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JOURNAL OF A VISIT TO HOLLAND. travelling by the schuits, that, in

speaking of distance throughout Hol(Continued from p. 507. Vol. V.)

land, the answer always is, so many LETTER VIII.

hours and minutes, for, in travelling,

they seldom speak of leagues and miles DEAR J

as we do in England. I FEAR by this time

Our track-schuit or passage-boat Wednesday

you are pretty much tire measured 60 feet in length froin stem August 6.

ed of my theory of the fore to stern, 8 feet in bre:idth of beam, mation of the land of Holland, but the and 6 feet in depth from the cabin truth is, I am so much occupied with sole to the ceiling or roof. She had a sights, that little time is left for ex- kind of cabin which exiended to withtending the note-book, and I the inore in 15 feet of the stem, and 10 feet of readily embrace the opportunity of the stern, where the passengers sit and corresponding with you, which affords enjoy the air, or to which those on a mode of generalizing my observa- the top retreat while the boat is passtions. As the party have resolved to ing under the bridges. This cabin leave Rotterdani, anil proceed for Am- has many windows, and is framed sterdam by the Hague, you will now in a very firm and neat, though be wishing to know something of the plain manner, is closed in with deal towns and places built upon this lund work, and formed by a partition inof sediment, which, as it should seemn, to two compartments. The ruif or the industrious Dutch have in some principal cabin is towards the stern; measure stolen from the bed of the the ruim, which is a much larger diocean.

vision, being forward. These cabins After our bill at the Bath Hotel are painted chiefly of a deep green had been settled by the magicul wand colour, and are provided with a fireof a friend, alas, now no more! many place, of indispensable necessity, even civilities-not in fulsome phrase, but in the hottest day of summer, for lightvery obliging-passed between the ing the tobacco-pipes. The principal host and his guests, while the waiters, cabin is generally subdivided into two quite in the French style, with much small apartments, provided with taeffusion of compliment, declared how bles and a number of very sofi downy pleased they should be at the return cushions, which are let out by the of the party after making the tour of skipper for a mere trifle, to those who Hollanıl. Various inquiries were made choose to sit upon them. The roof as to the best mode of travelling, of the cabins forms the deck of the when it was risolved, that the Trech, boat, and is covered with turpuulin schuit was the most convenient, and cloth, and coated with a layer of sand the most characteristic of the coun- and broken shells, which forms a very try. We engaged the ruif or prin- neat and durable walk, to which those cipal cabin, and en barked at 12 noon, only are properly entitled who pay when a bell rung, and the boat start, the small additional price for the prined exactly at the hour. The canal cipal cabin. The whole establishfrom Rotterdam to the Hague may ment forms a very commodious vehibe held as a specimen of all the prin- cle for the short stages which they cipal lines of inland navigation through- usually make, but their boats are out Holland. It measures about eight wonderfully circumscribed in point of feet in depth, and about no less than size, when you consider the great ca100 feet in width, for it is not very pacity of their canals, especially in regular in its dimensions, and is form- breadth. The track-boats in Holland ed in the usual way with a tracking. have much the appearance and dimenpath on one side. These canals, as sions of these upon the Duke of may be supposed, from the nature of Bridgewater's canal at Manchester, the country, are chiefly upon one but are not once to be compared in LEVEL, and from their great capacity, point of elegance of accommodation compared with the dimensions of the to the track-boats on the Forth and qaft which navigate them, our boat, Clyde Canal, or the steam-bozts upon tracked by one horse, seemed to glide the river Clydle, and now, indecil, along with great ease at the rate ex- upon all the principal rivers in Engacily of four miles an hour; indeed, land. so uniformly regular is the rate of The crew of the track-schuit con.

VOL. VI.

с

sists of a skipper and his man on his health. His answer was, “ Give board of the boat, and a Jaager or me a reason ? I am a man 78 years of driver ashore. The boat is tracked age, and I have been a smoker for 62 by one horse, kept generally at a trot; years !" This was so very decided a but the most remarkable part of the case, that it affordled powerful argutackle is the lengih and sinallness of ments in favour of the force of habit the tracking line, which is no less -upon the human constitution for than 60 fathoms in length, and a cord while some think they can breathe only of the thickness which you would upon Montpelier, we find others at term a jack-line, consisting of four the most advanced age inhabiting the strunds, each of two yarns. The rope most secluded lanes of a crowded meseemed to be extremely well made, tropolis. indeed, and its length of great advan Upon reaching Delft, we found that tage to the horse, while its lightness we had not only our boat to change, in casting off and on is attended with but that the luggage must be dragged much convenience to the boatien. on wheel-barrows to the further end By an arrangement which seems to of the town by porters, who surroundbe invariably attended to, the boats ed us in great nun,bers, and although going in one direction, have masts of the canals always pass through the 15 feet in height, to the top of which towns of Holland, yet by some unaca swivel ring is made fast, through countable mismanagement in the conwhich the rope passes to an iron hook strnction of the navigation, which is within reach of the pilot, who can thiw much narrowed on accouut of the it off with great ease upon any emer- streets, and hampered by the parapetgency; while those coming in the walls and bridges for the convenience contrary direction are towed in the of the inhabitants, they seem to desame manner by a mast or spar of ny themselves the chief advantages only five teet in height, so that the which would arise from a thorough horse, the line, and the boat with the navigation. Indeed, such is the conlow mast, pass without the least stop- fined state of the track-schuit, that, at page under the line of the boat with the end of six or eight miles, a little the higher mast.

exercise is far from being unpleasant, The weather being exceedingly hot, and such is the peaceful serenity with (thermometer 84° in the shade, and which you are every where surround96° when exposed at 2 o'clock p. m.) ed on the passage, that the busy spiand as the party was rather numerous rit of ar. Englishman is perhaps not for the cabin, and the roof or deck the worse of being put in motion by being incommodious as a walk for the screeching noise of the wheel-barlandsmen, we chiefly occupied the row, and the discord and jarring strife open birth contiguous to the man at of the porters. At the further end of the helm ; but as our skipper was not the town a boat is always ready to only a large and somewhat unwieldy start for the Hague, but preferring to man, but as he smoked perpetually, see Delft, and rather to get to the his atmosphere was by this means also Hague in the evening, the luggage considerably enlarged, so that we were was put into a secondary inn, and not a little annoyed by this circum- while dinner was getting ready, we stance, and the conversation naturally walked forth to see the place. turned upon the universal practice of

Delft contains about 12,000

Delft. smoking by people of all ranks in Hol

inhabitants. It has extenland. It was affirmed by some that sive barracks and arsenals, from being the climate required this, and perhaps within a few miles of the court at the also the use of a little ardent spirits; Hague. The sights here are the but the answer to the necessity of the churches, the tombs of William Prince case is very obvious, for we do not of Nassau, the famous Admiral Von find that the female sex use tobacco in Tromp, and Grotius, the great hise any form, and certainly smoke much torian and lawyer. All of thern less in Holland than the women either are elegant and superb, particularof England or Ireland. One of the ly the former, but it is curious to party, addressing himself in the Dutch remark, that, although there is a language to the skipper, by the help profusion of marble, and a display of of bis dictionary, remarked, that such taste in the design, yet the figures are constant smoking must be hurtful to uniformly heavy, and much like the

general character which we form of the long connection they had with the Dutch nation; and although you will French, or that their character for readily acknowledge that the expres- morose sedateness had been greatly sion and gesture of the figures are good, misrepresented. As we approach the which are often grouped on these oc- end of our days' journey, we pass the casions, yet they have too much ful- ' town of Ryswick, where the famous ness in their general deportment, and peace was signed ; and at half past the eye is often offended with the eight we enter the Hague, and stop glare of gilding, and their partiality at the hotel called the “ Parliament to the brush of the painter. Our of England.”

S. guide was very particular in carrying (To be continued.) us to the staircase of the palace of William of Nassau, now converted into a barrack, in which the hole is still ON THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, shewn where the bullet stuck which Fas fired from the pistol of the assas

MR EDITOR, sin of this heroic prince. In walking

You Scotchmen are so national, the streets of this town, we were that you will scarcely deign to cast much annoyed, and even harassed, an eye across the Tweed, except on by beggars of all ages, from the lisp- . certain objects of paltry profit, and ing child to the inan of grey hairs, then, indeed, I have observed, that and in a particular tone of voice the wherever the main chance is concernchildren endeavoured to recommend ed, you condescend to believe that themselves to our notice in a sort of there is something in England worth mongrel French and Dutch, abusing looking afier ;—but for literature and Bonaparte, and commending the Eng- science, these you imagine to be enlish.

tirely centred within the walls of the At our inn, a plain, but neatly ser- University of Edinburgh, or the blue ved up dinner was in readiness at the covers of the Edinburgh Review. I appointed time, where, though there mean to instruct you as to the reFras no carpeting on the room, and verse of all this, and shall, therefore, only a few deal and rush bottomed begin with an account of our two fachuirs, yet the table linen was beau- mous universities, the names of which tiful, and we here met with the silver may probably have reached you, viz. fork, and the napkin, and after din- OxrorD and CAMBRIDGE. I myself Der a neat dessert, consisting of seve- being of the latter university proral kinds of fruit. These circumstan- pose, first, to submit to the considerces are particularly noticed here, bec ation of your readers a sketch of that cause they are only to be met with in celebrated school of science; in atthe first inns of England, whereas in tempting which, I shall not, I am aHolland, the silver fork, the table ware, present them with much that napkin, and the dessert are universal. will be original, either in matter or

After dinner, we found another track- manner. I shall nearly follow the boat was in readiness to proceed for the method, and sometimes the ideas, Hague, and as we approached that pursued by my learned friend Mr court residence, the scene changed very Dyer, * in his History of the Unimaterially. The people we saw had versity and Colleges of Cambridge, more the air of the French or Eng- though I may occasionally divert lish in their dress and general appear- a little from the regular course; not, ance, and were very gay in their man- however, in the way of triumph or ners. Some parties were enjoying the superior pretensions in favour of sports and recreations of numerous one university or of another. Many tea-gardens which lined the canal, idle disputes have been raised on the where they had music and dancing. comparative antiquity, and the greatOthers were grouped in parties under est literary claims of different univertheir virandas at coffee. We passed sities. Every one has heard of the many chateaus with projecting win- violent controversy maintained by two dows towards the canal, and there was everywhere so much of mirth and

* A misprint! As the writer of this jollity, that we were irresistibly led letter is the famous Dr Dryasınst, his to conclude that the Dutch had either friend's name must certainly be Dryer.. Strangely altered their habits from the Punctum.

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learned academics, Kay of Oxford, fabrications. It may be perhaps pru. and Caius of Cambridge, on the point dent then, on the present oocasion, of precedency, with respect to time, not to commit ourselves too hastily bý in behalf of their own Alma Mater. asserting too much, nor to settle cona But the blowing of bladders is a sad troversies which have so long divided waste of time, and often terniinates very learneol men. However, as it is in severe mortification. A simple usually considered honourable to have statement of facts (and little more at least a royal founder, and as the enters into my present design) runs University of Paris boasts its Charleno danger, and may, perhaps, furnish magne, and Oxford its Alfred, so we a few materials for useful reflection. must claim for Cambridge its SigeTo begin, then, with the antiquity of bert. And though, in each case, with the University of Cambridge. respect to some points asserted or in

sinuated, it may be thought, perhaps, 1. It does not fall within the limits that filial attachment and zeal for an of this sketch, to give an account of Alma Mater may have hurried writwhat has been done by others on this ers beyond the limits of simple facts, subject ; for though to know what yet on a rugged long road it is always lies in MSS. and ancient records might convenient to meet with a restingbe agreeable to antiquaries, and be- place. So we, perhaps, shall do well comes absolutely necessary to those to take up with our King Sigebert, who write the history of a place, it is for hereby we shall not be over-exless requisite for general readers, and travagant in our claims; and we shall would demand more minuteness of have the benefit of Leland's authodetail than will be expected here; rity. and as to what has been published Olim Granta fuit, titulis urbs inclyta mulconcerning this university, it does not

tis, appear, notwithstanding materials so Vicini a fluvii nomine nomen habens. ample in manuscripts, and notwith- Saxones hanc belli deturbavere procellis, standing Anthony Wood's “ Athena" Sed nova pro veteri non procul unde sita and “ Historia et Antiquitates," in behalf of Oxford, might naturally Quam Fælix Monachus, Sigeberti jussa have provoked the Cantabrigians to secutus, emulation, it does not appear that

Artibus illustrem reddidit atque scholis. thing had been attempted worthy of

Hæc ego perquirens gentis monumenta this celebrated place, little, indeed, Asserui in laudem, Granta, diserta, tuam.

Britannæ, beyond mere historiettes, and what might have been crowded into Vade Sigebert was King of the East AnMecums.

gles, A. C. 630. The first public inWith respect to the antiquity of strument relating to the University is Cambridge, some have asserted that of the date 1229, the 13th of Henry it was founded A. NI. 4321 ; others III. refer its foundation to 3588, that is, Without settling at present the an375 years before Christ; others, fear- cient etymological meaning of this enful not to place it high enough, to chanted, enchanting word, university, A. M. 1829; but such assertions, as I cannot forbear noticing an opinion well as that other, that Cambridge entertained by some persons, which is, was formed into a school of literature that a Pope's Bull was essential to its by one Cantaber a Spaniard, and was character, which I the rather mention denominated from him Cantebrigia, to you, as being connected with a famous like many other claims for the anti- dispute between King's College and quity of places, do not rest on the au- Marischal College, Aberdeen, in which thority of any history that can be it was asserted, that King's College substantiated, but on mere fictions and was a university, because it could show fables. Charters of the town may be a Pope's bull, whereas Marischal Colproduced a few years before any au- lege, it was urged, not being in posthentic ones can be produced for the session of such an instrument, could University, viz. under Henry I. and only be a college. But, whatever King John; as for those of Arthur powers Popes may have assumed, (and Carlwallador, and the Bulls of Hono- ihey were sufficiently extensive, ) rius and Sergius, which relate to the whatever privileges and exemptions university, they appear to be mere they may have occasionally granted,

est.

any

(and they were pretty liberal,)-how. were apt to be exorbitant in their ever they may have bent literary in- charges. stitutions to the purpose of their own And here it is obvious to observe, superstition and authority, (which, that, in the more early times of the undoubtedly, they did to a tolerable university, the students did not live extent,)--and whatever opinions may in colleges as now, but in private have been formed in later periods on houses, as they still do in Germany these considerations, -it does not ap- and Italy, and, I am told, in Scotpear, that they were properly the land. These were at first most of founders of universities. The fact them hired of the townsmen. At seems to be, that Kings and Popes length it was found expedient, that commonly combined in the same the rent should not be left to the dise work; and that, though Popes might cretion of these hospitallers, but be give the confirmation, confer privi- fixed by censors or arbitrators, called leges and exemptions, yet that for taxors, taxatores, two of whom were grants, right of mortmain, charters, scholars, and two of the town. These and all that was more essential to houses were called halls, hostles, or them as corporations, they were in- inns, hospitia studiosorum: princidebted to the civil power. From pals were the persons presiding in Henry the III. downwards, to that of them; the magistri were the tutors, Elizabeth inclusive, their essential the rest were scholares, scholars, or and fundamental privileges were de- students. The chancellor, who was rived from the Crown; and if the only pro tempore, and a residing memPopes' bulls interfered with the pre- ber of the university, was called rece, rogative, these 'were set aside, as was tor. the case in the memorable Order of It is worthy of observation, that the Edw. III. commanding the orders of period at which the universities of Mendicant Friars to renounce and Paris, of Oxford, and Cambridge, rise suspend the execution of all papal distinctly into much notice, are not bulls.

greatly different; that the names of

their officers, and the nature of their II. The History of Cambridge as employment, were much the saine ; a university, it appears, lies in a source they had similar disputes and contensomewhat dubious, and, where the tions about the same time; and, in stream becomes visible and clear, it general, their customs, habits, and takes for a long time a precarious or manners, had a striking resemblance. perturbed direction. Our ancient Many years passed in settling disuniversities were “not of immediate putes, 'in confirming privileges, or origin; they were the result of gra- granting new ones, which terininated dual advance and successive improve- in greatly exalting the university, and ments ;” and the current of Cam- proportionally depressing the town; bridge history does not run regular or the pretence, however, for which was, clear till about the time above men to give the greater ease and encourtioned, viz. the reign of Henry III. agement to literature, and, at the Prior to this period, the great devas- same time, to preserve the public tations made by the Saxons and Danes, peace. The most meinorable instruthe confusion introduced by the Con- ment given with this view, viz. to quest, and after the Conquest the in- settle the disputes between the schoternal civil contentions between Kinglars and burgesses, was the famous John and his barons, and of Henry Comp silion, given in the 54th year the Third himself, with Hastings of Henry the Third's reign, which Earl of Huntingdon, had much dis- was confirmed by his royal authority; tracted the quiet of the place; add to and it was still further confirmed, these the disputes between the scho- with the addition of new privileges, lars and the clerics, as well as between by Edw. I. Edw. II. Edw. III. and the scholars and the hospitallers, of Rich. Il. The charter given by the whom they hired their longings, and latter is introduced with greater forof whom it was said, till they were mality than any of the preceding; it brought under some restraint by the recapitulates the privileges granted by regulations of the university, they each prince before, and was given in

full parliament. • Parl. 40, Edw. III. 9, 10, 11.

Between the reigns of Henry III.

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