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the year in the latitude of Bournaba- account for the extreme want of reshi (400) is 62.6, and had we been semblance between his plan of the asked, a priori, what would be the Troad and every other we had seen. temperature of a cold spring in the At length we discovered that the map Troad coming from a depth, we should was framed to support the theory, and have named the very degree which that the positions and appearance of Dr Clarke's thermometer indicated. all the leading objects in the plain There are hot springs in the district were purposely falsified. The inaps at Lidyah Haman, but there is no- of Mr Hobhouse and Mr Foster rething equivocal in these, as their tem- present the shore from the Mendere perature is 142°. The springs at to Tepe Gheulu as nearly an entire Bournabashi then are all cold springs, marsh; but as Chevalier makes it a and the only matter of surprise is, part of the Greek camp, he removes that so obvious a fact escaped notice the marsh froin the coast altogether, so long

and places it at some distance up the If any person thinks with Mr Gell Mendere, where it would help out his and Dr Clarke, that the appearance account of the night adventure of of the springs, and the popular belief Ulysses and Diomed. To make a concerning their temperature, fur- proper field of battle for the armies, nishes a sufficient groundwork for the he carries the Mendere eastward, and poet's description, we do not object by this means widens the plain begreatly to the conclusion; but then tween it and the rivulet to two miles it is evident, that any two deep springs and a half, which is nearly double its in the district similarly circumstan, actual breadth, according to the maps ced, will exhibit the phenomena of a of Hobhouse, Foster, and Clarke. hot and a cold spring equally well. Aware of the strong claims of the And as Dr Clarke says, that the whole ground between the Mendere and the country is full of springs, hot and Thymbrek to be considered as the cold, (Vol. III. p. 127,) we need not Trojan plain, he has contracted it to sacrifice truth and consistency in a about one-third of its true dimensions, vain attempt to make the forty springs partly by carrying the Mendere eastof Bournabashi correspond with the ward, as already observed, and partly δομαι πηγαι of Homer. It is worth by transferring the Thymbrek a mile while farther to observe, that we have and a half southward of its true posia proof from natural philosophy, that tion. This last must have been done the poet's description cannot be liter- purely for the purpose we have menally true ; for no spring in the lower tioned, for it does not otherwise parts of the Troad can be as cold as strengthen his opinion. In truth, hail or ice in summer, or indeed ean his inap is altogether an imposition, have a lower temperature than 62°, and leaves those who confide in it, nó whether it is deep seated or near the alternative but to adopt his hypothesurface.

If the water is not cold sis, or abandon the subject as hopeenough for Homer's description, as less. Of that hypothesis, we think the Reviewer maintains, (E. R. VI. we have undermined the only remainp. 270,) we may be quite certain, he ing support in destroying the importwill never find any colder there, un ance of the celebrate i springs, and we less he ascend Mount Ida. But as trust it will be no longer suffered to the poet connected the coldness of the confuse our ideas of the Trojan topoone fountain with summer, wemay pro- graphy, bably infer that the heat of the other Dr Clarke's Opinions.-Dr Clarke, was in the same way confined to the warned by the errors of Chevalier, winter, and that both springs con- proposes no system of his own, but sisted merely of water of the standard throws out a number of opinions, postemperature of the climate, assuming sessing a greater or less degree of evithe appearance of hot or cold accord- dence, of which the following is the ing as it came rapidly or slowly to the substance. According to him, the surface. This view of the question Mendere is the Scamander; the rivymay simplify the subject to future let of Califat is the Simois; the Thyme, travellers.

brek is the Thymbrius; and the valWe cannot part with Chevalier ley, Homer's Thymbra. The Grecian without noticing the frauds of his camp was on the east side of the Menmap. We were at first at a loss to dere, towards Tepe Gheulu, which is

the tomb of Ajax; the tumuli on and most probably was never any the west side of the Mendere are those thing else. He cites Strabo's authoof Achilles and the other chiefs; the rity for placing it here; but Strabo Throsmos, or mound of the plain, is the mentions the opinion only to condemn ridge M, near Chiblak. He ascertain- it. His tumulus of Esyetes is farther ed that the ruins at Palaio Califat are from his Greek camp than Troy itself, those of New Ilium, a point of much and in such a situation as no mortal importance, which led him to fix the would think of choosing for the stasite of Troy at or near Chiblak, where tion of a scout in such circumstances. Strabo placed it. Udjec Tepe is the The Do tor, in short, having specutomb of Esyetes. He thinks it possi- lated apparently without any adequate ble that the springs of Bournabashi idea of the objects to be illustrated, may be the hot and cold fountains of has only heaped together absurdities. Homer, (in which case Troy must be The strange errors of these inquirplaced at Bournabashi ;) but they are ers seem to afford little liope of arriv. not sources of the Scamander, and ing at a satisfactory explanation of the they are all warm springs.—(Vol. III. Trojan topography. But the difficulp. 143, 212.)

ties they have encountered appear to The examination of these opinions us not to be inherent in the subject, will not detain us long. Indeed, we and we think, that, by attending closecannot help being astonished that a ly to the text of Homer, and followperson of the Doctor's learning and ing later authorities, only so far as talents should put forth such a mass they do not disagree with him, and of crude conjectures, which can nei- by making a due allowance for certain ther be made consistent with one an- changes on the face of the country, other, nor reconciled with the text of most of the existing difficulties will Homer or Strabo. The discovery of vanish, and a reasonable corresponthe position of New Ilium, instead of dence be perceived between the prethrowing a new light on the labyrinth sent features of the Troad and the of the Troad, has only les lim deeper poet's descriptions. into darkness and confusion.

The Trojan Rivers.-Asit is in vain, If Troy was at Chiblak, its position, at this period, to look for the remains according to his scheme, was not bee of any of the works of man alluded to tween the Simois and Scamander, by the poet, except the tumuli, it is where Homer placed it, but between by the natural objects in the plain that the Simois and Thymbrius. The our researches must be guided. Of Greeks, if posted at the bay V, (Vol. these the rivers Scamander and Simois III. p. 205,) in advancing to Troy, are the most conspicuous, and to idenwould always cross the Thymbrius, tify them ought to be our first object. which Homer never mentions, and ne- If we fail here, all further inquiry ver cross the Scamander at all, which must be a waste of time. These ri. is the only river he places on their vers are features of the landscape which route. Though we must take such time could not obliterate; they are streams as the country now afforis, well characterised by the poet, and so we cannot easily reconcile ourselves to connected with most of the other obrecognise a brook five or six miles long, jects, that the determination of their scarcely worthy of a place in a county position would fix many other points map, as Homer's Simois, which hur- of importance. We have already esried down stones and trunks of trees tablished the identity of the Miendere in its impetuous course. The plain and Scamander on grounds which we between ihe Simois and Scamander, consider incontrovertible ; and, notwhere the battle in the 6th book was withıstanding the diversity of opinions fought by two armies of 50,000 men, on the subject, the Simois, we think, is, accoriiing to this theory, a narrow can be fixed with equal certainty. But stripe of land, where 2000 men could it is necessary, as a preliminary, to not draw up abreast. The Throsmos, settle one or two points, upon which which Homer makes close to the Gre- our reasonings will partly turn. cian camp, and far from Troy, is here New Ilium.—Dr Clarke having been close to 'T'roy, and far from the camp. offered a great number of coins of New The Doctor's naval station and camp llium, inquired where they were are on that precise spot which an army found, and was conducted to a place would certainly avoid, for it is a marshi, called Palaio Califat, or Old Califat,

(see the Map,) where he discovered that of Califat, and that called the extensive ruins. Now, the moment Thymbrek. We have no hesitation this situation is indicated as the site in saying, that the latter has by far of the town, its coincidence with Stra- the best title to be regarded as the Sibo's description puts the fact beyond mois of the poet; and nothing, we a doubt. He tells us that it was 20 imagine, has prevented it from being stadia from the mouth of the Scaman-, at once recognised as such, but the asder, and 12 from the Portus Achæo- sociation derived from Homer's Thymrum, or Bay near Rheteum, (p. 894.) bra, with which it has been most imThe distance is rather greater at pre- properly confounded, in consequence sent, but this does not impeach" his of the supposed resemblance of its accuracy, as we shall afterwards show; name. The opinion that the modern and it is impossible to place it nearer Thymbrek was Homer's Simois, was the mouth of the river, for Strabo, in thrown out by the learned and accu. arguing against the identity of its site rate Chandler, and is mentioned as a with that of ancient Troy, states, that probability by Mr Hobhouse, in his New llium could not aclinit of Hector able and elaborate discussions on the running round it, on account of the Troal. contiguous ridge of a hill, which must, To

suppose

that the rivulet of Bourtherefore, have reached to the walls, nabashi is the Simois, would be to re(p. 895.) The ridge he alludes to will vive the hypothesis of Chevalier, with be seen in the map, and serves fix a very slight modification, and nearly the situation of the town with the ut- all the objections we have stated to it most precision, for there is not an, would apply to this. Troy must, on other spot in the Troad to which his this supposition, be placed between description will apply.

the rivulet and the Mendere, and, as Though it has scarcely ever been it stood on a height, could not be neardenied that ancient Troy was situated er than Bournabashi. The Greeks between Simois and Scamander, some posted at Sigeum would cross the Siwriters on the Trojan geography seem mois only, or, if they crossed the Scaw have proceeded in total ignorance of mander, would cross it twice ;-all this fundamental fact, which, how- which conclusions are inconsistent ever, is easily established. It is im- with the text of Homer. The Simois plied in many parts of Homer's nar- also rose in Mount Ida, which cannot, rative, for those who went from the with any propriety, be said of the ricamp to Troy, or came from it, crossedi vulet. We shall not, however, purthe Scamandler only; and, as both ri sue our objections farther to a system vers rose in Mount Ida, (B. xii. v. 19,) which has no supporters. and joined before they fell into the That the Thymbrek is the Simois sea, (B.v. v. 774,) persons going from of Strabo, we think appears very clearthe sea-side to any place within the ly. * Of the streams which join the fork of the rivers would necessarily Scamander, the Thymbrek is the only cross one of them, and one only. But one that flows on the opposite side we are not left to ascertain this fact of New Ilium, the inhabitants of by induction. The situation of the which believed that it occupied the city is most distinctly pointed out in very ground of ancient Troy; but, the account of the first battle. The had their city not stood between the Grecians drew up opposite the Tro- rivers then considered as Simois and jans before the town, and so near it, Scamander, this circumstance alone that Helen, sitting on the walls, was would have been fatal to their pretenable to distinguish the persons of the sions at once. Strabo, however, in leaders, and point them out by name arguing against the opinion of the into Priam, (B. iii. v. 161 ;) and after- habitants, is so far from raising any wards, without any general change of objection on this ground, that he asposition, the two armies are described signs a position to ancient Troy, to as fighting between the Simois and Scamander, (B. vi. v. 1.) This situation of the town is not expressly stat

The Thymbrek appears also to liave ed by Strabo, but it is implied in all it between the Scamander and Abydus.

been the Simois of Ptolemy, for he places his reasonings as an obvious fact. Lib. V. cap. 2.

His latitudes and longiThe Simois.-There are but three tudes of thie various places in the Troad are streams which join the Scamander in too loose to afford any precise idea of tlcir the plain—the rivulet of Bournabashi, relative situation.

which the objection equally applies. that, if the Thymbrek was the Simois Let us farther attend to this author's of the Greek geographer, this totally account of these rivers. “ The rivers destroys the idea of the present name Scamander and Simois,” says he, being a traditionary relic descended “ when they approach,

* the one to to us from the time of Homer, which Sigeum, and the other to Rheteum, is the sole ground for identifying it unite a little before New Ilium, and with the poet's Thymbra. thence fall into the sea near Sigeum, In the most essential circumstances forming a lake named Stoma," (p.892.) this river corresponds sufficiently with This description is strictly accurate, the Simois of Homer. It is the lar. when applied to the Mendere and gest river in the district, except the the Thymbrek, but cannot with the Scamander, (Hobhouse, p. 749,) as least propriety be applied to any other we should expect to find it. Mr Hobstreams in the district. It clearly im- house, who saw it near the marsh in plies that the Scamander was the river April, describes it as “ a ditch stream;" towards Sigeum, and the Simois to- but Mr Frere, who observed it higher wards Rheteum. Now, the Thym- up, terms it“ a clear and rapid stream," brek is the only river that approaches (Walpole's Memoirs, p. 562.). De Rheteum at all; and the expression Clarke says, it becomes nearly dry in obviously means, that they kept dis- summer, (as the Mendere itself does,) tinct till they approached these but in winter “ it often presents a towns, t which does not hold true powerful torrent, carrying all before of any other rivers there. Consider- it,” (Vol. III. p. 114.) When Scaing the hills as the back country, the mander calls to Simois “ to drain all words (1412gov sustagooJav)“ a little be- his springs, to summon all his brooks, fore," apply more properly to the space to swell his waters, and to bear along between the city and the sea, than to trunks and stones," that they might the ground at the mouth of the Califit. jointly overwhelm Achilles, (B. xxi

. We may remark farther, that the Men v. 308,) the expression evidently refers dere and the Thymbrek are the only to the river in a state of food, and rivers which can consistently be said may, without any violation of consisto form the lake or marsh, (Strabo, teney, be applied to a mountain stream p. 890,) and Strabo's expression seems like the Thymnbrek, though even poeto imply that they fell into the sea tical licence could scarcely sanction immediutely after uniting, which ac the application of such terms to the cords strictly with the fact.

brook of Califat, which, Mr Hobhouse Now, if this river be the Simois of says, might very easily escape the traStrabo, we think it affords a presump- veller's observation altogether. The tion, almost amounting to certainty, Thyinbrek rises in Mount Ida, as the that it was the Simois of Homer; for Simois did, (B. xii. v. 19.)* Eight rivers in all parts of the world have rivers were einployed to sweep away preserved their names with a wonder- the remains of the Greek entrenchful constancy amidst changes of lan- ments, and, whether these entrench. guage and political revolutions; and, ments were at Sigeum or Rheteum, since there was a Simois in Strabo's no river was better placed for this sertime, it would have been singular had vice than the Thyinbrek. If it were the name been transferred from one the same with the Thymbrius, then river to another in the period when so we should be sure to find the latter in many strong associations existed to the list. The Thymbrius, however, make the river an object of general in- is not mentioned, but the Simois is. terest. At all events, it is evident, It is farther worthy of observation,

that all Homer's details require the Dr Clarke and Cheralier, to accommo- confluence of the Scamander and Sidate this passage to their views, use the mois to be close upon the sea, like that words “ flow or turn towards,” instead of of the Mendere and Thymbrek, for " approach," and are thus guilty of the absurdity of making two streams, very near each other from the first, turn towards two It has been questioned whether the points, almost i ur miles as under, as a pre- passage at the beginning of the 12th book paration for uniting.

is not spurious. We see no reason for + The town of Sigeun, according to thinking that it is; but, if it be, another Chandler, did not stand on the hill of passage, beginning at B. vii. v. 443, agree. Giaour Keu, but on the slope reuching ing with this in substance, ought to be spu. down towards the Scamander.

rious also.

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THE BYSTANDER.

the level banks, or the plain of Scam Strabo, indeed, mentions a Thymbrius, mander, seem to have reached to the but his account of it will not support very tents of the Greeks, (B. ii. v. those who would identify it with the 465;) but, had the rivers united some modern Thymbrek, as we shall show what farther up, and the ground be- by and by: In short, if we suppose low not been rendered impassable by the Thymbrek and Mendere to be the a marsh, as at this day, we can scarce. Simois and Scamander of the poet, ly doubt that some bodies of an army every difficulty connected with these occupying so wide a space would at capital points of the Trojan topography times have passed below the junction, vanishes, while any other hypothesis and approached Troy across the Si- leads us into confusion. mois; yet we find no instance of such

(To be continued.) a movement.

These reasons are greatly strengthened when we attend to the only alternative that presents itself, if we re

No. I. ject the conclusion to which they lead. It has been said, and by high auÎn this case, the brook of Califat must thority, that the public are always be the Simois. But this brook, be- anxious to know somewhat of the his-, sides the insignificance of its size, can tory and condition of him who prescarcely be said to rise in Mount Ida, sumes to instruct, or endeavours to abut in the plain at its foot. It is so muse them. I shall consider this

prosituated, that the Greeks, in marching position as fairly proven, and, without to Troy, ought to have crossed the u- attempting to demonstrate its truth, nited trunk of the two streams first, or illustrate its justice, I shall proceed and then have crossed the Simois by to act upon it, by giving a concise acitself. The battle in the 6th book be count of my uneventful life. tween the rivers must have been fought I am the descendant and unworthy in a stripe of land where two full re- representative of one of the most nogiments would scarcely find room for ble Scottish families. My ancestors their movements, much less 50,000 have always been distinguished by the men. It is, in fact, obvious, from the active share they have taken in public inspection of the map, that most of the affairs; for which activity they were battles, upon this hypothesis, should rewarded, many centuries ago, with have been fought between the Simois an Earl's title, and, in the year 1745, and the Thymbrius, which certainly were recompensed by its' attainder. is not Homer's account of the matter. Through the interest of powerful

Against all this weight of evidence friends, our estates were preserved ; in favour of the identity of the Thym- and, though the family were, in the brek and the Simois, there is nothing eyes of the world, degraded to the to allege but the analogy between the rank of commoners, they still reckonname of Thymbrek and Thymbrius; ed themselves amongst the nobility. and this analogy, after all, is, perhaps, It was still an established rule, that imaginary, for, in Mr Hunt's journal, no one bearing the name of Mwe find the modern name changed to should contract an alliance with any Gheumbrek, (Walpole's Memoirs, p. family whose blood was less noble than 105.) We have even some reason to his own; nay, it was even boasted, doubt whether the name of Kamara that the connections formed after the Sou is not applied to this stream in attainder, both by the principal and the upper part of its course. Besides, inferior branches of the family, were the influence of the present name is more illustrious than any that had neutralized by that of Simores, given been made for several generations beby certain early travellers to a river fore. Be that as it may, it is certain, near Rbeteum, apparently the same as that, if the vital stream which flows this, but which is no longer heard of, in our veins was rendered yet more since the Thymbrek appeared. We pure by these alliances, the means of have shown also that it was the Si- obtaining those gross elements that are mois of Strabo. Although, therefore, necessary to preserve its vitality sensithe name were really Thymbrek, it bly diminished. This was occasioned has not the authority of uninterrupt- by the friendly terms on which we ed tradition from the days of Homer, lived with our noble relatives, and the without which it proves nothing. frequent opportunities those relatives

Dd

VOL. VI.

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