« 上一页继续 »
creations, which, after the confinement of rewards or honours to be bestowed on the the day, they might enjoy under the eye virtuous and diligent. of the instructors. Dancing is exactly 66 The direct rewards or honours used suited to this purpose, as also to that of ex to stimulate the ambition of students in ercise ; for perhaps in no way can so much colleges are, first, the certificate or diplo. healthy exercise be taken in so short a ma, which each receives, who passes suc. time. It has, besides, this advantage over cessfully, through the term allotted to his other amusements, that it affords nothing collegiate studies ; and, secondly, the apto excite the bad passions, but, on the con- pointments to perform certain parts in pubtrary, its effects are to soften the mind, to lic exhibitions, which are bestowed by the banish its animosities, and to open it to faculty, as rewards for superior scholarsocial impressions.
ship. The first of these modes is admis“ It may be said, that dancing would sible into a female seminary; the second dissipate the attention, and estrange it is not ; as public speaking forms no part from study. Balls would doubtless have of female education. The want of this this effect'; but let dancing be practised mode might, however, be supplied by exevery day, by youth of the same sex, with- aminations judiciously conducted. out change of place, dress, or company, neither instructors or scholars would have and under the eye of those whom they are any other public test of the success of their accustomed to obey, and it would excite labours, the leisure and inclination of each no mon emotion than any other exercise would therefore combine to produce a thoor amusement, but in degree, as it is of it- rough preparation for them. Persons of self more pleasant. But it must ever be a both sexes would attend. The less entergrateful exercise to youth, as it is one to taining parts might be enlivened by interwhich nature herself prompts them, at the ludes, where the pupils in painting and sound of animating music.
music would display their several im“ It has been doubted, whether paint. provements. Such examinations would ing and music should be taught to young stimulate the instructors to give their puladies, because, much time is requisite to pils more attention, by which the leading bring them to any considerable degree of facts and principles of their studies would perfection, and they are not immediately be more clearly understood, and better reuseful.- Though these objections have membered. The ambition excited among weight, yet they are founded on too limit. the pupils would operate, without placing ed a view of the objects of education. They the instructors under the necessity of makleave out the important consideration of ing distinctions among them, which are so forming the character. I should not con- apt to be considered as invidious, and which sider it an essential point, that the music are, in our male seminaries, such fruitful of a lady's piano should rival that of her sources of disaffection. master's; or that her drawing-room should “ Perhaps the term allotted for the rou. be decorated with her own paintings rather tine of study at the seminary might be than those of others; but it is the intriitsic three years. The pupils probably would advantage which she might derive from the not be fitted to enter, till about the age of refinement of herself, that would induce fourteen. Whether they attended to all me to recommend to her an attention to or any of the ornamental branches, should these elegant pursuits. The harmony of be left optional with the parents or guar. sound has a tendency to produce a corre
dians. Those who were to be instructed spondent harmony of soul, and that art in them should be entered for a longer which obliges us to study nature, in order term, but if this was a subject of previous to imitate her, often enkindles the latent calculation, no confusion would arise from spark of taste—of sensibility for her beau- it. The routine of the exercises being esties, till it glows to adoration for their au- tablished by the laws of the institution, thor, and a refined love of all his works. would be uniform, and publicly known;
“ V. There would be needed, for a fe- and those who were previously acquainted male as well as for a male seminary, a sys- with the branches first taught, might enter tem of laws and regulations, so arranged, the higher classes; nor would those who that both the instructors and pupils would entered the lowest be obliged to remain know their duty; and thus the whole during the three years. Thus the term of business move with regularity and uni- remaining at the institution might be ei. formity.
ther one, two, three, four, or more years; " The laws of the institution would be and that without interfering with the rechiefly directed, to regulate the pupil's gularity and uniformity of its proceedings. qualifications for entrance, the kind and “ The writer has now given a sketch of order of their studies, their behaviour while her plan.-She has by no means expressed at the institution, the term allotted for the all the ideas which occurred to her concompletion of their studies, the punish- cerning it. She wished to be as concise as ments to be inflicted on offenders, and the possible, and yet afford conviction, that it
is practicable to organize a system for fe- Picture of Edinburgh ;” and it is with male education, which shall possess the pleasure we have observed the public permanency, uniformity of operation, and cation of a somewhat similar work respectability of our male institutions ; and relating to Glasgow. Everything yet differ from them, so as to be adapted connected with the rise and progress to that difference of character and duties to which early instruction should form the of this great emporium of Scottish softer sex
commerce must be interesting to
Scotchmen ; but Mr Cleland's labours We conclude with the fair Emma's will, we have little doubt, excite an eloquent and patriotic peroration. interest beyond the limit of national
The volume contains a “ In calling on my countrymen to patronage. effect so noble“ an object, the considera. well digested and concise view of the tion of national glory should not be over- civil, political, and religious institulood.ed. Ages have rolled away,—bar- tions, and an account of the public barians have trodden the weaker sex be- buildings of Glasgow; and in tracing neath their feet,—tyrants have robbed us the progress of that city to the magof the present light of heaven, and fain nitude and wealth which it now boasts, would take its fucure also. Nations, call- and the rank it now holds in the eming themselves polite, have made us the pire, the author has collected many fancied idols of a ridiculous worship, and facts, which are in themselves interwe have repaid them with ruin for their esting, while they tend to illustrate folly. But where is that wise and heroic the character and manners of its incountry, which has considered that our rights are sacred, though we cannot defend habitants. Our readers have of late
been accustomed to hear lamentations thein ? that though a weaker, we are an essential part of the body politic, whose on the infidelity and impiety of the corruption or improvement must affect the present day, compared with the pious whole ? and which, having thus considered, devotion of our ancestors; they will has sought to give us by education, that probably, therefore, wonder at being rank in the scale of being to which our im- told by Mr Cleland, that portance entities us ? History shows not that country. It shows many whose le
" On the 7th May 1594, the presbygislatures have sought to improve their va- tery of Glasgow prohibited the playing of rious vegetable productions, and their bagpipes on Sunday, from sun rising to breeds of useful brutes; but none whose its going down, and practising other paspublic councils have made it an object of times alter canonical hours, under pain of their deliberations to improve the character of their women. Yet though history Under the head “ Ecclcsiastical lifts not her finger to such an one, antici
Establishments,” also, the author pation does. She points to a nation, which, having thrown off the shackles of states, that authority and precedent, shrinks not from “ The state of society in Glasgow and sehemes of improvement, because other the neighbouring parishes, from the birth nations have never attempted them ; but of Mary Queen of Scots, in 1544, till the which, in its pride of independence, would Reformation, is depicted in melancholy rather lead than follow in the march of hu- colours; and for some time after that fuman improvement; a nation, wise and rious era, the people were so governed by magnanimous to plan, enterprising to un- ignorance, superstition, and a sanguinary dertake, and rich in resources to execute. spirit, that even the ministers of religion Does not every American exult that this found it necessary to be armed in their country is his own ? And who knows pulpits.” how great and good a race of men may yet arise from the forming hand of mothers,
In treating of the literary instituenlightened by the bounty of that beloved tions of Glasgow, we have the followcountry to defend her liberties, to plan her ing curious information regarding a future improvement, and to raise her to branch of commerce of recent introunparalleled glory.”
duction into Scotland.
“ The periodical book publishing trade,
which, till about the year 1796, was CLELAND'S RISE AND PROGRESS OF scarcely known in Scotland, is carried on
in Glasgow to an extent surpassing that in Some months ago the public were
any other town in this part of the king.
dom. By a report lately drawn up for presented with a very interesting lit the House of Coinmons, it appeared that tle book, by Mr Stark, entitled “The there were in Scotland 414 book-hawkers,
THE CITY OF GLASGOW.
technically termed canvassers and deliver the hands of the English, Linlithgow and ers, who, on an average of seven years, Lanark were put in their place, with a recollected L. 44,160 per annum, in six. servation for Roxburgh and Berwick, whenpences and shillings; and that five-six ever they were recovered, to their ancient teenths of the whole sum belonged to Glas- allegiance. This Court, after conducting gow. The concern of Edward Khull and the business of the burghs for a considerable Company alone, exclusive of compositors, time, was at length found to be insufficient printers, &c. employed 81 canvassers and for the duties assigued to it. Accordingly, deliverers, who visited every town of con an act of Parliament was passed in 1487, sideration in Scotland. Two-thirds of the directing commissioners to be sent from books sold by these publishers are on re every burgh to a convention to be held at ligious subjects."
Inverkeithing, where they were to comThe volume contains a brief chap- dize, and to provide remedies for the inju
mune and treat on the welfare of merchan. ter on the erection of the Royal ries which the burghs had sustained. It Burghs of Scotland, and a longer and does not appear that any account of the more interesting one on the origin and procedure at Inverkeithing was kept, as powers of the Convention of Royal the oldest record is dated 1552, at which Burghs, with some proposals for its time the Convention was removed to Edinreformation. This institution, until burgh, where it has remained ever since. of late years, that the question of The Scotch Parliament having appointed burgh reform has been so keenly agi- trade, which they called a Conservator, the
an officer for the regulation of Foreign tated in Scotland, was for long pre- Convention paid him an yearly salary of vious only known by name, and had 1.600 Scots. The trade between Scotland almost ccased to exercise its extraor
and the Netherlands was, for a long period, dinary functions; or at least its pro- subject to the regulation of the Convention ; ceedings were reckoned too uninter- it fixed the staple port for trade, which was esting for publication. As any infor- formerly at Dort, and latterly at Campmation regarding the nature and ex vere; and, in short, it assumed control tent of its powers inust be little ac over the Conservator, and the general sucessible to the generality of readers, perintendence of trade, to such a degree, we propose to make them more ex that an act of Parliament was passed, ditensively known, by inserting in our recting the Conservator to come home every Miscellany Mr Cleland's article on the year, and answer for his conduct to all per.
sons having an interest. The Convention, subject. It is impossible, indeed, to read it over without the conviction, sent commissioners to France, England,
in the plenitnde of its power, occasionally that the commerce of Scotland in par- Denmark, and Poland, to negociate matticular owes much to this institution; ters relative to trade. From the date of its but we agree with Mr Cleland in opi- institution in Edinburgh, to the Union with nion, that much of the power possess- England in 1707, the Convention seems to ed, and occasionally exercised by the have been occupied in regulating the af. Convention, is, in the present im- fairs of trade. Its privileges have been proved state of government and socie- preserved by the xxi. Article of the Union, ty, quite unnecessary, and actually wherein it is declared, • That the rights detrimental to the interests of the and privileges of the royal burghs of Scot
land, as they now are, do remain entire aflarger burghs.
ter the Union, and notwithstanding there6 CONVENTION OF ROYAL BURGHS.
of.' Soon after this period, the trade of “ For a considerable time after the Royal Scotland begin to assume a very different Burghs were formed, their privileges were aspect; her commerce was carried through very unavailing, owing to the great dis new channels, and, in process of time, ber tance which several of them lay from one exports of cured salmon and herrings to another, and to the turbulence and preju. the Dutch, and French markets gave way dice of the times. At an early period, the to an extensive and lucrative trade with the Burghs, the better to overcome the difficul. Colonies; and the hanking of handspun ties which stood in the way of their exclu. yarn, and liawking it from fair to fair, unsive privileges, delegated powers to the four der the fostering band of the Convention, principal burghs to act in behalf of the has been replaced by the jenny and the whole. This association was called the power loom. The benefits which were Court of the four Burghs, and was held supposed to arise to the burghs, and to the yearly, for determining all matters relative trade of the country at large, under the to the common advantage of all the burghs. paternal care of the Convention, could not This primary court consisted of the burghs be effected without some expence: The of Edinburgh, Stirling, Roxburgh, and salary of the Conservator required to be Berwick, but, when the two last fell into paid, the weights and measures of the
burghs to be adjusted, the land-tax allo " At the annual meeting in July, the cated, and the constitution of certain burghs Convention usually receives petitions from revised ; a clerk and officer were, there. small burghs, craving assistance for buildfore, necessarily appointed, and a small ing and repairing their harbours, jails, &c. sum Inid on each burgh, to defray the an- and as the commissioners from the burgts nual expence, known by the name of Mis- have all an equal vote in conventional sive dues. This expence continued reason- matters, however insignificant the burgh able, with little variation, even for some which they represent may be, it frequently time after the Union, till at last, the Con- happens, that those who are obliged to vention finding that the trade of the coun. pay by far the greater part of the tax are try had very much increased, thought pro- left in the minority. The Convention exper to extend the duties, and increase their expenditure. The missive dnes, which, at the Union, were equivalent to a fair remu
L. 90 18 8 neration to the office-bearers, and for sta- Irvine,
0 15 0 tionery and correspondence, have very ra: Brechin,
0 12 0 pidly increased. In 1710, Provost Aird Fortar,
0110 paid L. 14, 10s. as the missive dues for Elgin,
0 10 4 the burgh of Glasgow. In 1764, the Cupar,
0 10 0 sum of L. 111, 8s. 4d. was paid by Provost Banff,
0 0 0 Brown. In 1813, the missive dues, on Rothesay,
090 the whole burghs, amounting to L.1000; St Andrews,
0 7 0 and in 1818-19, they were increased to Dunbar,
0 7 0 L. 1400. Of this sum, L. 556, os. 10d. is Lanark,
0 6 0 charged for what is called the fixed esta- Kirkwall,
0 6 0 blishment, notwithstanding that the salary Dysart,
0 0 to the consei vator' ceased at the Union ; Jedburgh,
0 5 0 and the balance is for grants, in aid of Dumbarton,
4 0 improving the harbours and jails of cer. Forres,
0 4 0 tain burghs, &c. on the principle that such Burntisland,
3 0 improvements are of great national ad, Inverkeithing,
0 3 0 vantage. As the mode of raising and Kinghorn,
0 3 0 distributing the sum, krown by the name Kirkcudbright,
3 0 of missive dues, is by no means generally Selkirk,
0 3 0 understood, the following explanation will Wick,
0 3 0 give some idea of it. The Convention Anstruther Easter,
0 consists of 67 members, viz. one from each Wigton,
0 2 0 burgh, and two from Edinburgh. In con- Renfrew,
0 2 0 sideration that the burghs are not all able Peebles,
0 2 0 to pay an equal proportion of the missive Tain,
0 2 0 dues, the Convention have allocated the Naim,
0 2 0 which each is to pay, conformable to Rutherglen,
0 2 0 the undernoted scheme.*
0 2 0 Dingwall,
0 2 0 Queensferry,
0 2 0 hundred pounds, which the Stranraer,
0 2 0 Convention chooses to lay on the burghs Campbeltown,
0 2 0 annually, in name of missive dues, the Pittenweem,
1 0 respective burghs are subjected to pay Anstruther Wester,
0 1 0 the sum opposite to their names. Crail,
0 1 0 Edinburgh, L.33 6 8 Culross,
0 1 Glasgor, 27 5 0 Whitehorn,
1 0 Aberdeen, 6 15 0 North Berwick,
1 0 Dundee, 6 0 0 Cullen,
0 Perth, 4 6 0 Lauder,
1 0 Montrose,
2 15 0 Kilrenny, Inverness,
1 0 Dumfries, 1 10 0 Sanquhar,
0 Stirling, 15 0 New Galloway,
1 0 Ayr, 15 0 Dornoch,
0 1 Aberbrothick,
1 Dunfermline, 1 0 0 Kintore,
0 1 0 Kirkaldy, 1 0 Inverury,
0 1 0 Linlithgow, 0 15 0 Inverary,
0 1 0 Haddington, 0 15 0 Inverbervie,
0 1 0
L. 90 18
L. 100 0 0
erts this extraordinary and unconstitution and for a long period after the Convention al power, on the sole principle of long met at Edinburgh, the Representatives recontinued practice ; whereas, it is evident sided in the burghs which they representthat the principle originated in feelings of ed; and in 1743, the better to strengthen friendly liberality, and amounted, in for this practice, the Convention enacted, mer times, to nothing more than volun • That the Commissioners and Assessors tary aids or gifts, agreed to by all those should be men fearing God, and of the who were to pay nearly an equal share, true Protestant religion, without suspicion but which, in the course of time, have to the contrary; Burgesses and Guildbeen insisted on as a matter of right, by a brethren expert in the common affairs of majority of the votes of the commissioners the burgh ; Merchants or Tradesmen, beof particular burghs, who have almost no ing inhabitants within the burgh, standing thing to pay. Example : For every hun on the tax-roll of the burgh, and bearing dred pounds of tax which the burgh se part of the public burdens, who could tine nate chooses to lay on their constituents, and win in all their affairs ;' and it was Glasgow pays twenty-seven pounds five farther enacted, . That if any person was shillings, while the burgh of Inverary, and sent to the Convention without these quaseventeen other burghs, pay only one shil- lifications, the burgh who sent them should ling each ; and the powers assumed by the be fined in L. 10 Sterling, and the accepCommissioners are such, that a charge of tor in L. 5, besides being disqualified.' horning brings immediate submission from These regulations, however wise and saluthe refractory. In 1816, the Convention tary, were set aside in July 1778. At that was so arbitrary and exorbitant in its grants, period, the Convention did statute and orthat the missive dues for this city, and the dain, that persons living at a distance from expence in Edinburgh connected therewith, the burghs they wish to represent, may be amounted to L. 606, 19s. 8d. For the appointed Commissioners or Assessors on last twenty years, the missive dues alone their subscribing the following declaration, have averaged L. 337, 12s. 3d. per annum. viz. “ I, A. B. do solemnly declare, that I This state of things constitutes a grievance, am really and truly proprietor of lands and which should no longer be submitted to. houses to the value of 3000 merks Scots, The practice is altogether unconstitutional, (L. 116, 13s. 4d.) lying within the royalty in as much as it amounts to the imposi- of the burgh of C., for which I am chosen tion of a tax without the authority of Par. Commissioner, or have a superiority withliament. The tax is also unjust in its in the same to that value, and that my principle, because it is laid on, without right or title is no ways nominal or fictidue regard to the means which the burghs tious, and am willing to make oath to the have for paying it. It is also oppressive, truth of this declaration, if required.' By because if the power exists at all in the this flagrant alteration of the Constitution Convention, it may be exercised to an in- of the Convention, it is competent to the definite extent. As the experience of past managers of distant burghs to send anyears leaves but little hope of relief from nual commissions to persons, residing at or the Convention, the burglis of Edinburgh, near Edinburgh, to vote and act for them. Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, and Perth, At first sight, this alteration does not seem should apply to Parliament, for redress to affect or compromise the interests of the from a tax, which, in a burgh like Glas- larger burghs, which send legitimate Comgow, is a public grievance, as the sum ex missioners to the Convention; but the matacted for missive dues would otherwise be ter assumes a different aspect, when, as is employed in local improvements; and from sanctioned by this system, a small, fishing, the foregoing considerations, it is presum- and otherwise insigniticant burgh, at a ed, that the legislature would grant relief great distance from Edinburgh, which has from that part of the tax which relates to little or nothing to pay to the Convention, levying monies for building, or improving and still less to spend at the annual meetharbours, jails, &c. in particular burghs, ing in the metropolis, and therefore would leaving all such to the wisdom of Govern not probably attend, nominates two genment, and the exertion of the local autho- tlemen, very likely of some learned profesrities. With regard to the necessary sum siun, to act as their Comunissioner and As. for conducting the legitimate duties of the As these gentlemen may be, and Convention, the burghs should be entitled are usually retained in office for a code to vote in proportion to the sums they pay, siderable time, they become expert in the and the power of the Convention in dele- laws of the Convention, and being qualigating authority, to a Committee of their fied to collect and quote decisions, by number, to act with conventional powers, which themburgh taxes have been sanction after the Convention has been dispersed, ed by the Court of Session, on the princishould be considerably restricted.
ple of inveterate usage, they naturally in" Among other grievances, the mode of Huence, against the larger burghis, the plain nominating the Commissioners and Asses- country Commiss.oner, whose burgh, like sors should not be overlooked. At first, their own, has little to pay." pp. 44-50.