morning came the scene was was there room for this immense vo- truly awful and appalling. Nothing lume of water to pass underneath. was to be seen but fields and moun

tains of ice, where the day before that remained, and the little which houses and gardens had stood. We could be so brought to us, were thrown still saw the devastation going on. together into one general stock, and Wherever a stream of water and ice delivered out in daily rations, to rich came against a building, there was a and poor, in equal proportions, acgreat crush, and it disappeared in an cording to the numbers in a family. instant like a card-house. Nothing I well remember mounting guard at but the dust was seen rising from the one of these magazines, being then a spot. We saw a hen-house floating stout boy of 13 or 14, which was down on the ice entire, with the poul- merely done for the sake of regulartry in it, and a dog on the ice. Our ity, for little tumult was to be appreterrors were not over, the greatest hended under such circumstances. trial was yet to come.

Clothes were also wanting, particularThe town was now completely en- ly for the poorer sort of people, which compassed with moving ice and water, were also received by little and little, which continued to rise. The whole in the same manner. At first it was population was collected nearly on curious to see half the people dressed one spot in the higher part of the in other men's clothes. 'Î'he neightown, as it were on an island. The bouring countries behaved with the only thing that could save us was the greatest humanity towards the poor breaking up of the main ice, but the sufferers, as soon as any tolerable comcrust which covered the main stream munication could be opened. was still unmoved. It was calculated I might relate many individual inthat if this state of things continued teresting circumstances, but will not for one hour longer, we must inevita- lengthen this letter too much. All bly all be swallowed up. Judge then this happened in February, I think, what our situation must have been. and lumps of ice were still found ly. There we stood all like one family ing about in June. There was anlooking on the desolating scene, and other church, in a higher part of the awaiting our fate in silent terror or town, which had been much exposed, resignation, without the possibility of but not carried away. Some weeks any help except from above. No! after the great flood, a lump of ice not quite silent, for there was perhaps was still found lying in the pulpit

, not a lip that did not offer up a fer- (supported by other masses from bevent prayer to the Almighty, and in low,) of such a size, that by no mode mercy he did hear them! Loud re- of human contrivance it appeared posports were soon heard like the dis- sible to have brought it in through charge of cannon, (a sure sign to us,) any of the doors or windows. which were followed by shouts of joy I have only related to you the mis. in all our misery. So true is it, that fortunes of one small town, but it is we are never so wretched but we may well known how much devastation be more so !

was committed in that calamitous year The great crust was now lifted up, along the whole banks of the Rhine, and the water had vent. In a short and yet such is the attachment of time it fell, and this part of the dan- men to their native soil, that, soon afger ceased; but still our miseries were ter this event, people began to rebuild not yet over, for now we were threat- houses on the same spots where they ened with another calamity-famine. had before been washed away. It is The greatest part of the provisions true, the gap which this new branch was swept away ; cattle, sheep, pigs, of the river had made was dammed and all live stock, had perished. up as soon as the great waters had For the three succeeding weeks no subsided; but what security was there conveyance could approach us, and against another such scene from some only such people as ventured (and different quarter ? that, in the first instance, at the risk This otservation, however, is very of their lives) to scramble over the ice general. The inhabitants of Mount on foot, who could, of course, not car- Etna and Vesuvius begin to rebuild ry much. Public magazines were es- houses, after an eruption, on the fresh tablished, where all the provisions lava, before it is even cold.

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Wrought Iron Bridges. Among our form of the Princess. The arrangement notices in a late Number, we quoted the pare of this part of the groupe admits of a most ticulars of a memorial presented to the interesting display of her likeness and form, French Institute, by M. Payett, architect, whilst it is strongly contrasted by the part upon Wrought or Malleable Iron Bridges, beneath where the mortal remains are lain which has attracted some notice ; and we on a bier surrounded by some figures quite are happy to find that this country has ta- enveloped in solemn drapery, expressive of ken the lead, in the construction of Wrought the deep lamentation of people from every Iron Bridges, as, in one form or other, they quarter of the globe. Whilst blind mortals have been executed several years since up are seen weeping over the earthly remains, on the rivers Tweed and Gala. Though celestial beings accompany the pure spirit, these are only foot bridges, consisting of which for corruptible has put on incorrupslender wires, and also of rods or bars of tion, and for mortal has put on immortaliiron, some of which are upwards of 120 feet ty. The whole will shortly be ready for in the span, yet we understand that, three public inspection, and an engraving will be years since, Mr Stevenson, engineer, exe- published of it, by Mr M. Wyatt. outed a model for a bridge of bar or Mal. Bank Notes. The Final Report of the leable Iron of 100 feet spau for a piece of Commissioners appointed for inquirir.g inwater at the seat of Airthrey Castle, and to the Mode of Preventing the Forgery of that the same engineer has also presented Bank Notes, “ recommended for adoption 3 plan to the Road Trustees, for a bridge by the Bank the plan brought forward by of Malleable Iron, to cross the River Al. Messrs Applegath and Cowper, which was mond, for the insprovement of the great originally submitted to the Directors & north road between the city of Edinburgh short time only before the appointment of and Queensferry. Every one knows that this commission, and received immediate chain bridges have long existed both in encouragement from them; and upon China and America; they have also been pro. which some improvements have since been jected for various parts of this kingdom, made. The directors have readily compliand two of them are now executing, one

ed with this recommendation, and the nefrom a design of Mr Telford, engineer, cessary machines are in a state of great forwhich is to be 560 feet between the points wardness. of suspension, across the Straits of Menai, Duplex Typograph.--An ingenious mean arm of the sca between Caernarvovshire chanical invention has lately been complet and the Island of Anglesea ; the other, some ed, which opens a new and inexhaustible what less in extent, is now executing on source of information to those who are the River Tweed, a few miles above Bere afflicted by the privation of sight. It is wick, by Captain Brown of the Royal Na. called a Duplex Typograph, and enables vy. We understand farther regarding the blind to receive and communicate ideas chain bridges, that Mr Stevenson has made by means of letters, upon a principle adapta design, which greatly simplifics the at- ed to the sense of feeling. Thus then has tachment of the chains to the abutments, science discovered a new road to minds, and possesses several other advantages, of from which she has hitherto becn alnost which an account is to be given in the excluded. The apparatus is compact and “ Edinburgh Philosphical Journal," to be portable, and the system so simple and inpublished in the month of July next. telligible, that it may be acquired by the

English Universities. It appears by a blind in a very short space of time, and its Surnmary of the Members of the Universi- application is instantly comprehended by ties of Oxford and Cambridge, in their others. The inventor is Mr J. Purkis, broCalendars for 1819 and 1820, that the fol. ther of a well known musical character, lowing is the number :

who, by the aid of a skilful oculist, obtainMembers of Convocation 1874

ed the blessings of sight, at the age of

3981 thirty, after having been blind from the 1820.

time of his birth. On the same subject it 1819. Cambridge. Members of the Senate

is just to add, that Dr Edmund Fry has

5098 printed a sheet, on which the letters are 1820.

raised on the paper, and capable of being

felt and read by the fingers' ends. Cenotaph. The Cenotaph to the late Hydrogen Gus. Mr Cooper has asccra Princess Charlotte is finished, with the tained, that if hydrogen gas be breathed exception of the figure of the infant, which for a few moments, it has the curious effect is to be borne in the arms of one of the of changing the voice. The effect is obAngels which accompany the spiritual served, on the person speaking immediate

3 M

1819. Oxford.

on the Books
of Convocation
on the Books

1873 4102 1495

on the Boards
of the Senate
on the Boards

1558 3953

VOL. VI.

ly after leaving the vessel of hydrogen, but ed. Many libraries have been acquired by it soon goes off. No instance has yet oc- purchase and donations. The anatomical curred in which this effect on the voice has theatre, the medical and surgical hospitals, not been produced by the hydrogen, and the institution for midwifery; the ca

Comet.-It has been ascertained that binet of physic, the laboratory, the museum one and the same comet returned to our of natural history, of antiquities, of Roman system in 1786, 1795, 1801, 1805, and and German coins, medals and inonuments, 1818-19. It appears never to range be found in the environs of Bonne. yond the orbit of Jupiter. Its short pe There are at present forty-five professors riod of little more than three years and a placed in the University by the King of quarter, and its mean distance from the Prussia. sun, which is not much greater than twice Italy.--Herculancum. In addition to that of the earth. It crosses the orbit of former notices respecting the MSS. found the earth more than 60 times in a century, in Herculaneum, we have to announce the but this need excite no apprehension in enrolling of eighty-eight. Most of these those who deny the phantom of attraction consist of works by the Greek philosophers -it may disturb and divert the energy of or Sophists ; nine are by Epicurus ; thirtythe sun's force on the earth and moon, but two bear the name of Philodemus, three can in no way attract, as is vulgarly sup- by Demetrius, one by Calotes, one by posed.

Polystratus, one by Carniades, and one by Northern Discoveries.---Lieut. Frank- Chrysippus. These works, with like others, lyn, who was employed last year in the the authors of which are unknown, treat of British expedition to the North Pole, set natural or moral philosophy, of medicine, out lately from a station belonging to the of arts, manners and customs. Hudson's Bay Company, on a mission to Pompeia.–At Pompeia, there have been explore the Countries situated to the North recently discovered several fresh buildings, of Hudson's Bay. He will proceed in the in the line of the beautiful street that leads track pursued by Mr Hearne, some years to the Temple of Isis, to that of Hercules, ago, to the mouth of the Copper River, and and to the Theatre. In a house which thence renew his route in such directions doubtless was the residence of some exas the circumstances of time and place may perienced medical practitioner, chirur. indicate, for the attainment of the objects cal instruments, of a highly finished workof his undertaking,

manship, have been found, with a number Lancasterian Schools. The Lancasterian of excellent paintings, representing fruits method of instruction appears to be rapid. and animals. ly spreading over every part of Europe, Egypt.-Canal of Rosetta.-It appears while Mr L. is an Exile in America, In by the news from Egypt, of the 20th of Spain, a royal decree has authorized the September last, that the labours of the erection of a central school at Madrid, and canal of Rosetta are proceeding with all others in the various communes of the imaginable activity, and it was then calcukingdom. In Portugal the system is car- lated, that the waters of the Nile might be ried on still more energetically, and many introduced into it by the middle of Octoof the pupils are soldiers in the army. In ber. In Upper Egypt, some discoveries Denmark, on the 21st of August, the Lan- have been made of certain iron and lead casterian school of Copenhagen contained mines. Mehemed Ali Pacha has sent a 162 scholars.

number of chemists and miners, to make France.-M. the Count de Forbin, au researches for the gold and emerald mines thor of the Voyage to the Levant, has set that have been buried for some centuries, out for Sicily, to visit the antiquities of and he has promised a very great reward that island. He takes with him M. Huyot, to any that shall discover a coal mine in as designer, who had been the companion Upper Egypt. of his former voyage.

M. Frediani, of whom a rapid notice has M. Gamba, a merchant, who has long been sketched in the different public jour. resided in Paris, is about to proceed on a nals, was, the winter before last, at Palmy, Tour to Asia, and the Banks of the Cas. ra; he then visited Egypt, and proceeded pian Sea, to investigate various objects of to the mountains of Sinai and Horeb, in a scientific and agronomical character. the route of the children of Israel. After

Germany. -New University.-An Uni. this he came to Tor, in Arabia Petræa, on versity at Bonne has lately been founded his return from the delectable region of by the King of Prussia, and endowed in Elim; this was in May 1819. He stopthe most liberal manner. The immense ped there some weeks, for rest and recreachateau of Bonne, ci-devant residence of tion, and was then intending to prosccute the Elector of Cologne, is appropriated to further discoveries. the university; and the fine chateau of The foreign journals report the arrival Poppledorf, with its plantations, are to be of M. Belzoni at Venice, from Alexandria, the botanical gardens. A large astronomic and that he had just finished his quarantine cal observatory will be immediately erect. there. From Venice he will proceed ta

Padua, his native city, and from thence to ly Missouri,) and six miles west of the road Paris and London, where he means to pub- from (adron to Mount Prairie on Red Ri. lish a detailed account of his different la ver. The approach to the springs lies up bours.

the valley of the creek. On the right of United States. The Gazette of St Louis the valley rises the hot mountain with the (on the Missouri, United States) announces springs issuing at its foot; on the left, the equipment of an expedition, the object the cold mountain, which is little more of which is to ascertain the existence of a than a confused and mighty pile of stones. race reported to be the descendants of cer. The hot mountain is about 300 feet high, tain Welsh emigrants ; they intend to com. rising quite steep, and presenting occasions prehend all the southern ramifications of ally ledges of rocks, it terninates above in the great river Missouri, within the limits a confused mass of broken rocks. The of their excursion. This undertaking is steep and otherwise steril sides are covered confided to Messrs Roberts and Parry, both with a luxuriant growth of vines. The Welshmen, and well acquainted with the valley between this and the cold mountain language of both North and South Wales. is about fifty yards wide. The springs is

Native Iron. A mass of native iron, sue at the foot of the hot mountain at an weighing upwards of three thousand pounds, elevation of about ten feet above the level discovered several years ago on the banks of the creek; they are very numerous all of Red River in Louisiana, is now in the along the hill side, and the water which collection of the Historical Society in the runs in copious streams is quite hot; it New York Institution. Its shape is irre- will scald the band and boil an egg hard gular, inclining to oviform ; its surface in ten minutes. Its temperature is condeeply indented, and covered by an oxide sidered that of boiling water, but Dr Anof iron, and it is much broader at the bot- drews, of Red River, thinks it is not above tom, where it has rested on the earth, than 200° Fahr. at the top, inclining somewhat in the man Burning Spring.-A phenomenon which ner of a cone. By several experiments has for several years excited the attention of which have been made upon different pieces travellers, under the name of a burning of it, there appears to be a want of unifor. spring, exists in one of the principal forks of mity in its quality, some parts being very Leeking River, Kentucky. It is situated amalleable and ductile, while others possess bout three-fourths of a mile from the banks nearly the hardness of steel. It is suscepti. of the river, and about eighty miles above its ble of the highest polish, and is said to junction with the Ohio, opposite Cincin. contain some nickel. This mass of iron nati. A spring here breaks out at the foot of was found about one hundred miles above a hill, forming a basin of water about six feet Natchitoches on Red River, on one of those in diameter, and two feet deep, at the bot. rich and extensive prairies so common to tom of which issues a stream of gas, which that part of the country, and about twelve in volume and force is about equal to the miles from the banks of the river.

blast forced from a common smith's bel. Nitre.-On the banks of the Merrimack lows; but there is no cessation of its force, and the Gasconade are found numerous which is such as to create a violent ebullicaves which yield an earth impregnated tion in the water. Being heavier than largely with nitre, which is procured from common atmospheric air, the gas on pasit by lixiviation. On the head of Current's sing up through the water constantly ocriver are also found several caves from cupies the surface, which is still the lower which nitre is procured, the principal of part of an indenture in the earth at that which is Ashley's Cave on Cave Creek, ac place. On presenting a taper this gas inbout eighty miles S. W. of Potosi. This stantly takes fire, and burns with great brilis one of those stupendous and extensive liancy. caverns which cannot be viewed without East Indies. For some years past, a exciting our wonder and astonishment, trigonometrical operation has been conductwhich is increased by beholding the entire ed in India, under the auspices of the loworks for the manufacture of nitre situated cal governments. Licut.-Col. Lambton in its interior. The native nitrate of pot- has been enabled, by the aid of their proash is found in beautiful white crystals, in ceedings, to measure, at different periods, vesting the fissures of the limestone rock an arc of the meridian fronı 8.9 97 38" to which forms the walls of this cave; and 18° 3' 23" of north latitude, the greatest several others in its vicinity exhibit the that has been measured on the surface of same phenomenon.

the globe. From a review of these opera Hot Springs.- The Hot Springs of Oua. tions, it appears that a degree of the meri. chitta, which have been known for many dian, near the equator, contains 68,704 years, are situated on a stream called Hot- English miles ; that in 45° of latitude, it spring Creek, which falls into the Washi. is 69,030 ; in 51°, 69,105 ; in 90°, taw river eight miles below. They lie fif- 69,368. So that a degree of latitude, at ty miles south of the Arkansaw river, in a medium estimate, makes exactly 69 Clark county, territory of Arkansaw, (late. 1-10th English geographical miles.

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