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The following abstracts are derived from a great variety of sources. First among these come the reports of State ofcials, such as State boards of education and State superintendents of instruction; next, those of county and city superintendents, school committees, school visitors, and principals of State institutions. From these are derived nearly all the informalion given respecting elementary and special instruction, city school systems, and normal schools, and much of that relating to secondary schools, as the high schools of the States and cities. What concerns private secondary schools is almost wholly from returns made by the principals of these to the Bureau of Education, supplemented by catalogues and other documents,
For the matter relating to universities, colleges, and scientific and professional schools, dependence is placed on the annual catalogues of such institutions, on occasional circulars issued by them, and on special returns, made usually in the autumnal and winter months, in reply to circulars of inquiry sent them by the Bureau.
In every instance official authority only is relied upon for statements distinctly and definitely made, the printed catalogues and reports being chiefly used for this purpose, though sometimes an item of interesting information from other than official sources may be given, with a reference to the quarter from which it is derived. In such cases, however, the effort is always made to verify the statement before it is committed to the press.
The matter derived from the various sources above indicated is formulated, in the abstracts of education for each state, substantially in accordance with the schedule given below.
GENERAL PLAN OF ABSTRACT FOR EACH STATE.
(6) School districts and schools.
(d) Financial statistics. 2. STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM................................... (a) General condition, marking specially any.
thing new and notewortlıy.
(d) Other features of the system. 3. CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS........................................ (a) Administration.
(c) Other particulars.
(b) State normal training.
(e) Educational journals. 5. SECONDARY INSTRUCTION .....
(a) Public high schools.
(6) Other secondary schools. 6. SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION..................
(a) Colleges for men or for both sexes.
(0) Colleges and high grade schools for women. 7. SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION.. .. a) Training in scientific schools and agricul
tural colleges. (6) Training in theology. (c) Training in law. (d) Training in medicine, dentistry, and phar
macy. 8. SPECIAL INSTRUCTION................
..(a) Education of the deaf, dumb, blind, &c. (6) Industrial and reformatory training.
(c) Instruction in oratory, music, art, &o. 9. EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS
(a) Meetings of State associntions.
pals, and superintendents. 10. OBITUARY RECORD..
....(a) Brief memorials of teachers, superintend
ents, and other promoters of education
who have died during the year. 11. CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS............................ (a) State superintendents and deputies.
The statistics furnished the Bureau in answer to its circulars of inquiry, for convenience of reference and comparison, are given in tables following these abstracts, while summaries of these statistics may be found under their appropriate heads in the report of the Commissioner preceding.
For the general courtesy with which his circulars have been answered, alike by State and city officials, by college presidents and beads of schools, as well as for documents additional to these replies, the Commissioner of Education here tenders his cordial thanks to all concerned.
a Includes $20,540 disbursed from local funds in Mobile city, not derived from Stato. (From reports of Hon. H. Clay Armstrong and Hon. Solomon Palmer, State superiztendents of education, for the school years indicated.)
STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM.
GENERAL CONDITION. As may be seen from the foregoing table, the educational progress in 1884–185 was very gratifying on the whole. Though the increase of children entitled to instruction in the public schools was only 649, the enrollment of such children in the schools provided for them by the State was 18,331 greater thau in the previous year, while the average attendance showed an increase of 10,162. Eight more school districts, 173 more public schools, and a considerably larger expenditure for school purposes, afford further testimony of an advancing interest in school affairs. And as the State, through its now well
assured prosperity from coal and iron mines, as well as from the greater attention given to agriculture, is evidently destined to advance in wealth, it may well be hoped that all these elements will contribute to a still further development of public schools.
ADMINISTRATION. The school officers arc (1) a State superintendent of education; (2) a county superintendent of education for each county; (3) a township superintendent or 3 trustees of public schools in each township or other school district; (4) for each county an educational board of a teachers, with the county superintendent as president, to examine applicants for licenses to teach in public schools, to hold examinations in these schools in their respective counties at least once a year, and to certify sach pupils as have mastered all the branches taught.
Children between the ages of 7 and 21 are entitled to instruction in the public schools of their own race, but it is not lawful to instruct in the same school both white and colored children.
Enumeration of children of school age of each race and sex is made every 2 years by the town superintendents, who report to their respective county superintendent. The State educational fund is apportioned by the State superintendent to the townships or school districts through the county-superintendents, according to the latest official returns of enumeration. Each county retains its own poll tax.
Teachers must have licenses valid for the time of their engagements; must teach anqually at least 3 months, of 20 days each; and must, within 5 days from the end of each quarter, report to the county superintendent the required statistics. The scholastic year begins October 1 and ends September 30 following. A State school month is 20 days of 6 hours each.
BCHOOL FINANCES. The revenue for the support of public schools in Alabama is derived (1) from 6 per zent interest on funds received through sale of the State and township.school lands derived from the United States; (2) from 4 per cent. interest on the State's share of the United States surplus revenue fund of 1836; (3) from the voluntary gifts of citizens or others for school purposes, or from estates of persons dying without will or heir; (4) from an annual poll tax of $1.50 on each male citizen from 21 to 45 years of age; (5) from a special annual appropriation by the State of $230,000 out of any money in the treasury aot otherwise appropriated; (6) from license taxes to be retained in the counties in which they are collected.
Not more than 4 per cent. of moneys thus raised may be used for any other purpose than the payment of teachers, and no denominational or sectarian scbool may receive public sehool funds.
AID FROM EXTERNAL SOURCES. From the Peabody educational fund the State received in 1884-'85 for 10 scholarships at the Normal College, Nashville, Tenn., $2,000; for 16 scholarships at the Florence Normal School, $2,000; for the Normal School at Jacksonville, $300; for that at Marion, $400; for that at Huntsville, $300; and for the Peabody school district, $300.
or the distribution of the John F. Slater fund for the same year the only information received is of the gift of $1,000 to the Huntsville State Normal School for colored teachers, to equip au industrial department, which was successfully established by this means and conducted with fair results; and of a like amount to the Tuskegee Normal School for colpred teachers, also for industrial training in farm work, brick making, carpentry, printing, and sewing.
NEW LEGISLATION. (1) County superintendents, formerly appointed by the State superintendent, are now to be elected by the people in certain counties of the State; (2) three township trustees for each township in a number of counties are provided for, to have immediate supervision of the public schools in their respective townships; in some instances these are elected by the people, in others appointed by the county superintendent; (3) each county superintendent is to send a duplicate copy of his report to the probate judge of the county, which, after examination by the board of revenue, is to be referred to the State superintendent for final action; (4) no certificate of first or second grade is to be given without an examination in physiology and hygiene with reference to the effects of stimulants and narcotics on the human system, and the pupils of all public schools are to be instructed in the same.
The normal school for colored teachers, Huntsville, is henceforth to be known as the “Huntsville State Colored Normal and Industrial School," $4,000 instead of $1,000 being annually appropriated for its support after September 1, 1885. For the Colored Normal School at Tuskegee the annual appropriation is increased from $2,000 to $3,000.
SCHOOL SYSTEMS OF CITIES WITH 7,500 OR MORE INHABITANTS.
ADMINISTRATION. The State law provides a special system of administration of school matters for each of a cities. Of those with suficient population for notice here, Mobile has a mixed city and county system under 9 school commissioners elected by the people and a superintendent of education elected by the commissioners. The commissioners are liable to a change of one-third biennially; the superintendent holds for 4 years. The schools of Montgomery are under the management of a city board of education of 6 members, who act without pay, 1 from each ward, elected appually by the city council at its first meeting in January, and a superintendent or education elected by the board. Selma has also a city board of education of 9 members for general management, and a city superintendent of schools appointed by the State superintendent.
a Census of 1884-'85. b Includes the port of Mobile and outlying precinets, containing 2.123. c City return; the State report, p. 9o, says 4,588. din State report (p. 90), 1,904.
e Slate report, p. 90.
ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS. Birmingham, rapidly growing, reports, beside the statistics above given, 6 public school buildings seating 1,200 pupils, and valued with furniture at $40,200; an evening school, the attendance on which is not given, and a private or church school, with an estimated enrollment of 150. These statistics are from a written return, and considerably add to the figures of the State report. The State superintendent says that the city expended on its schools in 1884-'85 about $9,377, beside the State appropriation for them.
Mobile. - In the absence of any report from this city that does not include the statistics of the county, the following statement from a resident is given: “ The principal part of the teaching is carried on in a four-story brick building of imposing dimensions. in this building are the boys' junior and senior grammar school and the girls' junior and senior grammar and high school. In other parts of the yard are buildings in which are the primary and intermediate departments and the boys' high school. Each department is presided over by a principal having a suitable number of assistants
. In the boys' department these are all young men, ranging from 20 to 30 years of age, the superintendent having found by actual trial that he could depend on young teachers with greater certainty than on older ones possessed of prejudices that could not be uprooted. * * * School hours are from 8.45 a. m. to 3 p. m. in winter, and half an bour earlier in summer. Teachers are present a quarter of an hour before the opening of school. Pupils delinquent in their studies are detained after the dismissal of the others."
“On Friday afternoons a quiz meeting is held, and various questions in grammar and arithmetic are propounded and dircussed. Only teachers in the public schools are allowed to be present at these meetings. The superintendent presides, and it is through him that questions are asked. The teachers are the pupils, and the superintendent is the teacher. There the teacher, now a scholar, obtains the views of others as to the best way of presenting a truth to the mind of the pupil, and this interchange of thought and experience has been of vast benefit to all concerned."
İn 28 school districts there were reported 85 schools in 1881–85, 56 of them for white, 29 for colored youth.
Montgomery,' forming a single school district, reports to the State superintendent 3 schools for white pupils and 2 for colored; the former with 21 teachers, the latter with 10. Under the 21 white teachers were 960 pupils; under the 10 colored, 944; an incquality that looks inconsistent with the constitutional requirement that the schools shall be "for the equal benefit of all the children 7 to 21 years of age.” Its schools for whites
1 Subsequent information shows great educational advance in Montgomery.
were held 156 days; those for colored the same time. Average monthly pay of teachers in the schools for whites, $60.05; in those for colored, $47.00.
Selma, also a single school district, bad 1 school for each race, with 11 teachers for its 425 white enrollment and 6 for its 389 colored. Average monthly pay of the former, $70; of the latter, $60.90.
PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.
GENERAL STATE REQUIRILMENTS. Persons proposing to teach in the public schools must either present diplomas from a chartered school or college, or undergo an examination by the educational board of the county in wbich the applicant wishes to be employed. To those examined no certificate is to be given unless they answer correctly 70 per cent. of the questions asked. For a certificate valid for a year, the examination is in primary studies; for one valid for 2 years, it is in intermediate studies, including elementary algebra; for one valid for 3 years, higher algebra, natural philosophy, geometry, and the theory and practice of teaching are added. No certificate of the two higher grades is, from September 30, 1885, to be granted to any one that has not passed a satisfactory examination in physiology and hygiene, with reference to the effects of stimulants and narcotics on the buman system. Those licensed are to attend at least once a year the county institutes held for their improvement
STATE NORMAL TRAINING. The 6 State schools for preparing teachers, noticed in the report from this Bureau for 1883–'84, were continued in 1884-'85; three of them for whites, at Florence, Jacksonville, and Livingston; and three for colored youth, at Huntsville, Marion, and Tuskegee.
At Florence, under 9 instructors, were 224 students, 102 of them preparatory and academic, and 122 in classes more advanced. Those preparing to teach numbered 118, their names appearing in all the classes from preparatory to senior. In music there were 40 pupils; in penmanship, 126. Instruction in French, German, Spanish, AngloSaxon, and Historical English Grammar also was announced for 1885–86. Receipts of treasurer on school account from the State, $7,500.
At Jacksonville, under 5 instructors, were 106 pupils in a 3-year course, 26 of them preparing to teach. Appropriation from the State toward such preparation, $2,500; from other sources, $2,073.
At Livingston, in the Alabama Normal College for Girls, where are collegiate-academic, collegiate-normal, preparatory, and primary classes, 25 normal pupils are reported in 2-year and 4-year courses, under 10 instructors, out of a total attendance of 125, according to an official return, the figures of which differ slightly from those in the State report. Receipts from the State for teachers' fund, $2,000; for apparatus, $500. Graduates of the year, 15.
The normal school, Huntsville, for the education of colored teachers, bas had its title changed to Huntsville State Colored Normal and Industrial School; bas organized a collegiate class with 3 students; and, with this and the students of the higher normal, normal, and normal preparatory departments, shows 167 pupils, besides 61 in a model school. Total number of normal students 164, under 4 instructors. Appropriation from the State $2,000 for 1884-'85, to be made $4,000 from September following that school year; from the Peabody fund $500, according to a written return; according to the State superintendent's report, $300; from the Slater fund, $1,000. Through this last, 11 classes, with a total of 55 students, were instructed in the elements of carpentry, painting, printing, sewing, and gardening, apparently in a new industrial building erected for this purpose within the year at a cost of $610. In this department appear 3 teachers for the next following year.
Marion State Normal School and University for Colored Students, formerly Lincoln Normal University, reports 373 students, an increase of 70 over 1883-'84. Graduates of the year, 17; graduated since the school was established, 60. These graduates are said to have taught during the year upwards of 15,000 children in 20 counties of the State. The training school noticed above was one of the growths of the year, and was under the charge of a graduate from a normal school in Indiana. In an industrial department, under 2 teachers, girls were instructed in plain and fancy sewing; young men in the use of carpenters' and wood-turners' tools, and in the making of plans and estimates of work. State appropriation for the year, $4,000; from Peabody fund, $400.
1 These figures for general and normal pupils are from a written return. The report from the school to the Stato superintendent says
that the roll-book shows for the year a total attendance of 203 pupils, 32 of them in the normal department.