or WIE TOPOGRA- which constitutes the bottom of the valPHY OF TROY, WITH A REVIEW ley, but is almost entirely on the western

side of it, where the ground begins to

slope upwards. From the natural ili(Concluded from page 209.)

rection of the ground, therefore, the

course of the Níendure must have been Changes on the face of the Coun- farther east, when the surface of the try.—THERE is one circuinstance con- valley was lower. Besides, it is easinected with these rivers that requires ly shown, that the greatest deposition explanation. Strictly speaking, they of new soil must take place on the can scarcely be said to unite at all, as east side of the river, for the debris will be observed in the map. But we brought down by the mountain torthink there is every reason to believe, rents of the Thymbrek and Califat that they formerly occupied different accumulate on that side, while there channels. The country along the are no such torrents to produce a banks of the Mendere, which is de- countervailing effect on the other. scribed as a dead level, especially on The rivulet of Bournabashi, the only the east side, is evidently an alluvial opposing stream, has little current, is plain, formed in a great measure by not increased by rains, and brings no the river. The river bearing along stones or soil with it. While the in its course stones, trees torn up by Thymbrek and Califat thus force the the roots, mud and rubbish, (Wood, bed of Scamander westward, the latp. 327,) deposits these in its bed and ter throwing out its congesta in greaton its banks, the heavier matter higher est quantity on the south side of these up, the lighter lower down, while the two streams, pushes their estuaries far. finest sands are carried to the sea, and ther and farther northward. The acspread a circle of a yellow colour tion is thus reciprocal, but the weaker round the estuary. As the Mendere stream of course suffers the greater inundates the plain to a considerable change. Those who have seen the distance, part of the matter is (lepo- operations of mountain torrents in sited there, and of course gradually highland , vallies, will casily perceive raises the surface. The Tlıymbrek, the force of this reasoning. When water of Califat, and all the other two such torrents meet at an angle of torrents which come from the hills, ninety degrees or less, each of them, produce the same effects upon a smal- if it descends from a height amidst Jer scale; and thus the beds of the loose rocks, spreads a cone of gravel rivers and the bottom of the valley and sand round its embouchure in the experience a continual clevation, and valley,' over which it rolls; when there is a continual accretion of soil these increasing cones meet, the space along the coast. Strabo bears witness included in the angle between the rito the same natural process in his vers receiving the debris thrown out time, but he certainly over-estimates by both, while each of the outer sides its effects, when he supposes, that it receives only halt as much, the mass had added six or seven stadia to the of rubbish increases fastest on the in, coast since the time of the Trojan side, the streams are deflected out, war, (p. 890, 894.) The banks of ward, a tongue or long bank of land rivers, in such circuinstances, being of- pushes itself down between them; ten raised above the adjacent ground, and the point of confluence is conare burst through by the pressure, tinually descending. The same proand new channels scooped out. Chand cess takes place in a plain, though the ler found the ground to the eastward cause is less obvious, and hence, alof the Mendere, near its mouth, fur- most all rivers in alluvial vallies meet at rowed by channels worn by floods or very acute angles. The effect is visible, torrents, (Travels, p. 40,) and the we think, on the map, in the new diblind mouth mentioned by Strabo, rectionmorth wards which the Thym(p. 890,) probably was an old chan- brek and Califat water assume after nel of the Scamander on this side. entering the plain, and in the proBut without relying much on these jecting points of land between the indications, we may observe, that the Scamander and these streams. The Mendere, during the two or three last Califat and the Scamander meeting a¢ miles of its course, does not flow a considerable distance from the sea, through the middle of the dead leve! the point of confluence had room to



descend far below its original situa- a half in diameter, touching the end tion, but the Scamander and Thym- of the hill, may represent New Ilium, brek meeting near the coast, the ex- (marked by a dotted line on the map,) tension of the neck of land between from the nearest part of which to the them was stopped when it advanced bay V in Mr Hobhouse's map, is to the Hellespont; the rivers, after twenty stadia, to the mouth of the reaching this point, appear not to Mendere thirty-two; in Mr Foster's meet at all, but, by the constant ac map the distances are sixteen and cumulation of matter on the inter. twenty-four stadia; in Dr Clarke's vigvening ground, they would continue nette twenty-two and thirty-two stato recede from each other. A de- dia. The mean of the two former is stroying operation accompanies this twenty-eight and eighteen, showing deposition of new soil. The eastern an increase of from six to eight stadia bank of the Scamander below F being upon the coast since the time of Straplaced rather in the eddy, would re bo. For reasons too tedious to detail, ceive most of the deposited matter, we believe the actual increase to bé while the western bank would be rather less than this. But we wish more worn away by the action of the these measurements to be received current. And while every portion of only as approximations, proving the soil taken from the eastern bank near fact of an increase, rather than ascerthe sea would be replaced by the taining its precise amount. We wish Thymbrek, the waste of the western also particularly to observe here, that, bank would never be repaired. We according to the present course of might also conclude, from the man- the river, we must ascend nearly two ner in which streams are generally de- miles from its mouth before we can flected, from one side to the other, in find a point within twenty stadia of alluvial vallies, that the Scamander, New llium; and since an increase to if not affected by the Simois, would this extent cannot be allowed upon have bent away from the point F to- the coast, we have no alternative but wards the middle of the bay W. We to admit, that the river since Strabo's cannot demonstrate physically that time has shifted westward. Upon the it was there ; but in a valley formed strength of this reasoning we have by the river, we are sensible that the ventured to delineate the supposed ancient channel may have differed course of the rivers and sea-coast in widely from the modern; we know Homer's time, by dotted lines upon that the natural estuary should have the map, but these delineations must been towards the middle of the valley not be considered as any thing else between the hills at Sigeum and Rhe than conjectural estimates of the efteum, where it is not at present; and fects of causes which certainly opehad it been there, we see clearly that, rated. + from the action of well ascertained The Naval Station. The difficul. causes, it would necessarily have tra- ties with which this subject has velled west to the point where we been encumbered have been entirely now find it. We may add, that it gratuitous. Homer having mentionwould most probably have left such a ed “ the two points, capes, or extremarsh in its tract as we now see on mities,” (angai) of the harbour, withits east side. This is nearly all the out naming them, (B. xiv. v. 33,) the proof we can expect in such cases. Greeks of later times, to magnify the

But Strabo fortunately has left us power of their ancestors, held these measurements which establish the two points to be the promontories of fact in a different manner. New Ilium, whose walls were forty stadia * Reckoning the stadium 'equal to an in circumference, was twelve stadia English furlong. If the mile of Strabo distant from the place vulgarly called was 4905 English feet, as stated in tables the Portus Achæorum, (the bay V or of metrology, the stadium would be oneW,) and twenty stadia from the fourteenth part less, and the present disjnouth of the Scamander; and as this

tance so much greater than we have comstatement is twice repeated by Strabo,

puted it. and is confirmed by Pliny, it is not ancient line of the shore ; !, J, the ancient

+ In the map a, a, a, a, represent the liable to any suspicion of inaccuracy, boundary of the marsh; U8, the ancient (Strabo, p. 887, 891, 894. Pliny, course of Simois ; g h, of Scamander ; in i, Lib. v. cap. 30.) A circle, a mile and of the brook of Califat.


Sigeum and Rheteum, distant three choose as the seat of a permanent en. miles and a half. Such fictions of campment. national vanity and vulgar credulity The shore at Sigeum, which Strabo are too common in every country to assigns as the naval station of the excite any surprise. But the absur- Greeks, extends from the promontory dity was too striking to impose upon to the sandy point at the mouth of the intelligent men. Pliny, indeed, whose Scamander, and is in all respects a account of the Troad is very superfi- station adapted to the purposes of the cial, adopts this vulgar error; but Greeks, and corresponding to the Strabo states expressly, that the naval poet's description. It had two well station was not on the east side of the marked points, or capes, (anga..). It Scamander, but at Sigeum, (p. 894 ;) was conveniently situated for those and this opinion seems to have been expeditions which the Greeks made followed generally, till Chevalier re- up the Hellespont and down the vived the old tradition, apparently Egean, and for drawing daily supplies without any advantage to himself. from Thrace, (B. ix. v. 71.) FlankThose who followed Pliny and Che- ed by a hill on the right, which valier thus made the Greek camp ex- they would doubtless occupy, and a tend over a space of three and a half river, or probably a marsh on the miles, with the mouth of a large river left, it could only be attacked on and an impassable marsh in the inidst one side, over which a fortification of it. They held also, that the voice was run. The walls and ditch would of Agamemnon, when standing in the certainly include the hill, without centre of the feet, was heard at both which the defences would have been extremities of this line ; that the 1200 very imperfect. They would extend barks of the Greeks, drawn up in to the river to insure a supply of many rcws, were crowded in a space fresh water, and as they had many which would hold as many East In- horses and live cattle of other descripdiamen, if placed in the same order ; tions, a considerable space would be and it followed from their hypothesis, necessary. We have traced the sup that one half of the Greeks who were posed course of the wall on the

map. on the east side of the river must We may add, that, so far as the evi. have crossed the Simois on their way dence of the tumuli goes, it is here to Troy, though Homer speaks of the greatest number are found within crossing the Scamander only. The a limited space. It is also precisely very nature of the ground eastward of at this spot, and to a spectator lookthe river refutes the idea of any parting out of the harbour, that the of the army being posted there. That epithet “ boundless,” (atsig, so ground is nearly an entire marsh at inapplicable to the Hellespont every present; it was so wholly, or in part, in where else, becomes appropriate. The the time of Strabo, and from its situa- epithet foaming," often bestowed tion, has been most probably a marsh upon the sea before the camp, is aptly at all times. We doubt if it would enough used here, where the surges be possible to draw ashore even such of the Egean break upon the shore, small ships as those of the Greeks, but cannot be so fitly applied to a bay amidst the slime, and reeds, and sand- where reeds are growing, like that banks which cover the coast here, east of the Scamander. (Chandler, p. 13. Hobhouse, p. 710,) The ships, 1186 in number, were or whether there is as much firm drawn up on the firm land, and supground exempt from inundation be- ported with planks, (B. i. v. 486 ;) tween the Mendere, the Thymbrek, but we are told that “ the shore, and the brook Kamara Sou, as would though broad, could not contain all serve for any considerable body of the ships in one line, and the forces troops to encamp on. At all events, were crowded. The ships were therethe ground is such, as no leader of fore drawn up before one another like an army, ancient or modern, would steps of a ladder, and filled all the

long jaws of the shore comprehended

between the points or extremities,” Hic (ad Sigeum oppidum et promon. (B. xiv. v. 30.) They were thus platorium) Grecorum fuit statio navium, ad. ced in rows, with their sterns to the versus Trojanos tellantium. Cluver. Geog. shore, and their prows to the sea, and Lib. v. Cap. 18. Nota Bunonis.

so close together, that Ajax stepped

from one to another, (B. xv. V. 676.) this situation, we see that the Greeks, Spaces would, of course, be left at when they issued out of their camp, given distances for the chariots to pass, would immediately find themselves for the tents were within the outer- in the Scamandrian plain, as Homer most line of ships, (B. xv. v. 653.) states; that in advancing to Troy, Lastly, some of the vessels were deck- they would cross the Scamander only; ed, and had sails, (B. i. v. 480. B. xv. and that the Trojans, when encampv. 676,) and they were of such a size, ed near the entrenchments, might be that some carried 50, and some 120 said to be posted between them and men,* (B. ii. 510. B. xvi. v. 170.) the Scamander. We do not find the Grounding on these data, 25 feet bill of Sigeum, and the sloping bank seems a sufficient breadth to allow for reaching to E, distinctly mentioned, each ship, including space for pas- but there are several expressions which sages; and assuming that they were seem to refer to them. The ship of ranged in four lines, (a less number Ulysses was drawn up on the main would not justify the use of the poet's land, high above the sands,” (B. i. image,) then we find, by an easy cal. v. 486.) In comparing the ships in culation, that 7 100 feet, or something their lines to the steps of a ladder, less than a mile and a half, would their position rising above one another suffice for the extent of the harbour. on the acclivity, seems to be distinctThe number of lines, however, might ly alluded to. At the funeral games, be double of what we have supposed. the racing chariots, which most proThe coast, from the termination of bably started near the shore at Achilthe cliffs at Sigeum, to the river be- les's station,

and ran as far perhaps as yond Koum Kale, is about two miles the barrow F, were out of sight the long in Mr Hobhouse's map; about greater part of their course, (B. xxiji. one mile and a half in Foster's; a- v. 450 ;) and we find that these chabout one mile and a quarter in Che- riots were impeded in their career by valier's; and a mile and three quar “ channels scooped out by winter torters in Wood's. A small part of rents, which could scarcely have exthe surface, however, near the Sigean isted here without high grounds &point, would be too steep for receiving bove. (B. xxiii. v. 420.) The wall the ships. This ground then is ex was lowest towards the left, (B. xiii. actly of such an extent as Homer's v. 683,) that is, it stood on level statement seems to require, and there ground there, and was most easily is nothing absurd in supposing, that scaled. It is plain, that the entrenchthe voice of Agamemnon might be ment covered a considerable space of heard from the middle at both extre- ground beyond the ships and tents, mities of the line, (B. viii. v. 222.) for after the Trojans had passed over The point at Koum Kale, which Mr the walls, a pretty long time elapses, Hobhouse describes as a sandy flat, (B. xiii

. xiv. xv.) and much fighting probably owes its existence partly to takes place before they reach the ships. the river, as Dr Clarke supposes, but Patroclus, who began his attack at the partly also to the current of the Helle- ship of Protesilaus, having repulsed spont, which conflicting here with the the first bands of the enemy, did not waters of the Egean Sea, drops the pursue them towards the city," but sands it receives from the numerous led them back to the ships, and mountain streams that fall into it. slaughtered the Trojans between the As the mouth of the river would be ships, the river, and the walls,”(B. xvi. nearer Rheteum in Homer's time, it v. 394 ;) that is, he fought in the is probable this point would also ex- open space between the ships on the tend farther eastward, and would not north and west, the wall on the south, be so prominent, (see the map.) In and the river on the east. It is de

serving of notice, that though the • Thucydides (B. i.) says they were not of the camp, (on the left,) and that of

station of Ajax was at the extremity decked, but perhaps a few of the larger Ulysses in the centre, (B. viii. v. 222,) bridge, which was seven stadia, or about yet when the Trojans were fighting 4600 feet long, was formed by 313 ships within the entrenchment, the station placed side by side, (Herodotus, B. vii.) of Ajax is described as being in the Their average breadth must therefore bave centre of the battle, while Idoineneus been about ló feot.

fought on the left, (B. xlii, v. 313

ones were.

327.) This is explained, by suppose (we learn elsewhere that the Caucones ing that the station of Ajax was at c, were at the extremity of the army) the most exposed position, that of Ido were nearest the sea, evidently bemeneus ut b, and that the Trojans cause, being worst fitted for resisting fought in the open space between an assault in the night time, they these points and the river, and up to were placed farthest from the scene of waris d. The sinall oblong figures battle, which was chiefly in the low ranged along the shore, within the ground near the river. The cavalry space h, c, d, e, represent the ships in of the allies, for the same reason, were their supposed position.

next them, and the Trojan infantry, The Encampment of the Trojans. though not mentioned, would be near-It will be seen that this position of est the enemy, except the Thracians. the Grecian camp explains a number It seems, at first sight, inconsistent of circumstances which can scarcely that the Thracians, newly arrived, be reconciled with any other hypo- and by sea, should yet, as the poet thesis. In the sth Book, the Tro- states, be farthest from the sea, and jans, after driving the Greeks within nearest the enemy; but this is comtheir lines, withdrew to a place on the pletely explained by the nature of the banks of the river, at a distance from coast, near which the Carians and 0the ships, and not soiled with blood, thers (at II) were stationed, for it where they remained during the night, consists of high cliffs, where no troops and“ kindled in their camp, between could land; anıl, on the other hand, the Greek entrenchments and the Sca- the Thracians, disembarking probably munder, a thousand fires, which shone at Rheteum, would naturally take up before Troy,” (B. viii. v. 490—556.) their station at that part of the camp The encampment must, therefore, (1) which was nearest the point they have been nearly in the situation came from. We may fairly defy those IF H. Though the expression above who place the whole, or a part, of the quoted may be thought to place it Greek entrenchment eastward of the more directly between the entrench- river, to dispose of these circumstances ments and Troy than it appears in the with any plausibility:

We ought map, yet we find it did not complete- farther to mention, that the Trojan ly cover the town, for Hector sent a army consisted of 50,000 men, (B. message directing the youths and old viii. v. 558,) and would, of course, men to keep guard during the night cover a large space. to prevent a surprise, (B. viii. v. 517.) Thymbru.-Thymbra, which has But the position of the Trojan camp been the subject of much discussion, is particularly described. Dolon, the is mentioned in the passage lutely spy, who was taken and killed by U- quoted, and, as this is the only inlysses and Diomed in their nocturnal stance in which the name occurs in excursion, told them, “ that the Ca- Homer, let us see what light it affords rians and Peonians, who were archers, for determining the situation of the with the Leleges, Caucones, and Pe- place. We must recollect, that the lasgi, were (agos llev años) towards whole Trojan army was posted on the the sea ; the Lycians, Mysians, Phry- west side of the Scamander. The gians, and Meonians, who were caval. Thracians, who were evidently very ry, were posted at Thymbra; and the near the entrenchments, were, as we Thracians, newly arrived, were just have seen, at one extremity of the arhard by, at the extremity of the my, and the Carians and other archers camp,”(B. x. v. 428—434.) Dolon, at the other. The Lycians and cerwho was close by the entrenchment, tain troops, chiefly cavalry, who were and near the river, (for the spot was

at Thymbra, from the order in which marshy,) when speaking, evidently they are named, must have occupied describes the order and position of an intermediate position, that is, near the

army, beginning with those who F. This indicates the ground waterwere farthest off, (at H,) and ending ed by the rivulet of Bournabashi as with those (at 1) who were nearest the Thymbra of Homer, and that the place where he stood. The more stream as the Thymbrius of later wri. these details are examined, the more

ters. As the Trojan army was on the curious and exact will their coinci- west side of the Scamander, and, from dence be found with the nature of the its magnitude, must have extended to ground. The archers placed at H this place, and as those posted here

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