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miles, like that of Chiblak. 2. From vel surface, (marked plain in the map,) the time that the Greeks arrived, the a little to the eastward of the river, Trojan women had given up their an- yet as S is the termination of a range cient practice of washing their linen of high grounds, the declivity must at the two fountains, though these extend a considerable way towards the were near the walls; (B. xxii.v. 154.;) river, which might with perfect proeven Hector durst scarcely venture priety be considered as marking the beyond the Scean gates before Achilles bottom of the valley, and the termiwithdrew from the war; (B. ix. v. nation of the descent. 353 ;) circumstances which show that The march to the town and from the Trojans were more closely block- it is dispatched in the briefest terms, aded on that side than is consistent as if it were neither of much length with Strabo's argument in favour of a nor importance. (See beginning of the distant position; though their com- Third Book, and Book vii. v. 310.) munication with the country was un- The only objects mentioned as occurdoubtedly open on the east. 3. It ring in it are the river Scamander, was common for the Greeks to send the tomb of Ilus beyond the river, their wounded from Troy to the then the erineos or fig-tree, and, lastcamp, and the Trojans theirs from ly, the beech tree at the Scean gate. the camp to Troy; during the battle. (B. xi. v. 166-170.) We have al4. When the duel between Paris and ready shown, that the tomb of Ilus Menelaus took place under the walls may be identified with the tumulus of the town, Agamemnon sent the K; the fig-tree is associated with it, herald to bring a lamb from the fleet as if they were near one another, and for a sacrifice, and this does not seem both in the “ middle of the plain.' to have occasioned a very long inter- The latter is also described as being ruption in the proceedings. (B. iii. under the walls. (B. xxii. v. 149.) F. 118.) From the position T the We have then the tomb of Ilus near journey would have occupied proba- the river, as formerly shown, the wild bly three or four hours. 5. When fig-tree, or probably wood of wild figthe Trojans kindled their fires be- trees, not far from the tomb, and at tween the entrenchments and the Sca- the same time under the walls; and mander, these fires are said to “ burn of course we have the town at no before Troy,” “ and to shine before great distance from the tomb. We Troy,” (B. viii. v. 558. B. X. v. 12,) need not point out how accurately expressions which clearly imply that these particulars correspond with the they were near the town, and visible position S. But if Troy is placed at T, from it, as they would be at S, but it is scarcely possible to reconcile the which would certainly have been mis- circumstances mentioned with the applied had Troy been at T. 6. Pa- distance; and in the list of objects in troclus began his attack at that extre- the approach to the town, it is still mity of the fleet where the ships of more difficult to account for the poet's Ajax were, of course about c. He total silence with regard to the ridge beat off the first division of the Tro- R, and the long hill M, the latter jans there, but as there were other large enough, as Dr Clarke states, to bodies still in the camp, he followed conceal an army on its south-east side, the fugitives but a short way beyond and which must not only have always the entrenchinents, certainly not far- met the Greeks in advancing to the ther than the nearest point where the town, but must have divided their river was passable, (I.) From this army into two bodies, not visible to point he led back his troops to the each other. ships, “ and did not allow them to us Troy, as we have mentioned before, cend to the town,” (B. xvi. v. 394,) an stood in a plain, which is characterized expression which distinctly indicates, as“ fruitful in wheat," and was, therethat the town was near, and that the fore, probably an alluvial plain, (B.xxi. eminence on which it stood began to v. 558-602.) The town was, howrise from that very spot. It will be ever, on a height, as is clearly shown perceivedl at once how closely this ap- by the expressions ascending to it from plies to the position S, and how inap- the plain, and descending from it to plicable it is to T, or to any other the plain, (B. iii. v. 253. B. xvi. v. spot between the rivers, unless it be 396.* B. xxiv. v. 329 ;) and also by to R. Though there is a stripe of le- the epithet “ Ilium ventosum," or

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“Ilium beat by the winds," so often 51.)* On the other hand, we find used, (B. iii. v. 305.) It occupied the that Achilles, when allured away by whole or nearly the whole of the emi- Apollo under the figure of Agenor, nence on which it stood. Hector, near to the Scamander, was for some chased by Achilles round Troy, is de- time out of the sight of persons on scribed as flying near the city, under the walls, (B. xxii. v. 25;) and while the walls, and yet in the plain, “ for he was absent the Trojan army had as often as he made an attempt to time to enter the town. If we supreach the gates, Achilles turned him pose the flight of Apollo to have been back into the plain,” (B. xxii. v. 143, towards P, the circumstances of the 197;) and it is also stated, that the story agree sufficiently with the aswalls could not be easily scaled, ex- sumed position of the town. When cept at the wild fig-tree, which seems Agenor himself standing near the to show, that every where else they town proposes to fly “through the stood upon high ground, (B. vi. v. Ilian plain” to the woods of Ida, (B. 433.) The place Š is mentioned by xxi. 558,) and to return at night afMr Hobhouse as an “ eminence," or ter bathing himself in the river, we -a “hill,” (p. 750 ;) and Dr Clarke cannot reconcile this with the suppodescribes it as “ an elevated spot sur- sition of Troy being at T; for his rounded on all sides by a level plain," nearest route to Mount Ida from that (Vol. III. p. 131.) It not only agrees, point should have been—not through therefore, in the most essential of the plain, but along the heights eastthese particulars with Homer's ac- ward to the outer branch of Ida, count of the site of Troy, but it is the marked in the map “first chain of only spot in that quarter to which the high mountains," and in no part of poet's description will apply. It is his route would he have been near not indispensable, perhaps, that the the Scamander. But from S or R, ground should descend from the walls we may suppose his course to have on all sides; but it is necessary that been up the plain to the rocky hills the plain should extend round those opposite Bournabashi, and consesides nearest the Greeks, and that if quently near the river, agreeably to there be any rising ground behind, it the poet's description. In short, we should not be such as to obstruct the venture to affirm, that the more the course round the city. The descrip- poet's local details are investigated, tion, therefore, though most suitable the more exact and exclusive will the to the position S, may apply to the coincidence be found between the poposition R, but it is evidently alto- sition S and the situation of his Troy. gether unsuitable to any spot placed Troy had “ before it a high hill entirely in the line of eminences, standing by itself in the plain, and like T.

accessible on all sides, called Batieia Supposing Troy to be on the rising by men, but by the gods the sepulchre ground S, and the Greek army drawn of Myrinna, there the Trojans and up in a line slightly curved round the their auxiliaries drew up in battle arwestern part of the city, it is perfect- ray.” (B. ii. v. 811.). It is obvious, ly credible that Helen, sitting on the that this could be nothing but a tuwall, might be able to distinguish the mulus, and that the army was not persons of the Grecian captains in the posted on it, but that it merely servplain below, (B. iii. v. 235;) but in ed to mark their position, or rather the uneven ground round Chiblak, it their distance from the walls. It is not intelligible how the army could either be all visible at once, or how it could Le said to be in the plain, (B.iii.v. * The passage may be otherwise under. 253.) Apparently Troy should be nearer stood to mean, that the country along the Simois ihan Scamander, at least in one banks of Simois generally, being least ex. direction, as the position Sis; for when posed to the observation and incursions of the armies were preparing for bat- the Trojans, and where numbers of them

the Greeks, was the only part fully open to tle near the Grecian camp, Mars went would of course be occupied in rural lafrom the citadel to the Simois shout- bour, or bringing in supplies from the ing to encourage the Trojans (loiter- neighbouring country. This construction ing in or near the city, we may sup- is equally consistent with the site we have pose) to hasten to the field, (B. xx. v. assigned to Troy.

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could not be a large high hill, because distant, (such as the hill R,) may such a hill, so situated, capable of answer the purpose equally as well as serving as a station to 50,000 men, the tumulus of Myrinna. When the would not have allowed the Grecian inhabitants of the town felt themarmy on the other side of it to have selves secured, by the Greeks being been seen from the walls, and still driven within their entrenchments, less would it have allowed them to and blockaded there by the Trojan approach so near that individuals army, they might flock to the councould be distinguished. Besides, try eastward in greater numbers, and standing, as it did, close before the to a greater distance than usual, on city, with a plain everywhere round their necessary avocations; and might it, had it been a large, it must have be found by Mars even as far off as been an important military post, of the Callicolone of Strabo, which was which we should have heard every 40 stadia eastward of New Ilium. time the Greeks advanced by, or over The Erineos (wild fig-tree) is transit, to the city. But, on the contrary, lated by Madame Dacier, “ the hill it is never mentioned, except on this of wild fig-trees,” and is mentioned single occasion. It must, therefore, by Strabo not as a single tree, but a have been a conical eminence, placed rugged place under ancient Troy, cowithin one or two hundreu yards of vered with that species of wood, (p. the walls, but not exactly in the usual 893.) It is spoken of as in the plain, road to the town, and as to which a and towards the tomb of Ilus, (B. xi. doubt existed, whether it was natural v. 166.) It was also near the walls, of artificial. Doubts of the same for Hector and Achilles passed it in kind exist at this day regarding some their course : it stood high, for it is of the hillocks in the Troad. The called caprificum ventosum, and is asdisappearance of such an object can sociated, if not identified with, the create no serious difficulty. It might OKOTIA, speculative height," or yield to the effects of time alone; or 'spot commanding an extensive proas the new city, 40 stadia round, spect,” also near the walls, (B. xxii. must have been twice or thrice as v. 145.) Moreover, it was at the large as the ancient, (for the course of Erineos that the walls could be most Achilles and Hector could not be 16 easily scaled, (B. vi. 433.) Putting of 17 miles in length,) this hillock of these circumstances together, it seems earth might be demolished on account obvious that the Erineos was riot a of its contiguity to the walls, or taken single tree, but a piece of ground of within their enlarged circuit, and le some extent, covered with wild figvelled.

trees, beginning in the plain, and ende Callicolone (literally " the beauti- ing in a swell or ridge which touched ful hill”) is only twice mentioned, the walls. Whether the ground preand is held by Madame Dacier to sents any thing at present correspondbe the same as Batieia. This is not ing to this description, or whether an impossible. On one occasion, Mars object so inconsiderable should be is represented as “ shouting to urge looked for after such a lapse of time, the Trojans to the battle, sometimes are questions which do not seem to from the citadel, sometimes near be of much importance. Simois above Callicolone,” (B. xx. We may be certain, that the hot 5. 51.) On another occasion, the dei- and cold springs near the walls, menties, favourable to the Trojans, seated tioned by Homer, (B. xxii. v. 117,) themselves on Callicolone to survey did not exist in Strabo's time, either the battle, which was fought on the at New Ilium, or Strabo's Troy, since west side of the Scamander, (B. xx. so decisive a circumstance would have 5. 151.) If we suppose the hill al- ended the dispute respecting the site luded to to have been a large tumu- of the city. But the disappearance lus near the site S, and towards U, of springs, in a region so subject to its situation will correspond suffi- earthquakes, is no uncommon occurciently with these notices. But the rence. Besides, we have shown, that circumstances stated respecting Calli- two deep seated cold springs would colone are too vague to give any pre- exhibit the general phenomena of cise indications of its position, and those described by Homer ; and supperhaps any hill on the east side of posing such to exist, any change on the site high enough, and not very the surface of the soil which would

divide the waters of the more copious the Ilium which Xerxes visited, (480 spring, or prevent them from rushing years A.C.) under the persuasion that to the open air in a full volume, it was the identical Troy overthrown would destroy the peculiarity on by the Greeks, and whose wrongs he which the appearance of a hot spring pretended to revenge, by invading depended. It is possible, therefore, Greece. From the account of Xerxes's that the celebrated springs inay yet visit given by Herodotus, the latter be found in an unsuspected form. At also evidently considered the ancient any rate, springs rising near T must and modern city as the same. It was, fall into the brook of Califat, and moreover, the town which Alexander could only be made springs of Sca- enriched with gifts, and endowed with mander, by the violent assumption, immunities, (Strabo, p. 886,) on acthat the brook itself, as well as all the count of its supposed connection with fountains or torrents which flow into ancient Troy. It seems, therefore, it, are springs of that river. To very reasonable to believe, that after springs near the positions S or R this the departure of the Greeks, the Troobjection would not apply.

jans, who still existed as a people, reTroy had a citadel named Perga built the new city out of the ruins of mus, which is termed “ high," or the old, and on the same ground.

lofty,” (B. v. v. 460,) and described This was the account given by the as having a pointed summit, (B. xx. Ilians themselves, who affirmed that

52.) It had rocks under it, for the city was not totally destroyed by when the wooden horse was standing the Greeks, (Strabo, p. 896.) in the citadel, some of the Trojans The barrow K, which we have idenproposed to drag it to the summit, tified with the tomb of Ilus, seems and throw it down from the rocks,' to be the same which was pointed out (Odyss, B. viii. v. 508.) This cita- by popular tradition in Strabo's time del seems to have been placed towards as the tomb of Esyetes, five stadia the eastern side, for Hector proceed- from the city on the road to Alexaning from it to the Scæan (or western) dria Troas.* To this tradition Stragates, passed through the city, (B. vi. bo does not seem to attach much ereV. 390.) Whether there is any spot dit, (p. 895.) As the tomb of Esyetes higher than the rest, with rocks un was the station of the Trojan scout, der it, within the circuit of the ruins Polites, it should be comparatively at S, travellers have not informed us. near the camp, and far from the city, But it may satisfy us for the present, (B. ii. v. 791,) and of course it could that New Ilium, as Strabo tells us, not be at K. Perhaps F may reprehad a citadel which stood high, and sent its position, but, without some commanded an extensive view, (p. more precise indications, we cannot 895,) and therefore agreed generally pretend to speak with decision. Bewith Homer's description. Perhaps sides, it is too much to expect, that all the epithet pointed applies to the the monuments of this kind, standing buildings rather than the ground in in Homer's day, and consisting merethe ancient Acropolis, for there were ly of heaps of earth, should have surtemples in it, and Priam, Paris, and vived the storms, inundations, and Hector, had palaces there, (B. vi. v. changes of 3000 years. It would be 297, 313.). The expressions generally still more idle to look for the entrencheroployed by the poet seem to corre ment of Hercules, mentioned in the spond best with the supposition, that 20th Book, (v. 145,) or to pretend to the citadel was not an insulated rock, determine its situation. but merely the summit or highest Holding that the station of Ajax part of the hill, the body of which was on the west side of the Scamanwas occupied by the town.

der, we are disposed to reject the idea It ought to be observed farther, of the barrow at Tepe Gheulu being in favour of the position S, that a town was found there bearing the * Chevalier, in quoting this passage, name of Ilium, which had existed with his usual bad faith, leaves out the disfrom a period approaching to the time tance, which would have been fatal at once of Homer. Strabo allows that it had to his argument. existed from the time of the Lydian As in quotation shrewd divines leave out empire, which began A.A.C. 797, and Those words that would against them clear ended A.A.C. 550. It was therefore the doubt.

his tomb. This idea seems to have vicinity of the town to the camp. As sprung from the vulgar error respect- the left wing gave way early, (B. xvii. ing the position and extent of the v. 118,), we can easily understand that Grecian camp. The barrow E has, the right, hemmed in on that side, in our opinion, a better title to be instead of retreating towards F, might considered as the tomb of that hero, be forced towards the modern village if such a monument must be found. of Califat, and, after crossing, descend The other two barrows, C and D, may the west bank of the river. We nobe those of Achilles and Patroclus, tice this circumstance as an evidence unless the former was placed on the of Homer's consistency. Had the summit of the hill of Sigeum, as Mr death of Patroclus taken place on the Hobhouse conjectures. But one of left wing of the Greeks, we should these three tumuli may be that which have been unable to give a satisfactory was erected to the Grecians, who fell explanation of this passage. in the first battle recorded in the The other passage, which is in the Iliad, (B. vii. v. 436.)

11th Book, states, that Hector was We cannot spare room to apply our ignorant of the defeat of a certain part views of the Trojan topography to il- of his army, “ for he fought at the lustrate the details of the four battles left of the whole battle, at the banks described in the Iliad; but, before of Scamander," (v. 497;) and has been concluding, there are two passages of cited by Chevalier, Clarke, and others, some intricacy we wish to notice. In to prove that the Scamander was on the 21st Book we are told, that A- the Trojan left, and was, therefore, chilles drove the Trojans to the banks the river nearest Sigeum. Now, it is of Scamander, (which had swelled not a little singular, that, though this during the preceding night,) and, se- opinion as to the position of the rivers parating them into two bodies, forced is correct, it is here founded on a tothe one into the river, while the other tally false construction of the text, for fled by the same road by which Hec- it was the Trojan right that was at tor had pursued the routed Grecians the banks of Scamander on this occathe preceding day, (B. xxi. v. 1.) As sion. The poet, in his account of the the battle began almost close to the contest, follows the motions of the entrenchments, it would appear that Greeks, and he means the Grecian Achilles, routing the troops imme- left when he speaks of the left of the diately opposed to him, pierced the battle. Whoever will trace Homer's Trojan army, and pushed on to the details will find, that, when the army river at or below 1. Those Trojans was in the field, the principal leaders between him and the camp had then of the Grecians were always posted in no alternative but to throw themselves the same order, except when they are into the river, at a point near the formally called away for some special junction, (which may explain the fic- purpose. Idomeneus and Ajax are tion of Scamander calling to Simois always on the left wing; Tydides, in for assistance,) and where fording was the absence of Achilles, on the right; probably difficult. The other divi- Ulysses and Menestheus between the sion of the Trojans could fly no way centre and right wing; and Menelaus but up the bank of the river, probably and Nestor between the centre and to the usual ford near K, or to some left. If we trace the progress of the point beyond it, where the waters battle from verse 256 to verse 550, we might be more easily crossed. Now, shall find, that, Agamen:non being when the armies fought the preceding wounded at Troy, and obliged to withday in the field near Troy, it is evi- draw, the Greeks began to retreat ; dent, from the nature of the ground, that Hector, opposing Tydides, (on that it must have been the Grecian the Greciun right,) was knocked down, right wing which was posted towards and then withdrew to another part of this fording place, and fled by this the battle, (that is, to the Grecian route. And, accordingly, we find left ;) that, after this, Paris, standing that the heat of the battle that day behind the column of the tomb of was entirely on the right wing of the Ilus, wounds Tydides with an arrow, Grecians, where the contest for the (v. 369,) hence the right wing of the body of Patroclus was maintained by Greeks was now close to the river; tie Hector, and the other chiefs on both Greeks continue to retire, and, of sides, with unabating fury, from the course, pass the river, (v. 406 ;) U.

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