must have been between the troops exactly reverses Homer's testimony, near the sea, and those near the river for the poet's Thymbra ought, on and the entrenchments, we do not every possible ground, to be on the think the position of the place could opposite side of the Scamander from have been more distinctly pointed out. the town, and near the Greek camp; And, if we allow any weight to the and must, therefore, be far from Old testimony of later writers, that the Troy, and comparatively near New place was named from a river, its po- Ilium, according to Strabo's own acsition is placed beyond a doubt, for count of these places. We should rethis is the only stream on that side of collect, that the geographer did not the Scamander, where the Trojans describe the Troad from personal obwere now encanıped. The propriety, servation, and that his account, though too, of allotting this as quarters for minute, is in some points confused, the cavalry is evident, when we re- and in others grossly erroneous, as flect that the rivulet, being the only when he doubles the distance between stream in the district which continues Sigeum and Rheteum. Having, in without abatement during summer, this instance, to reverse his reasoning, (the season of the war,) its banks, perhaps we may modify his descripthough in some parts marshy, would be tion on the same principle, and confresh and green when all the neigh- strue his meaning to be, that the bouring ground was parched, and it Thymbrius was near New Ilium, would thus afford both pasture and and fell into the Scamander 50 stawater for the horses. The name, too, dia from (his) Old Troy. This would Thymbra, derived, as Servius says, make his account more consistent from that of an odoriferous herb com- with Homer, and with the actual mon there, is peculiarly applicable to face of the country. The Califat waa place having the aspect of a perpe- ter, next to the Bournabashi rivulet, tual meatlow, and, of course, stored has, perhaps, the best title to be rewith strong scented herbs, while the garded as the Thymbrius; but, beadjoining fields were withered. We sides being on the wrong side of the inay add, that this rivulet is the next Scamander, if its ancient junction stream in magnitude in the district to with that river was at or near P, as the Scamandler and Simois, and, dis- we have supposed, it was evidently tinguished as it is by the permanence too far removed from the scene of acof its current, it would have been sin- tion. We think, therefore, there is gular had no mention been made of every reason to identify Homer's it either by Homer or Strabo. We Thymbra with the ground watered have no doubt that Strabo refers to by the rivulet of Bournabashi. this stream in speaking of the Thym The Tomb of Ilus.—The position brius, though his account, taken li of the Trojan camp helps us to fix terally, will not apply to any river in that of the tomb of Ilus.' Dolon, the the Troad. He says, “the Thym- spy, told Diomed and Ulysses that brian plain, with the river Thym- Hector was then (during the night) brius rolling through it, corresponds “ holding a council at the tomb of to Homer's description, for it is near Ilus, apart from the noise of the Old Troy, (Chiblak,) and falls into camp,”, (B. X. v. 414.) The tomb the Scamander 50 studia from (New) was, therefore, not in the camp, but Ilium,(p. 893.) Now, there must at a short distance from it. Again, it be a capital error in the text here ; was towards the town, for the Trofirst, because there is no stream in the jans passed it next day when flying to district which the description will at Troy, (B. xi. v. 166 ;) and, as the all suit; † and, secondly, because he army was posted on the western bank See Eneid, L. iii. v. 85. Nota. Ed. ly, have been on the opposite side of

of Scamander, it should, consequentDelph. + Mr Hobhouse' observes, that the only

the river; and there we find it actustream in the plain which at all agrees as to the position of its estuary with Strabo's when the main body of the Trojan army Thymbrius, is the brook of Atche-Keu; was close upon the Greek camp at the sea, but it cannot be said, properly speaking, to post a part of it at eight or nine miles to be near Old Troy ;-it is far too trifling distance. The inconsistency, however, atto be named as a river ; and it may faire taches to Strabo, and not to the modern ly be stated as the climax of absurdity, traveller.

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ally was, for Prlain, going from Troy barrow F,) leaving his readers to to the Greek camp, passed the tomb make out for themselves how 50,000 of Ilus just before he came to the men could encamp on a hillock of the Scamander, (B. xxiv. v. 349.) It is size of a bowling-green. Dr Clarke thus that the more minutely Homer's finding a tumulus L standing close to narrative is investigated, the more its a long ridge M, settled at once that truth and consistency appear. We these were the objects which Homer must, on these grounds, fix it some- had associated under the names of the where opposite to the mouth of the Throsmos and tomb of Ilus, though rivulet of Bournabashi, and, perhaps, it would be very difficult, on any hyit may be identified with the barrow pothesis, to bring these near the Greek or mount K. It cannot be farther camp. Mr Hobhouse, more consinorth, for it was in the route of the derate, and more sceptical on the right wing of the Grecian army go- subject, concurs with Mr Bryant in ing to or retiring from Troy, (B. xi. thinking that the expression means 1. 369.). The propriety of holding merely “ saltus campestris," a plain the council here, though at some dis- adapted for military purposes, tance from the camp, appears, when opinion still liable to great objections. we recollect that Hector had to com Homer uses the expression only municate with the town, to which we three times, (B. X. v. 160. B. xi. v. find him sending off a message, (B. 56. B. xx. v. 3,) but under circumviii. v. 517 ;) and we find stances sufficient, we think, to define more apprehensive that the town, precisely what he means. 1. The guarded only by old men and youths, Throsmos was on the same side of the might be surprised, than that the Scamander with the Greek entrencharmy should be attacked by an enemy ment, for it was on the night when it bad just beaten, and whose em- the Trojans were posted between the barkation during the night he began entrenchment and the river that they to count upon. The position of the were said by Nestor to be encamped tomb of Ilus serves to fix that of a on the hill of the plain, near the ships. ford, perhaps the principal ford of (B. viii. v. 489. B. X. v. 159.). 2. Scamander, for Priam passed the river The position of the Trojan army, here near it coming to the Greek camp, said to be on the hill of the plain, is and the Trojans in their flight in also spoken of simply as a plain, (B. Book xi. passed here also. The place viii. 558,) and also as a part of the is called a ford (Trogos) when Priam Trojan plain, (B. X. v. 11.). 3. The crossed there on his return, (B. xxiv. Throsmos included an extensive space, V. 692 ;) and the same expression for it is applied to the whole ground occurs again, referring most probably occupied by the Trojan army, one to the very same part of the river. wing of which, we have seen, was (B. xiv. v. 432.) Chevalier very near the sea, another at the Scamanabsurdly (even on his own hypothe- der, and a part at Thymbra. (B. X. sis) holds the small eminence F to be v. 160, 428---434.). 4. It was not the tomb of Ilus; and Dr Clarke, on always applied to the same piece of the most superficial grounds, identi- ground, for when the Trojan army fies it with the barrow L.

slept the first time on' the field, they The Throsmos, or Mound of the retired to the banks of Scamander, Plain.—The Throsmos, like other ob- but the second time they did not so jects in the Trojan topography, has retire, but, on the contrary, remained produced its full share of controversy, close to the entrenchment, and were and has been darkened by a profu- only driven to the banks of the river sion of speculations, thrown out with- next day, after many furious charges ; out regard to the text of Homer. The (B. xx. passim, B. xxi. v. 1;) yet expression IgWszos med1010 has been their position on both occasions' is translated “ the hill or mound of the said to be on the Throsmos. (B. xx. plain.” Pope, in his map, has not v. 3.) The appellation was, thereventured to assign its situation at all. fore, not confined to an isolated hill Chevalier, finding that while the Tro- or ridge, but was applied to an extenjan army was encamped on the Thros- sive tract of ground characterized gemos, Hector held a council at the nerally by a plain surface. 5. It cantomb of Ilus, concluded that these obe not, however, be understood to mean jects were one and the same, (the nothing more than “ saltus campes


tris," or a plain adapted for fighting; to Strabo, as he never mentions it, for, in this case, it would undoubted. we think, in all his long discussions ly have been applied to the plain on

on the Troad. the Trojan side of the river, where The Scamander.-It appears singuthe chief battles were fought. But, lar, on a first view, that so little menon the contrary, in the three instances tion should be made of this river, where it occurs, it is exclusively em- though both armies inust have passed ployed to distinguish the ground on over it repeatedly in their moveinents

. the Grecian side of the Scamander; Chevalier accounts for this by the and we have seen that it applies to the small size of his Scamander ; but it whole of that ground, froin the camp is still better explained by the fact to the rivulet, and from the sea to the that the Mendere is nearly dry * durScamander. Now, keeping these facts ing summer, the season of the war. in view, and reflecting for a moment Chandler passed it several times dryon the nature of the ground, the shod in the end of August, though it whole difficulty vanishes, and a singu- was not destitute of water, (p. 40.) lar fitness and propriety appears in The reviewer saw the stream 200 feet the poet's expression. The surface of broad in July, and asserts that it the ground alluded to, from the cliffs is never without a considerable body on the sea shore to the Scamander, of water. (Vol. VI. p. 274.) But is a continuerl and gentle slope. (Hobé Chevalier says it was dry' when be house, 712.) It is a plain, bit a saw it; and Dr Sibthorpe found it rising or sloping plain. "Its declivity. dry in September. (Walpole's Mem. is so small and uniform, that it is just. p. 114.) The probability is, that it ly considered as a part of the Trojan · has always some water, though the plain; yet it is so distinguished by its quantity may be so small as to escape slope from the dead level on the other notice in its broad channel. As the side of the river, that it could not be river in this state would offer no better characterized than by an ex- greater obstruction to the armies than pression which implied that it was at any other hollow or rough piece of once a hill and a plain. Perhaps the ground, the poet's silence is accounted expression Throsmos pedioio might be for and justified. It had some little rendered " bank of the plain,” mean water in it during all the time eming tlie sloping ground that bounds braced by the story of the Iliad, as the valley. It is curious that Mr appears from several incidents. (B.xiv. Hobhouse deduces a similar mean v. 433. B. xvi. v. 667. B. xxiv, r. ing from the use of the word in 349.) The contest of the river with two instances by Appollonius, where Achilles in the xxi. hook is merely a it seems to imply a " gentle ascent." personification of one of those floods (Travels, p. 758.) In Clarke's trans to which, like all mountain streams, lation, too, we find it rendered in one it is subject. The marsh at its inouth, place very accurately, editior locus which is still the source of interinitcampi. There are eminences on the ting fever to the neighbouring vilcast side of the Scamander also, but lages, (Clarke, III. p. 93,) affords a these are merely irregular swells of rational explanation of the pestilence the surfice, of a very different form. which raged in the Greek camp,

and And the Greeks, we may observe, had was ascribed, with some truth, to the good reason to distinguish this range agency of Apollo or the sun. of sloping ground, since their camp The Field of Battle.- A particular was placed at its termination; and place being mentioned by the name of when it was mentioned as the enemy's the ford, (Trogos,) situated most probastation, the expression conveyed an bly near the rivulet of Bournabashi, idea of their danger. This explana- we may infer that the Scamander was tion appears to us to remove com not everywhere equally passable. But pletely every difficulty hitherto con- this particular place was, perhaps, nected with the Throsmus, and we only preferred by persons in chariots can scarcely suffer ourselves to believe, that it will again be the subject

* Virgil seems to allude to this circumof controversy. It is remarkable that

stance, when, speaking of the feigned Xanthe Throsmos, which has embarras- thus, he says, “ Arentem Xanthi cognosed modern speculators so much, seems mine rivum agnosco.”—Eneid, B. ji. 1: to have presented no difficulty at all 350.

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like Priam; for circumstances seem to ancient bed of the Simois, to the preshow that the river was fordable at sent bed of the Califat, a breadth of many points, if not generally along the three miles on Mr Hobhouse's map. lower part of its course. Thus the The Greeks seein generally to have armies fought over the ground be- been drawn up in three lines, the tween the camp and the city many chariots and cavalry forming the first, times, without appearing to have and the firmest infantry the last; the changed their order of battle, as they less trusty infantry being placed in must have done had the river only the middle, where their situation admitted of being crossed at one point. compelled them to fight. (B. iv. v. And from the words used in speaking 297.) Sometimes, however, a part of of the pursuit of the first bands of the troops skirmished in detached Trojans by Patroclus, who must then bodies or platoons, using their darts have been towards the eastern extre- only. (B. xvii. v. 370.) The lines of mity of the camp, about c, we might infantry must have been pretty deep, conclude that the route to the town as they were calculated for close comwas directly across the river, at or be- bat; but the number of ranks is not low 1. (B. xvi. v. 394.). On the mentioned. The armies may be estiother hand, the nature of the ground mated at 50,000 men each, would lead us to suppose, that the authority of that passage where Hobanks near the junction of the Simois mer mentions that there were a thouwere marshy as at present; and we sand fires in the Trojan camp, and have something like a proof that this 50 men round each. (B. viii. v. 558.) was an unfrequented spot; for while He tells us elsewhere that the Greeks the batile was raging before Troy, a were rather more numerous, even little to the eastward, Juno and Miner- without Achilles's troops. (B. ii. v. va, coming to assist the Greeks, alight. 121. B. viii. v. 55 ) The ground, ed at the confluence of the rivers; and then, we have reason to think, would leaving the celestial chariot and horses admit of two armies of this magnion the banks of Simois, with a cloud tude drawing up in such an order as thrown over them to conceal them, the poet assigns to them, between the they mixed among the warriors. (B. rivers. That the armies occupied a V. v. 773.) Perhaps, on these grounds, space to which a much narrower field we may consider the river as general- would not correspond, appears not ly fordable from a short distance only from their numbers, and from above the junction, though not equals the epithet sugus,“ broad," applied to ly so everywhere. The fighting seems both, (B. iv. v. 209, 436,) but also to have been chiefly about the Sca- from the circumstance of Ulysses and mander, as the Greeks had always to Diomed being ignorant for some time cross that stream on their approach to that the battle had commenced at the the town, but it also extended to other wing of the army after the duel The Simois. (B. xii. v. 22.) The between Paris and Menelaus; and field, then, on the east side of the from Hector's ignorance, in a similar river g h, where the ground is level, instance, that a part of his army was must have been the scene of most of repulsád. (B. xi. v. 497.) The armies the battles. Taking its extent from would, of course, fight in a narrower the supposed ancient bed of the Si- field when it was unavoidable, as inois, near Kouin Keu U, to the point Q on the Scamander, it has a breadth of three miles and three quarters in

The whole number of men that Mr Hobhouse's map, about two miles embarked in the Grecian expedition has and three quarters in Mr Foster's, been estimated at 100,000, on a principle and about five miles in Dr Clarke's. suggested by Thucydides, who considers Its true breadth is probably about

the two sizes of ships mentioned by Hothree miles and a half, a space more

mer as the largest and smallest rates in the

fieet. than sufficient to receive 50,000 men

The one carried 120, the other

The mean between these is 85, ranged in order for close combat, as the Greeks and Trojans generally ships, gives 100,810.

which, multiplied by 1186, the number of

But a great numWere. (B. viii. v. 60. B. xiii. v. 130, ber must have died during the ten years 115.) The lines usually occupied by the war had lasted ; and, according to Thuthe armies would, most probübly, bé cydides, á consiilerable part was always Cuntined within the space from the absent collecting provisions.


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when they were near the entrench- but most probably on the former. ments ; but this will not apply to Strabo's arguments in favour of a Chevalier's plain, for they would not more easterly position are chiefly have fought there when they could these : That a hill five stadia round, have had a much wider field on the called then Callicolone, was 40 stadia other side of his Simois.

eastward from New Ilium, whereas it Site of the City.-The labours of should have been near the town ;man have no such durable existence that Hector could not have run round as the works of Nature. Not a ves New Ilium, as he did round Troy, on tige of Troy was supposed to exist in account of the contiguous ridge of a Strabo's time; (p. 895;) and as it hill;—that what was then called the would, therefore, be in vain to look tomb of Esyetes, (apparently the tufor its ruins now, or to attempt to mulus K,) was only five stadia from distinguish them from those of other the modern town, and so situated as cities of posterior date, its situation to afford no better view of the enemy's can only be ascertained by its relation camp than the town itself ;-that the to natural objects more permanent soil between the city and the sea had than itself. We think there are a been chiefly formed by the rivers since sufficient number of local allusions in Homer's time;-and, lastly, that, had Homer's poems to serve this purpose, Troy been so near the station of the providing we had an accurate delinea- Greeks as the new city was, it would To tion of that part of the country where have been madness in them to suffer the site must be souglit. This, how- their camp to remain unfortified till ever, is far from being the case, for, the tenth year of the war, and pusilm en on comparing the maps of Hobhouse, lanimous in the Trojans not to have Foster, and Clarke, we are scarcely attacked them sooner. But these able to fix, with certainty, either the arguments, when investigated, are position, shape, or magnitude of any scarcely of any weight; because the single object among those low emis first and third assume the accuracy 7 nences between the Simois and water of traditional names, upon which litof Califat, near or among which Troy tle dependence can be placed, as shown undoubtedly stood. Besides, some of in the instance of the Portus Achethe objects alluded to by Homer are orum ; the second supposes, unnerather minute in their nature, and can cessarily, that the walls of both cities only be identified by a minute and de- followed the same exact line; the tailed survey of the face of the coun- fourth supposes a greater increase of try; yet, even at present, we think, the firm land than subsequent facts justifacts in our possession go very near to fy; and the general reasoning in the set the question at rest.

last is of no force, opposed, as we We find two opinions prevailing in think it is, by the testimony of Hoancient times upon this subject. The mer. Let us compare both opinions inhabitants of llium (which, for dis- with the facts mentioned by the poet, tinction's sake, we have called New recollecting that, on a mean the Ilium) believed that their city occu- different maps, the ruins of New pied the very site of Troy, and in this Ilium (S) are above three miles and a opinion they were supported by a half in a direct line from the ships, writer named Hellanicus. (Strabo, and Chiblak (T) rather more than pr. 886, 898.) But Demetrius of seven. Scepsis, who is followed by Strabo, That Troy stood within a rery liheld that Troy stood 30 stadia farther mited distance of the Greek camp, east than New Ilium, a situation cor- and was separated from it by a plain responding nearly with the modern with few or no inequalities of surface, village of Chiblak. (Strabo, p. 886.) is shown by a number of circumstanAfter a pretty careful consideration of ces. 1. The two armies traversed the the passages in Homer, referring to the ground between the camp and the position of the town, we are convinced city four times on the day when Pathat the first opinion is most consist- uroclus was killed, fighting obstinateent with the truth, and that Troy ly all the while. (B. xi. to xvii.) This stood either upon the same ground as fact is most consistent with the supNew Ilium (S), or, if the eminence position of a distance not exceeding there is considered as artificial, upon four or five miles, and cannot be rethe hill immediately behind it (R), conciled with a distance of seven

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