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There is nothing which contributes their history. While the French peomore to keep alive these valuable feel- ple were yet stained by the blood of ings than the sympathy which a loyal their sovereign; while the army of people feel in the domestic misfor- the Spanish monarchy was shaking tunes of the fainily on the throne. under the monarch whom it had plaDuring the years of peace, the rela- ced upon the throne; while the mition in which we stand to our coun- litary despotism of Prussia was untry, and our sovereign, insensibly, for able to extinguish the seeds of revothe time at least, changes its cha- lution which existed in her army; racter. The ardent feelings of patrio- the free people of England prostrated tism and affection with which, during themselves in willing homage before the dangers of war, they are regarded, the throne, and forgetting the animoare almost obliterated by the indivi- sities and jealousies of prosperous dual cares and selfish considerations years, remembered only the youthful which engross the attention during bride and the childless father. Such the slumber of peaceful life. Per- a spectacle opened a new and incalcu haps, therefore, it is no inconsidera- lably important view of human affairs; ble advantage of a monarchical form it showed that the principles of loyalof government, that it gives a centre ty are indelibly and universally imand object of common interest to a planted in the human heart; and that great population, and fills many mil- the extension of political knowledge lions of people with those feelings of and civil freedom serves only to enloyalty during seasons of tranquillity, large the base on which public prowhich, under a republican form of sperity rests, and tighten the bonds by government, can be awakened only which the public tranquillity is preamidst the tumults of war, or within served. Nor is it the least honourathe narrow limits and by the local ble trait in the English character, that associations of a single city.

the same people who have more obOf the truth of this remark the ex- stinately than any other resisted their perience of our own times affords am- sovereigns in the zenith of their power, ple evidence. The bold language and rallied with unanimous sympathy intemperate expressions of our pub- round the throne in the moment of lic newspapers, as well as of our indi- its sorrow; that the bier of their lost vidual conversation, had wholly de- Princess was followed with a sincerer ceived foreigners as to the extent of homage than ever attended the chathe loyalty of the English character ; riot wheels of a youthful conqueror ; and it was even suspected by many and that the nation which disdained amongst ourselves, that the freedom to flatter its monarch when he swayof our constitution, while it had been ed the sceptre of a mighty realm, yet attended with many inestimable bene- joined in the train of weeping mournfits, had to a great degree extinguish- ers which followed to the grave

the ed the attachment to the throne which last remnant of his line. formerly distinguished our people. The death of GEORGE (II. has aTo all such opinions the burst of pub- wakened sympathies of a less acute lic feeling which followed the death but not less affectionate kind. Full of the PRINCESS CHARLOTTE gave a of years and of glory, he has not dedecisive refutation. For fifty years scended to an early or an unexpected no serious calamity had befallen the grave; loved and revered by a whole Royal Family, and during that time people, his memory is blended with the progress of knowledge and infor- the recollection of active beneficence mation had been greater than in the and experienced obligation. Lost, whole former periods of our history. indeed, as during the last years of his The effect of these changes on the po- reign he has been to the country, litical character of our people was still which, during a long life, he has su unknown. It was, therefore, in truth, eminently blessed, he has yet done a memorable event in the history of enough during the fifty years that he our species, to see he greatest, the reigned to make his memory hallowed freest, and the most enlightened peo- in every future age. It was his forple that had ever existed, penetrated tune to be called to the throne in this with a grief infinitely greater than had country at the conclusion of a glorious before been felt by any other nation, in war, and to hold the sceptre during the most loyal or chivalrous periods of many subsequent changes, and in

many years of almost unexampled dis- dued the desire of military fame so tress. Posterity will not fail to ob- natural to noble minds; to aim not serve, that during all these eventful at conquering himself, but of affordchanges, he preserved the same mag- ing the means of conquest to others; nanimous resolution; and that the to have sought not to give a transient youthful monarch whose moderation brilliancy to his reign, but to secure gave peace to Europe at the conclu- the prosperity of his country in every sion of the triumphant war of 1756, succeeding age. The laws which in presented in the close of his political his reign have been passed, the insti. lite in 1810, an undaunted front to tutions which have been formed, the the hostility of combined Europe. habits which have been acquired, are With the origin or conduct of that those which are fitted to give permawar he had little connection; it was nent stability to the glory of England, dictated to him by the voice of the and to provide in every age for that country, and, however consonant it continual succession of great and good may have been to his own wishes, in men, on which the future fortunes of his political character, he had no al- the state must depend. The admiternative but to obey the impulse. It ration of the vulgar is rivetted on was his duty to sit at the helm, when the heroes who themselves achieve the vessel was in the tempest; and but glorious exploits, and acquire a tranfor the magnanimity with which he sitory eminence for themselves, by weathered its fury, who can answer exhausting the resources from which for the consequences which might the prosperity of their people must have ensued ? Had a monarch of less spring; but a nobler praise is due to political firmness been at the head of those who are content with sowing the state during that eventful period; the seeds of future and undecaying had his choice fallen on less upright happiness; and who leave to others ministers, or less able commanders, to acquire that glory which is really who can say that the fate of Europe due to the beneficial consequences of might not have been changed? How their own exertions. often, during the progress of that While the other sovereigns of Eng. dreadful contest, was England left a- land have successively devoted their lone to struggle with the world in attention almost exclusively to the enarms; and it she had sunk in the couragement of manufactures and conflict, what hope remained that the commerce, he first set the example of glimmering light could be preserved espousing the cause of agricultural which she alone kept alive in the ho- industry; and foreseeing the calamirizon ? And while every other capi- tous consequences of the unfortunate tal in Europe has been profaned by the bias which the policy of the governarms of hostile troops, what honour ment had taken, collected the rays of is due to the sovereign who alone pre- royal favour on the simple labours of served the virgin purity of his throne, the husbandman. From his earliest and enabled the women of England youth he encouraged this useful art to say with the Spartan matrons, that by his favour, and promoted it by his they never beheld the smoke of an example; and it was during his reign enemy's camp?

that England made such unexampled But it was chiefly in the domestic progress in this hitherto neglected government of England that the vir- branch of industry, as to overcome the tues and the inestimable benefits of disadvantages of climate and situation, his reign were conspicuous. Edwarıl and give “to a barren land a splendour may have gained immortal renown on unknown to the regions of the sun." the field of Cressy: Henry may have Nor were the ordinary habits of this vanquished a nation on the plains of monarch less favourable to the proAzincour; but the triumphs of these sperity, and less important in mainmonarchis ceased with themselves, and taining the character of his country. the succeeding generations beheld all “ Even in his amusements," says the conquests which their valour had Burke, “ he was a patriot;" and the achieved, perish under the rule of an gaiety in which he indulged was that unworthy successor, or decay from which had a beneficial effect on the the exhaustion which they themselves manners, and important consequences had occasioned. It was the glory on the loyalty of the people. While of George the Third to have sub- the other sovereigns of Europe were

deserting their country residences, and ful period when he reigned; how forseeking in the dissipation of the capi- tunate that the English people were tal the means of forgetting the list- thus linked by the strongest of all lessness of courtly life; while their ex- ties, in their attachment to the throne, ample was drawing the nobility from at a time when all the usual bonds by their estates, and severing the most which the fabric of society is held toimportant link which binds the higher gether, were in danger of being disand lower orders together; he alone solved ; and what might have been dwelt in the castle of his forefa- the consequence, if the corruption of thers, and disdaining to follow the the court in this country had kept example of modern profligacy, adher- pace with that which prevailed in ed, like his Plantagenet ancestors, even other states, and the strong moral amidst the seductions of a youthful feeling of the English people, in place throne, to the amusements and siin- of being the bond by which they were plicity of a country life. When we held firm in their allegiance, had been reflect on the important influence changed into that indignant feeling which the residence of our landed by which it is destroyed. proprietors on their country estates During the sixty years that he has always had both in forining the reigned, this island has made greater national character, in preserving the progress in riches, power, and useful national morals, and in securing the information, than in all the centuries national loyalty, it is difficult to esti- which preceded it. If we compare mate the blessings which this exam- the condition of the people, their ple, so early set and so steadily ad- means of information, or their collechered to from the throne, has con- tive power, at the beginning of this ferred.

era, with that which they now posNor were the habits of his private sess, it will be found, that the change life less in unison with the character is greater than could well have been which should distinguish an English conceived. “ Born and educated," king. Born to sway the sceptre of said the youthful monarch at his first the most moral and religious nation accession to the throne, “ in this iswhich the world has ever seen, he land, I glory in the name of Briton;" has well fulfilled his destiny, and and his subsequent life was a contishown, even from his earliest years, nual prosecution of the duties which that the highest rank may be con- that feeling prescribed. He attemptnected with the purest morals, and ed no innovation on existing things; the utmost elegance of courtly man- he sought no changes on the governners with the most uniform preva- ment which he found; but rememJence of religious feeling. Vice could bering that his family had been called find no apology among the higher by the voice of a free people to the classes, when the sovereign on the throne, his life was spent in developthrone exhibited the model of an up- ing their institutions; in bringing to right life. Irreligion could seduce maturity those seeds which had been few of the votaries of fashion, when sown by the pious care of our ances, the fountain from which it sprung tors. More laws have been passed in gave no countenance to its doctrines. his reign for the security, the welfare, That hereditary and instinctive at- and the prosperity of the people, than tachment of the English people to the under all the monarchs who preceded integrity of private life, which, from him ; and though most of these meathe earliest times, has characterized sures originated as they ought with them, was confirmed by the example the representatives of the people, yet which was so long set by their sove some part of their beneficial tendency reign; and his domestic conduct, in- is to be imputed to the monarch who stead of being, as was the case in most never thwarted their tendency, and of the other courts of Europe, a sub- ever showed himself, in so far as a soject which his people were constrain- vereign could do, a supporter of their ed to forget, if they would preserve principles. It was during his reign, any respect for his sway, constituted still more, that the freedom of the the strongest bond by which their at- press and the universal education of tachment to his government was the people were established; those maintained. How important was the inestimable institutions which have life of such a king during the event, given to political blessings the stabili

ty and universal dissemination which chase ; and that, from the date of its the art of printing did to philosophi- extirpation in this country, we reckon cal knowledge ; which have rendered the years in which freedom has sprung their destruction as impossible as the among our people, and moral obediutter extermination of the species; ence been enforced among our sovewhich have thrown chains of adamant reigns. It was a dignified and a noble alike over the tyranny of the throne, feeling, therefore, which led the soand the madness of the people ; which vereign of these realms to spurn a have secured on an immoveable basis faith which held forth such seducing, the stability of existing institutions, though delusive avantages; to exand provided, at the same time, for clude from his Legislature men whose their perpetual renovation. The ac doctrines might lead them to depart tivity and energy of the people, no from the principles of the Protestant doubt, was mainly instrumental in Revolution, or shake the pillars of securing these blessings; but the in- Protestant freedom; and to banish fluence of the sovereign is not to be from his councils those whose religion overlooked when we recur to the might prompt them to sanction the causes to which they are owing. Nor vices of a courtly life, or inculcate the is it to be forgotten that he was the desire of courtly usurpation. And first monarch who actively supported while the sovereigns of so many other the cause of universal education, and countries cling to the Catholic faith from that it was he who used the memora- the absolution which it offers to the ble expression, “ that he hoped to profligacy of their lives, or the darklive to see the time when every poor ness in which it involves the lower man in his dominions could read his classes of their people, it was a proud Bible.”

thing for the king of England to stand On one point the opinions of Geo. alone in resisting it; to adhere, with III. were opposed to that of a large inflexible determination, to that faith proportion of his subjects, and on that which prescribes the same rule of obetopic he manifested an immoveable dience to the palace as to the cottage ; firmness. Materially as the severity and to guard with unceasing vigilance of the Catholic code had been softened against the seductions of a religion during his reign, and valuable as were which royal ambition is generally so the franchises which he had conferred glad to embrace, and which promised upon that numerous body of men, he to unlock the chains which public never could be induced to remove such freedom had imposed upon his power. disabilities as would have rendered The history of England will record them capable of holding a place in the the lives of greater kings; of none Legislature, or in the higher offices of more virtuous, more upright, or more Government. In common with the beneficent. And while the annals of great majority of all persons who have their achievements will, it is hopreflected on this subject, we have long ed, inspire to the leaders of our peothought this determination the result ple sentiments worthy of the high of prejudiced feeling on the part of destiny to which they are called, and our sovereign ; but yet we feel that it of the glories of the nation they are was a prejudice worthy of a king, and permitted to guide, the life of George of a king of England too. It is never the Third will serve for ever as a moto be forgotten, that the Catholic re del of the peculiar virtues which beligion is the religion of courts and of fit the British throne. And if our courtly power,--that it has long re- princes shall, in future, duly feel the tarded the growth of freedom in the force of the example, they will not finest countries of Europe, and that seek to emulate the deceitful glories the principal cause of the unworthy of the conqueror, which, like the subjugation in which their people are streamers of the north, gleam in fitstill held, is to be found in the silken ful splendour through the wintry sky, chains in which it fetters the human but shed no warmth through the cold mind. It is to be remembered, too, expanse, and waken no being into life that it is the religion which favours or joy; but rather to follow the blesthe great and the opulent; which la- sed course of the sun, which pours its vishes upon the higher classes that unchanging rays over the wilderness exemption from moral obligations of nature, and sheds light and happiwhich the lower are unable to pur ness over a grateful world.

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Lithography in Scotland.-A Subscrip. but the action takes place or strings, in the tion has been opened for the purpose of manner of a piano-torte, whose tune it promoting the Art of taking Impressions assimilates. It is provided with flutes and from Drawings made upon Stone, an art a triangle, forming a complete band for that has already made great progress in dances and other purposes. Instead of reGermany and France, and which has late- quiring to be turned by a handle, the acly excited a considerable degree of aitention tion is mechanically produced, and it only in England.

requires to be wound up occasionally. As This valuable discovery promises to be a decisive improvement on the common of very great utility in the Fine Arts, and barrel-organ, it deserves to be generally from the rapidity of the process, and its known and patronized. consequent cheapness, it affords the means Mr Fox of Falmouth has found, that of diffusing knowledge in Science and the a very extraordinary degree of heat is deMechanical Arts, to an extent that has hi- veloped by fusing together platinum and therto been impossible, from the expence tin in the following manner. If a small of Copperplate Engraving. It is there. piece of tin-foil is wrapped in a piece of fore highly to be desired, that its advanta- platinum-foil of the same size, and exges should no longer be withheld in this par: posed upon charcoal to the action of the of the kingdom; and that every facility blowpipe, the union of the two metals is should be afforded to the artists in Scots indicated by a rapid whirling, and by an land, to enable them to practise the art extreme brilliancy in the light which is in its most improved state, and to compete emitted. If the globule thus melted is al. with other countries, in carrying it io a lowed to drop into a basin of water, it rehigher degree of perfection than it has yet mains for some time red-hot at the bottom; attained. True as it undoubtedly is, that and, such is the intensity of the heat, that a discovery, if really valuable, may safely it melts and carries off the glaze of the be left to the activity of self-interest, in so basin from the part on which it happens far as regards its practical application; it to fall. is no less true, that the united cxertions of France.-By a private letter from Paris, a Society often overcome difficulties which we learn, that a very interesting historical individuals are unable to surmount, and and biographical work is ready for the spread a knowledge of the discovery more press, on the life and heroic achievements rapidly, and more extensively, than is o of the celebrated and lamented Marshal therwise very practicable.

Ncy, Duc d'Elchingen, Prince of the That such exertions are called for, is evi. Moskwa, and once the favourite of Fortune dent from the present state of the art in and Victory. The work is preparing from Edinburgh. Several ingenious artists a vast body of materials, by his brother-inhave been for some time engaged in expe- law, M. Gamot, and will be illustrated by riments upon the process, but what they most curious original letters and state pahave hitherto produced is inferior, in ma pers. This work, and the Memoirs of ay respects, to what has been accomplished Napoleon, will leave no want of materials elsewhere. This can arise from no other for authentic history. cause, than the difficulty of obtaining accu The researches for the discovery of rock. rate information with regard to the more salt, which commenced in July last, at delicate manipulations in the different sta Moyenire, in the department of La Meurges. But these difficulties may be speedily the, is carried on to advantage. After ex. removed, if those who feel an interest in ploring to the depth of 200 feet, and reachthe advancement of the Arts in Scotland ing the first layer, which is eleven feet in will lend their aid for the purpose. thickness, the workmen had to perforate a

The charge of carrying the objects of hed of gypsum and argil of 546 feet, when the Subscription into effect has been entrust- they came to a second stratum of salt eight al to a Committee, who will, from time feet in thickness. It is intended to remove to time, draw up Reports of their proceed. the researches to two other neighbouring ings

, and of the progress of the art, toge- points, to ascertain the breadth and magni. ther with an account of the funds that have tude of the whole bed. The two points been placed at their disposal; which reports form a triangle nearly equilateral, each will be sent to each of the Subscribers. side of which may be about 600 or 700

Messrs Clementi and Co. of London toises in length. One of these points is in the have invented a most pleasing and useful city of Vic, and the other to the south of instrument, called " the self-eting Harp.” it. On this latter point, they have already It works by barrels, like a barrel-organ, pierced to the depth of twenty-five feet of

FOL, TI.

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