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ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS. Denver. The city superintendent reports for 1884-'85 that for the first time in many years there has been no increase of pupils in the public schools, which he regards as an evidence of no increase in population during the year. As compared with 1883-84, the enrollment was 278 less, while average daily attendance was nearly sustained. The enrollment was 63.68 per cent. of school youth, and daily attendance was 43.59 per cent. Adding to the enrollment 500 in private and parochial schools, shows 69.23 per cent. of school youth in school some part of the year. The great variety of nationalities is given as accounting for the changes in population and attendance in the public schools. The enrollment for 1884-'85 was from 46 States and Territories and 18 foreign countries, the nationality of 98 being unknown. Of those enrolled, 1,054, nearly onefifth of the whole, were children of mechanics ; 631, of laborers; 473, of agents ; 245, of miners ; 219, of clerks; 242, of railroad employés, showing the uncertain character of about 50 per cent. of the entire enrollment.

Denver, though of recent birth, ranks high for the number and excellence of its school buildings, numbering 15, with over 5,000 sittings, all except the high school completed since 1872 at an expense of $497,612. Present valuation not given.

The high school building was to be at once completed, and made not only a beautiful structure, but also a monument to the efficiency and worth of the public school system, and an ornament to the city to which residents may point with pride and satisfaction.

The superintendent claims that while manual education and military drill in the high and grammar schools go to improve the boys, the physical welfare of the girls should also be looked to as of more importance than mental drill; that the assignment of identical tasks for the average boy and girl of 16 is a mistake; and that a somewhat elastic and optional course for girls should obtain.

An experimental night school was held during 4 months of the winter and will probably be continued. The observance of Arbor Day was an interesting and helpful erent.

Leadville presents no new statistics, those given in lack of later ones being for the year ending August, 1884. Of the 4 school buildings 2 are for the primary schools, 1 for the grammar, and 1 for the high, all valued, with other school property, at $155,200. A special teacher of music was employed at $1,000 a year. Schools were in session 180 days. The statistics reported show a remarkable enrollment of 82.83 per cent. of school youth, while the average daily attendance was only 45.62 per cent of the same. With the addition of 280 in private and parochial schools, 96.37 per cent. of school youth were in school some part of the year. This large per cent. of enrollment over that of daily attendance is doubtless owing to the changing character of population incident to mining cities. PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.

GENERAL STATE REQUIREMENTS. Yo district board may employ any person to teach in a public school of the State unless such person have a license from the district, county, or State school officers in full bice at the date of employment.

Since May 27, 1883, in districts with more than 1,000 children, the examinations of teachers to fill vacancies have been conducted by district boards, and those thus eximined are not required to hold a certificate from the county superintendent while teaching in such district. In all other cases there must be a certificate from the superintendent of schools in the county where the applicant desires to teach, or a diploma from the State superintendent of education; the former is good for 6 months, 1 year, or ? years; the latter during the life or good behavior of the holder.

1 The superintendent says it was materially increased.

NORMAL COURSES. The University of Colorado offers what seems to be a thorough 4-year training in normal education to prepare teachers for the public schools. Instruction is given not only in the branches taught in the common schools, but in the theory of teaching, history and philosophy of education, and school economy. Applicants for admission must be at least 16 years of age, must declare their intention to become teachers, and must pass a satisfactory examination in the ordinary school branches. The University stands at the head of the public schools, and assures the cocaty superintendents that the faculty will recommend only such students as, in their spinion, have made a good record.

Colorado College, which showed in 1883 a normal courij of 4 years, has made no report of it to this Bureau since that date.

The University of Denver continued in 1884-'85 to offer a special course of 1 vear to those of its students who wished ti repare for teaching in the public schools. This course, said to be conducted by teacmis thoroughly familiar with normal methods, embraces methods of instruction in arithmetic, grammar, geography, history, school management, art of teaching, and oral training.

For statistics of these schools see Table III of the Appendix; for summaries of same, the reportof Commissioner preceding.

TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. These are provided for whenever reasonable assurance shall be given by the superintendent of any county to the State superintendent of public instruction that at least 25 teachers in his county desire to assemble for a teachers' institute, to remain in session 2 weeks of 5 days each. When any such institute is organized, the directors of schools in the county may close their schools to allow teachers to attend the exercises, the pay of such teachers to continue while attending, as if there had been no closure.


PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. Denver has bad a high school since 1873, with division most of that time into general and classical departments, and a 4-year course for each. Both sexes are admitted. The enrollment from 1875–76 to 1884–85 has increased from 104 to 319, the average belonging, from 77 to 259.9; the average daily attendance, from 74 to 249.8. The school is furnished with a full line of chemical and physical apparatus, a valuable cabinet of minerals, a collection of Colorado plants and flowers, physiological charts, and maps for classical and historical work.

Leadville shows also a high school, with a building in which a principal and 3 teachers were employed; number of pupils and length of course not given. Golden and Pueblo, reported in 1883–'84, have sent no account of their high schools.

OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. For statistics of business colleges, private academic schools, preparatory schools, and preparatory departments of colleges or universities, see Tables IV, VI, VII, and IX of the Appendix; for their summaries, the report of the Commissioner preceding.


COLLEGES FOR YOUNG MEN AND FOR BOTH SEXES. The University of Colorado, Boulder (non-sectarian), as a part of the public school system of the State, furnishes free tuition to State students of both sexes. It arranges its instruction under the departments of philosophy and arts, of medicine, normal school, conservatory of music, and preparatory school. The department of philosophy and arts iceludes courses leading to the degrees of A. B., Ph. B., Sci. B., and Lit. B. A full course for a degree covers 24 semesters of 5 exercises a week each. For the degrees of A. B. and Ph. B., 10' of the 24 semester courses are prescribed, while 14 are optional; for that of Sci. B., 16 are prescribed, 8 optional; for that of Lit. B., 13 are prescribed, 11 optional

The degrees of A. M. and Sci. M. are given to those who complete a graduate course authorized by a committee of the faculty, it being required that applications for such degrees be made a year in advance.

The preparatory school prepares students for courses leading to the bachelor degree, but students graduating from high schools with a suficient course of study may be accepted on evidence of such graduation.

The course of study covers 4 years and is in many respects equal to those of good Eastern high schools. There is a choice between a classical, a Latin scientific, and a scientific course.

Colorado College (non-sectarian), in its bulletin, 1885, presents preparatory, collegiate, and scientific courses, the full collegiate leading to the A. B. degree; the "Cutler liter ary” to a certificate of studies in English, mathematics, natural science, French, Ger man, and Latin, with historical, ethical, and psychological training; the scientific embraces blow-pipe analysis, determinative mineralogy, assaying, chemical analysis, geology, and surveying. The Normal school of 1883 has vanished.

The University of Denver (Methodist Episcopal) for 1884-'85 announces, besides its "junior preparatory” school, colleges of letters and science, of music, of fine arts, cf business, and of medicine, as before. A movement for endowment was in progress in that year, with apparently fair prospect of securing $100,000 through an offer from Mrs. Bishop Warren of $50,000, conditioned on the raising of a like amount from subscriptions. A movenient to endow a woman's professorship was also on foot.

Two uew Presbyterian colleges, one at Del Norte, another at Longmont, are reported on official authority, the former with 2 buildings and 34 students in preparatory classes; the latter with apparently fair prospects of eventual success.

COLLEGES FOR YOUNG WOMEN. Young women are admitted, for special studies at least, to the University of Colorado, State School of Mines, Agricultural College, and University of Denver. The College of the Sacred Heart, near Denver (Roman Catholic), presents classical, commercial, and modern language courses, but without clear indication how far the instruction in such courses goes.


SCIENTIFIC. The Unirersity of Colorado, Boulder, presents in 1834-'85, as before, a fair range of scientific studies in mathematics; pbysical, mental, and moral science; political economy: topographical drawing; surveying and engineering. The continuance of this last depended on a detail of a United States Army officer for its continuance in 1885–86.

Colorado Agricultural College, Fort Collins, with preparatory, collegiate, special, and post-graduate studies, reports for the same year 96 students, 50 of them young women; a majority of the senior and post-graduate classes and 12 out of 18 special students being of this sex. The studies of the preparatory and collegiate departments are accompanied by or alternated with 2 hours' labor daily in farm, garden, orchard, shop, and laboratory; for wbich, with clinics in veterinary cases, there seems to be very fair provision, under 9 instructors, the course of training having a very practical look throughout. State appropriation, from a 1.5 mill tax, $21,000.

The Colorado State School of Mines, Golden, retains its 3 regular courses in civil engineering, mining engineering, and metallurgy, each of 4 years, with special ores in assay. ing, chemical analysis, geology, mineralogy, and surveying, for students that wish to prepare for successful work in these lines. Free-hand and mechanical drawing and coloring are taught as part of this instruction, with a view to the development of such skill of hand and eye as will enable students promptly and effectively to illustrate any object hy suitable sketches. A valuable museum of minerals, ores, and geological specimens, and a library of standard scientific works, with illustrative apparatus, aid in inculcating the instruction given. Faculty, 7; students in 1883–84, 117, including 28 ladies attending lectures and drawing.

Colorado College, Colorado Springs, offers to miners and surveyors winter scientific courses in mineralogy, chemistry, blow-pipe analysis, and other branches relating to their occupations, as stated under “Superior instruction” preceding. Statistics of the attendance on these courses have not been received. If any should be furnished, they may be found in Part 2, Table X of the Appendix.

PROFESSIONAL. THEOLOGICAL.-Up to 1884-'85 this Bureau had no information of any regularly organized theological seminary in the State, except at Denver, where, in connection with the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral, there is such a school, with 4 professors; students in 1884–85, as in the previous year, 3. At the Roman Catholic Pro-Cathedral, Denver, it is believed that there is also some training for the priest hood, as the records of the vi. cariate of Colorado show 4 ecclesiastical students, and this cathedral seems to be the only place for training such.

MEDICAL.-The Medical Department of the University of Colorado, organized 1883, had in 1884-'85 7 professors, a 3-year graded course, with an annual session of 39 weeks; requires for admission a literary or scientific degree, or a high school diploma, or a thorough examination in the branches of a good English education, including mathematics and

natural philosophy; for graduation, 21 years of age, good moral character, and satisfactory examinations.

The Medical Department of the University of Denver reports 19 instructors; has a 3-year graded course, in annual sessions of 25 weeks; requires for admission a fair English education, with natural philosophy and rudiments of Latin, or a degree of A. K., or a diploma of a high school; for graduation, 21 years of age, good character, 3 years of study, attendance on 2 full lecture courses, practice in anatomy and chemistry for 2 sessions, proficiency in diagnosis and therapeutics by practical demonstration on the living subject, and a satisfactory examination in the 7 principal branches of medical science,

Graduates of medical colleges in the State are not allowed to practice medicine in any of its departments without a license from the State board of medical examiners.


EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND BLIND. The Colorado Mute and Blind Institute, Colorado Springs, founded 1874, reports for 1885 an enrollment of 46 pupils (26 nale and 20 female) under7 instructors. The studies include, besides commun English branches, natural philosophy, general science, and book-keeping. The employments taught are printing, carpentry, and sewing. Volumes in library, 250; value of grounds and buildings, $45,000; State appropriation for the year, $22,000.

REFORMATORY AND INDUSTRIAL TRAINING. As the reports from this State are biennial, information from the State Industrial School, Golden, cannot at present extend beyond 1883–'84, when, in the report from this Bureau, it was stated that of 196 received since the upening of the school, 123 had been apprenticed or discharged, leaving 73 remaining, November 1, 1884. Of those discharged, 75 had been returned to homes in Colorado, 19 to homes in other States and Territories, 1 eloped, and 28 had been apprenticed to farming, housework, and other occupations.

INSTRUCTION IN MUSIC AND ART. The Conservatory of Music in the University of Colorado offers courses in parlor, church, and orchestral music, oratorio chorus, and brass and reed instruments, requiring 3 years' study to complete a full course, which timc may be reduced by unusual ubility.

The College of Music in the University of Denver, while it concentrates its energy on the study of the piano and voice, also furnishes facilities for the study of the violin, flute, and guitar. A course of 2 years leads to the degree of bachelor of music.

The School of Art of the same University claims to be fairly complete in its collections of casts, materials, and facilities for art training, taking the technical work done in the Maryland Institute School of Art and Design, Baltimore, as its model. In addition there are two recitations a day in related branches, including modern languages, mathematics, natural science, and belles-lettres.


COLORADO STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. The Colorado State Teachers' Association held its tenth annual meeting at Denver, December 29-31, 1884. The meeting is said to have been characterized by an unusually large attendance, by the length and ability of the papers submitted, and by the unanimity of the procedings. President David K. Boyd, of Greeley, called the meeting to order, and Rev. R. W. Reed, D. D., of Denver, gave a lecture on “Poetic justice," followed by an address from the president on "The cultivation of the esthetic imagination." Miss Harriet Scott, of Pueblo High School, then read a paper on “Unmarked results." Much of the true teachers' work, she said, does not give direct results, but parposes are fixed, motives invigorated, and the whole child is so touched that in after years the results become apparent. In a paper on “Scientific temperance instruction in schools," A. B. Copeland, of Greeley, stated that temperance people begin to see that the moral aspect of the temperance question must be supplemented by scientific and economic facts. He held that the miseries growing

out of intemperance often result from ignorance of the effects of alcoholic drinks. These effects should be demonstrated to youth on the authority of scientific men.

Miss A. B. Witter, in a paper on the “Philosophy of teaching,” expressed the thought that results were not adequate to the outlay and opportunities enjoyed by youth. Teachers know too little of the vital principles of their work; methods are too superficia! and disconnected; we try to do too much, and fail to awaken enthusiasm for study. State Superintendent Jos. C. Shattuck followed with the question, "What lack we yet?”' in which he claimed that on account of the spontaneous growth of the school systen, its cordial support, the perfection of our system of instruction, the zeal and ability of our educational workers, and the loyal public sentiment in behalf of free schools, we really lack nothing in particular, and only need to continue what we have begun, bring. ing each part of our system to a higher perfection. Dr. H. F. Wegener urged the use of " The microscope in school rooms” as a means at once of interest and of instruction, bringing vividly to view a world of wonders of which children usually know almost nothing, yet a world of intense interest when shown.

Charles A. McMurray, of Denver, then read a paper on “Theory as related to practice in teaching,” said to have been an able production. Mrs. F. C. Hougban, of the Gilpin School, Denver, urged the introduction of school libraries," as to which she related her experience in interesting her school, and in making a collection of suitable books for yonth and children to read. She claimed that it is folly to teach children not to read light and immoral literature, and yet not put into their hands anything better.

“School reading" and "Mistakes in school management” were discussed, and many important suggestions made as to both topics. Superintendent Gove, of Denver, then made some admirable remarks on “The teacher out of school," which were followed by a concluding lecture from President E. C. Hewitt, of Normal, Ill., on "The development of character," said to bave been worthy of the occasion and the man.

Having thus far concerned itself only with elementary education, the association proposed to advance to the higher departments, and a college and high school section was organized, to which hereafter a half-day will be given.

Among other resolutions, the following one was adopted:

Resolved, That it is the decided sense of this association that the true aim of education is to develop character; that the cultivation of the heart should never be subordinated to that of the head, nor that of the intellect to the training of the conscience; and that in the realization of this aim we recognize as the most potent factor a true Christian morality, embodied in the character of the living teacher, and pervading and guiding all the work of the school room."


Hon. LEONIDAS S. CORNELL, State superintendent of public instruction, Denvcr.

[Second term, with an interval, January, 1885, to January, 1887.

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